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怎样才能培养出女版乔布斯

2014-01-15    来源:fortunechina    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

作者: Poornima Vijayashanker  

技术创业者的队伍中之所以少有女性的身影,深层次的原因有很多,不是教会女性学会编程就能解决的。它需要个人、社会和全世界在各个层面通过长期的共同努力,消除阻碍女性发展的壁垒,同时给予她们必要的支持。

Moore's law, which is really a conjecture, states that the number of transistors on an integrated circuit doubles every two years. It is safe to presume that this doubling effect also doubles processor speeds, because having more transistors on a chip means faster processors.

作为一种假说,摩尔定律提出,集成电路上的晶体管的数量每两年就会翻倍。这样我们就完全可以认为,这个翻倍的效果也会让处理器的速度加倍,因为芯片上晶体管多了,处理器也必须更快才行。

However, you cannot just cram more transistors onto a chip in order to double its speed indefinitely. Computing speed is also based on things such as memory capacity and it is limited by factors such disk speed.

不过,要想无限提高芯片的速度,不是说拼命往芯片上塞晶体管就行了。计算速度还离不开内存容量等因素,同时也受到磁盘速度等要素的限制。

Just as you cannot cram more transistors onto a chip in order to double processor speeds indefinitely, you cannot expect that simply adding more women to engineering colleges and code academies will produce a Mark Zuckerberg, who will go on to build a billion-dollar company in roughly seven years. Even having women who have been hacking since they were teenagers isn't enough (and mind you these women do exist, I am one of them, and there are more than a handful of others in my generation).

正如我们不能为了无限提高处理器速度而往芯片上多堆晶体管一样,也不能仅仅通过让更多女性进入工程学院和编程学院就指望下一个马克•扎克伯格能够应运而生。扎克伯格只用了大约七年的时间就打造了一个价值10亿美元以上的公司。就算是选拔那些从青少年时期就开始黑客生涯的女性也是不够的(这样的女性确实存在,本人就是其中之一,而我这代人中这样的人还不少)。

Now if the goal is to produce a female version of Mark (or Steve, Jeff, Elon, etc.), and for the sake of argument I'll assume that this is a worthy cause, it's going to take change on many levels. Teaching women how to code isn't enough.

如果真的打算造就一位女版马克(或者女版的斯蒂夫•乔布斯、杰夫•贝佐斯、埃隆•穆斯克等科技英才),同时出于讨论的目的让我假设这确实是个很有价值的事业,那就需要在很多方面有所改变。光教会女性如何编程是远远不够的。

Change in Mindset

改变心态

Please bear with me as I draw an analogy using history. In 1865 the U.S. government abolished slavery. While this was an achievement, it only afforded some level of economic freedom to African Americans. Nearly 85 years later they were still being treated as second-class citizens via segregation. It wasn't until the 1950s that segregation ended, and it wasn't until 2008 that we elected our first African American president. Doing the math it took 143 years before African American were supposedly on equal political footing!

请包涵一下我爱用历史掌故打比方的习惯。1865年,美国政府正式废除了奴隶制。尽管这确实是一个巨大的成就,但对非裔美国人来说,它所提供的只是一定程度的经济自由。85年后他们仍然因为种族隔离制度被视为二等公民。直到20世纪50年代种族隔离制度才宣告终止,又直到2008年才有了第一位民选的非裔美国总统。掐指一算,非裔美国人获得平等的政治地位用了整整143年!

Unfortunately, women weren't afforded the right to vote until 1920. Even after that, it wasn't until the late 1950s and 1960s that society valued educating women at the university level but, even then, entering the workforce and actually staying in it after marriage and having children was considered an anomaly; it was a sign of having limited financial means or social support.

遗憾的是,女性直到1920年才获得投票权。在这之后,一直到20世纪50年代和60年代,社会才开始重视培养女性上大学。不过就算是这样,当时女性进入职场、婚育后继续留在工作岗位上还是被人们看成是怪事;而这恰恰表明女性要么经济状况不佳,要么缺乏社会支持。

Hence while freedom for women and minorities was proclaimed, the status quo was slow to change.

因此,尽管女性和少数民族享有自由的口号一直喊得震天响,但实际状况的改变却始终步履迟缓。

Actual change means having to vigilantly put forth practices to enable people to exercise their freedoms, and that requires a combination of education and social practices, which will eradicate social norms.

