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2014-03-31    来源:fortune    【      美国外教 在线口语培训


Dear Annie: I started my career in finance about 30 years ago at a medical nonprofit in the Midwest, and then moved to the private sector. Now, I'm in senior management at a big company. I've gone about as far as I can go here, and I'm in my late 50s, so I'm thinking about "retirement" (although I don't really want to stop working). The current president of a local charity, who I met on a different nonprofit board, has been talking to me about taking his place when he retires soon, and it's an appealing idea.

My only reservations are, first, I'm aware that nonprofit board membership is a very different animal from running the organization day to day, and I wonder whether I'm cut out for this. And second, the last time I worked full-time for a nonprofit was so long ago that I'm sure a lot has changed in the meantime. What can you and your readers advise me about making this move as frictionless as possible? -- Just Jack

Dear J.J.: First, the good news: After a rocky five years or so, many nonprofits are starting to bounce back from the recession. About 45% of them plan to create new jobs this year, according to a new survey by consultants Nonprofit HR, while only 7% plan to cut staff -- down from 22% who laid people off in 2009. Among nonprofits hiring new senior executives, the survey says, about 40% are looking for seasoned managers from the business world.
亲爱的J.J.:首先是好消息:经过五年左右的艰苦等待,许多非营利机构已经开始从经济衰退的影响中恢复过来。咨询公司Nonprofit HR最新的调查发现,约有45%的非营利机构计划在今年创造新的工作岗位,仅有7%计划裁员——而在2009年,约有22%的非营利机构裁员。调查显示,在招聘新高管的非营利机构中,约40%希望从商业领域物色经验丰富的管理者。

"Traditional candidates for nonprofit senior jobs were often subject-matter experts in the field -- people with extensive special-education experience to run an autism foundation, for example -- but they don't necessarily fit the bill anymore," says John Salveson, a principal and head of the nonprofit practice at executive recruiters Salveson Stetson Group. "Governments have cut funding, and competition for private donations has gotten more intense, so business skills matter more now. Nonprofits are having to 'work smarter' and think more like for-profit companies."
猎头公司Salveson Stetson Group的非营利业务负责人约翰•萨尔凡森说:“非营利机构高级职位的传统候选人往往是某个具体领域专家,例如,他们在运营孤独症基金会方面可能有丰富的专门经验,但现在,这种专业人才可能无法符合要求。政府削减了资助,对私人捐助的争夺愈加激烈,所以商业技能变得更加重要。非营利机构必须‘更聪明地开展工作’,要像经营性公司那样思考问题。”

Even so, applying your business know-how to a nonprofit may, as you suspect, prove tricky. Salveson suggests that anyone mulling such a move consider these three factors:

1. Stakeholders. "The biggest difference is the number of stakeholders you have to consider," he says. "There are more of them in nonprofits than in business, and they all believe their opinions are equally important and must be heard."
1. 利益相关者。他说:“最大的不同是你需要考虑的利益相关者的数量。在非营利机构中,利益相关者要远远多于公司。所有人都认为,自己的意见同样重要,必须得到重视。”

The head of a nonprofit hospital, for example, has to satisfy local government, the federal government, the hospital board, the community, patients, patients' families, doctors, nurses, other employees, and volunteers -- all of whom may have strong and conflicting views on any decision. "Recognizing that they all matter, and then reconciling their various interests, can make running a nonprofit very complicated," Salveson notes. As a nonprofit board member, you've probably already gotten a taste of this, but as president, be ready for the buck to stop with you.

2. Culture. Salveson often advises candidates to get ready for "a much more collaborative decision-making process" than is generally found in business. One reason is that "staffers are usually paid below-market wages, because they're passionate about what the organization is doing, and you often have large numbers of volunteers who aren't getting paid at all." So, in marked contrast to the people who work for you now, Salveson says, "they really don't have to listen to you." It may well take some extra effort to get everybody behind you and your plans.
2. 文化。萨尔凡森经常建议求职者们,改变在公司中的观念,准备好接受“更注重协作的决策过程”。原因之一是,“工作人员的工资往往低于市场水平,因为他们对机构正在从事的事业充满热情。甚至有大批志愿者根本是在无偿服务。”所以,萨尔凡森认为,与你目前的下属形成鲜明对比的是,“非营利机构的工作人员不一定要听从你的指示。”所以,管理者最好多花些工夫,让所有人支持你和你的计划。

On top of that, "many career nonprofit employees have stereotyped ideas about managers who come in from the business world," Salveson says. "They think you're used to unlimited financial resources, and that you always put profits before people." So you will likely need to win their respect, Salveson says, by "slowing down a little and having conversations where you do most of the listening."

3. The board. Nonprofit boards of directors, as you may already have noticed, tend toward the type that a corporation would consider "activist." They are, or often try to be, deeply involved, quite vocal, and watching (not to say second-guessing) your every move. Moreover, their role has changed in the past several years to include much more fundraising than in the past, "which is often not at all what they signed on for," Salveson notes. "So a delicate part of your job may be giving those people a graceful exit, and finding replacements who are ready and willing to do development work."
3. 董事会。你或许已经注意到,非营利机构的董事会在公司的眼中更像是“激进主义者”。他们会,或者是经常试图深度参与到机构的运营,经常高谈阔论,甚至监视(更不用说事后审查了)你的一举一动。此外,过去几年,非营利机构董事会的角色一直在不断变化,包括更多资金募集的职责,“但这些通常并不是最初跟他们约定的职责。”萨尔凡森表示:“所以,你的工作中非常微妙的一部分,可能是让这些人体面的退出,寻找愿意从事开发工作的人来代替。”

Before you take on any executive role, but especially the top job, Salveson urges you to get to know the board as well as you can. "They should want to know you, too, and make sure you're roughly on the same page," he says. "Even if you're considering, say, a chief financial officer position, you certainly should meet the head of the board's finance committee -- and, if he or she isn't interested in meeting with you, run away."

One more thing: Just as you would if you were weighing a job with a for-profit, Salveson says, "Do your due diligence. Study the organization's finances, including how they're funded, and how stable their main sources of funding are. You need to go in with your eyes wide open." Good luck.

Talkback: Have you made a move between the corporate and nonprofit worlds? What are the biggest differences you've seen? Leave a comment below.

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