实实在在的改变意味着必须积极推出能让人们获得自由的举措,而这既需要教育,也离不开社会实践,只有这样才能破除陈规陋习。

I'll be careful in stating that in Western societies, we finally believe in valuing education for women, but we now have to turn to social practices.

我得措辞谨慎地指出,西方社会好不容易懂得了让女性接受教育的价值,但现在是时候向一些社会陋习宣战了。

We can encourage women to participate and welcome them with open arms, but that won't undo the thousands of years of ongoing cross-cultural practices that reinforce a woman's primary role as a nurturer (and I am not just talking about nurturing children). To overcome this requires a constant and vigilant effort globally. What does this mean in practice? It means the following:

我们可以鼓励女性积极投身社会并张开双臂欢迎她们,但这并不会消除各种文化中一些已经传承千年的、对待女性的做法,它们一直强化着女性主要作为抚育者的角色(我指的并不只是养育孩子)。要克服这一点,就需要全世界有意识地持续努力。它在实践中意味着什么呢?主要是以下几点:

• Men supporting the notion that their female significant other can contribute as an equal partner financially or be the bread-winner of the household.

• 男性支持这种观点,即他们的女性另一半有能力作为平等的合伙人作出经济上的贡献,有能力养家糊口。

• Really leaving the choice of having children up to women. This requires eradicating the unspoken judgment passed on women who choose not to have children and truly having the right to choice.

• 把要不要孩子的选择权真正还给女性。这就要求消除对那些选择不要孩子的女性的非议,让她们真正获得生育的选择权。

• Really leaving the choice of taking care of elderly parents up to women. Longevity coupled with financial strain often mean that women are left to care for elderly parents and in-laws.

• 把是否照顾年迈双亲的选择权还给女性。女性相对长寿,经济压力也较大,这意味着她们往往不得不照顾年迈的双亲和公婆。

• Having supportive social and economic practices for those who do chose to have children and take care of aging family members, which will need to be reinforced by somebody such as companies or governments.

• 对那些选择要孩子及照顾家里老人的女性提供社会和经济支持,这需要各类企业和政府帮一把。

In theory, all of this exists today. I say in theory, because if they actually existed, why would we be still left wondering why women aren't more innovative wealth-creators a la Mark, Steve, Jeff, and Elon? Please tell me how this is possible without a sustained change in society's mindset towards women?!

从理论上来说,上述情况现在都存在。我之所以说是理论上,是因为如果它们确实存在,我们为什么还要对女性中没能涌现出马克、斯蒂夫、杰夫和埃隆这样充满创意的财富创造者大惑不解呢?请告诉我,如果整个社会对待女性的心态一直没有改变,这怎么可能呢?!

However, as status quo goes there is a mixed message being sent to girls and women, and I will take liberty in saying that only girls and women will truly understand this because they experience it daily from young through adolescence and into adulthood: "Find the right partner by a certain age, because we are still controlled by biology, and nurture your children while still contributing to the family financially." Depending on your cultural background add, "Please don't forget about your obligations to your aging parents and in-laws."

不过,尽管现实中女孩和妇女听到的说法各有不同,但我还是要不揣冒昧地说,只有女孩和妇女才会真正明白下面这番话的深意,因为她们从青少年开始直到长大成人,每天都会听到这话:“到了年纪就找个合适的伴侣,因为我们摆脱不了生理规律,给家庭赚钱的同时,也要养好孩子。”而根据所处文化背景的不同还会加上这么一句:“同时也别忘了对老爸老妈和公婆的责任啊。”

I will also take liberty in saying that some, not all, but some people, who continue to reinforce and propagate this mixed message are an older generation of women, which sadly, often include our own mothers! I'm not saying it to place blame, but to merely point out who and what we face throughout our lives.

我还要不揣冒昧地说,有些人(不是所有人)会一直把这类说法挂在嘴边,四处唠叨。她们往往是些上了点年纪的妇女,可悲的是,其中还包括我们自己的母亲!我说这话不是想要指责谁,只是要指明我们这一生所要面对的到底是什么样的人和事。

This is one of the factors that has led females to being bred and socially conditioned to seek stability, not risk. There is an inherent risk involved in first choosing to pursue engineering (being the minority in college) and then entrepreneurship (being financially unstable). Those of us who have chosen a risky path are merely anomalies (not a bad thing). The rest are waiting and watching to see how we will overcome the personal risk we've taken. Will we be castigated if we fail to build a billion-dollar company and innovative technology? Or will we feel like we missed out on motherhood? Or will we be able to balance both?

这就是让女性在养大成人和投身社会过程中总是寻求稳定而不是风险的诸多因素之一。一开始就选择工程学(这是大学里的小众学科)然后开始创业(这意味着收入不稳定),这本身就是有风险的。选择这条充满风险的道路说明我们是异类(这不算什么坏事)。其他人则在一边待着,看着我们会如何克服各种艰难险阻。如果没能打造一个价值十亿美元的公司,也没研发出什么创新技术,会不会有人对我们指指点点?我们会不会觉得自己痛失了做个好妈妈的机会?又或者我们有能耐做到家庭事业两不误吗?

Meanwhile, it is still socially acceptable for men to focus wholeheartedly on their career.

而与此同时,男人全力以赴地干事业却仍是这个社会可以接受的做法。

Our expectation is for women to make the choice to innovate and create wealth, but everywhere women look from media to social practices and trends, all we see and hear that true happiness lies in finding a man and making babies.

我们希望女性可以选择创新创富,但目光所及之处,无论是媒体、社会实践还是各种思潮,我们耳闻目睹的总是那套说法,那就是,找个好男人,生个孩子才会真正幸福。

Something has to give.

必须有所舍弃。

Because if you want to be a wealth-creator and billionaire like Oprah you may need to be childless. But if you want to be all: an innovator, a wealth-creator, and have children, then look to Marissa or Sheryl, who have chosen good partners and have high net worths…

因为如果你要想赚钱,甚至成为奥普拉那样的亿万富翁,那你可能就没法要孩子。但如果你样样都不想落下:既能创新,又能创富,还能有孩子,那就得以玛丽莎或谢莉尔为榜样。她们都选对了另一半,也都赚了大钱……

I know there are female innovators who are also wealth-creators and even mothers, but the media hasn't chosen to consistently herald these women. Another mindset that needs to change.

我就认识一些善于创新的女性,她们也都创造了财富,甚至当了妈妈,但媒体故意不给她们持续的曝光机会。这是另一种需要改变的心态。

Change in Behavior

改变行为方式

As technologists we know that change in behavior takes time. However, there are some who are open to change, and we call those customers our early adopters. They are willing to put up with an early product that is unrefined and has a limited feature-set, because they have acute pains they need alleviated. They welcome a new product with open arms, and eventually become evangelists, supporting and promoting our vision. The same is true for women in technology today.

作为技术专家我们都知道,改变行为方式需要时间。不过有些人是愿意接受改变的,我们称这类客户为我们的早期用户。他们很愿意接受那些刚刚推出、比较粗糙而且功能也很有限的产品,因为他们有些迫切的需求必须抓紧满足。他们会张开双臂欢迎新产品,并最终变成这些产品的忠实鼓吹者,支持我们的愿景并到处推广。如今身处技术界的女性也是如此。

The women who are in technology understand the benefits to pursuing a career in it. We also have learned how to put up with mixed social messages we receive in exchange for freedom, flexibility, and the financial benefits. But it still takes an inordinate amount of self-confidence and wherewithal to stick around.

技术界的女性很明白在这个领域为事业拼搏的种种好处。为了获得自由、灵活度,同时还能赚到钱,我们也学会了忍受社会上针对女性角色的种种流俗说法。但要想有所发展,还是得有超凡的自信和各种必要的手段才行。

While we expect our products to become adopted by the mainstream within 5-7 years, we cannot expect the same timeline when it comes to social change.

尽管我们可以希望自己的产品在五到七年里被主流消费者所接受,但却不能指望这么点时间里能发生什么重大的社会变迁。

However, we can apply the same practices of product adoption to building awareness and having women adopt a career in tech. Here are some of the practices:

不过,让客户采用新产品的做法也能用来让人们树立意识,同时鼓励女性进入技术界发展。以下就是其中的一些做法:

• Education: Continuing to prioritize the importance of pursuing a major in engineering. This requires effort at the high school and college level plus support from parents. Coupled with an awareness of what it takes to receive investment from VCs and angels to build a company.

• 教育:继续强调选择工程专业的重要性。这需要高中和大学做好相应的工作,也需要父母的支持。同时还要清醒地认识到,要获得风投和天使的投资创建公司必须具备哪些条件。

• Product iteration: Continuing to refine the industry and making its value be known.

• 产品升级:不断完善所在行业并使之价值广为人知。

• Pricing: Offering scholarships or financial assistance to those who are particularly interested in pursuing degrees and careers within the industry. And funding female founders who want to launch tech companies.

• 定价:为那些对特定行业的学位和事业情有独钟的女性提供奖学金或经济资助。同时为那些想创建技术类公司的女性创始人提供资助。

• Customer support: Providing quality of service through mentorship and including programs to help those with and without families.

• 客户支持:通过导师辅导的方式提供高质量的服务,同时纳入那些能帮助有家室或无家室女性的项目。

• Case studies: Showcasing role models and success stories through mainstream media channels.

• 案例学习:通过主流媒体展示业内楷模和成功故事。

• Perseverance: We know it takes time to build a product, refine it through multiple iterations, build a company from it, and then transform that company into a business. The same is true when it comes to investing in human capital. We have to continue to work towards the end without necessarily knowing when the exit will happen.
 
• 坚持不懈:我们都知道,打造一个产品耗时费力,对它要多次升级才能不断完善,随后要基于它创建一个公司,最后才能把这个公司变成一种业务。对人力资本进行投资也是一样的道理。我们必须为了目标不断奋斗,但不一定知道什么时候才能开花结果。

So please, I beg of you, stop thinking and touting that the answer lies in merely teaching women how to code. It requires more than just that. For those of us who know how already know how to code, and have been doing since we were teenagers, we can attest to the daily internal battle we fight against the imposter syndrome, and the outward battle we fight against received mixed messages from everyone else.

所以,拜托了,别再老是想着并到处宣扬什么所谓的答案就是教会女性如何编程。要想改变现状要做的事还很多。对我们这些早就知道如何编程,并且从青少年时期就开始干这个的女性来说,我们每天都要和内心深处的“滥竽充数综合征”(imposter syndrome,一般译为“骗子综合征”,指一个有能力的人总觉得技不如人,觉得自己是骗子而等着被人识破的心理状态——译注)作斗争,同时还得和从周围大多数人那里听到的各种关于女性角色的说法作斗争。

Innovation takes a great amount of knowledge, effort, and focus. Focus can only come if there is a support structure around us to help facilitate it. If we are distracted by mixed messages, and a plethora of priorities, then it will be hard to expect for us to create products that improve human life and wealth.

创新需要大量知识、无数努力和高度专注。只有当我们身边充满支持的力量时,才可能做到专注。如果我们被太多陈词滥调和所谓“头等大事”弄得心烦意乱,那就很难指望我们能创造出可以改善人类生活、同时创造财富的产品了。

The point of this post isn't to place blame, to single out anyone, or come up with excuses. It is merely to educate, and make the reader aware of the amount of effort that has to take place on an individual, social and global level if we really want to have parity of presence.

本文的重点不是要指责谁,向什么人发难,也不是要找什么借口。它只是试图起到教育作用,同时让读者意识到,如果我们真的想和男性平起平坐,在个人、社会和全球层面需要投入多大程度的努力。

If you want to help and truly believe in the cause of having women in tech then educate, encourage and empower every day!

如果您希望伸出援手,同时确实深信推动女性投身技术界这一事业的非凡意义,那就请在每一天里都随时随地地宣传这种观念,鼓励身女性,同时放手让女性去干吧!

Finally, hope but please don't expect that all these efforts to yield a Mark, Jeff, Steve, or Elon by 2020, for it will only have been 100 years since we were given the right to vote in the US, we may still need an additional 43 years.

最后,尽管可以抱着希望,但千万别指望这些努力能在2020年就造就出马克、杰夫、斯蒂夫或埃隆这样的人物!毕竟女性在美国获得投票权也只有100年时间,我们还需要43年才可能结出硕果。(财富中文网)

Poornima Vijayashanker is the founder and CEO of BizeeBee, a provider of membership management software for yoga studios and other fitness businesses. She also is an adjunct instructor at Duke University's Pratt School of Engineering, and creator of the Femgineer site (where this post first appeared). She previously was a founding engineer at Mint.com (acquired by Intuit).

本文作者普尼玛•维嘉雅珊珂是BizeeBee的创始人兼首席执行官,这是一个为瑜伽馆和其他健身企业提供会员管理软件的公司。她还是杜克大学普拉特工程学院的兼职讲师,及Femgineer网站(也就是本文首次刊发的地方)的创建者。此前她曾是Mint.com(被Intuit收购)的创始工程师。



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