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2014-04-10    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训


Crisis is everywhere. There are the national public relations fiascos: General Motors, Chris Christie, the NSA. And then there are the countless human missteps that plague companies every day: The reply-all email gaffe, the product defect, the affair. Be your crises big or small, these authors think they can help. Christopher Lehane and Mark Fabiani were dubbed the "Masters of Disaster" in a 1996 Newsweek profile for their work with Bill Clinton's presidential campaign (they also ran interference after his impeachment). In a new paperback, co-authored with director Bill Guttentag, the authors repurpose their lessons in political crisis management for the C-suite. "Masters of Disaster: The Ten Commandments of Damage Control," distills their best advice into 10 rules. We've, in turn, distilled those commandments into a handful of words. You're welcome.
危机无处不在。想一想最近几桩全国性丑闻的主角:通用汽车公司(General Motors)、克里斯•克里斯蒂和美国国家安全局(NSA)。企业每天都在遭受无数人为失误的困扰,比如“全部回复”灾难、产品缺陷、风流韵事等等。无论你遭遇的危机是大还是小,有两位作者都认为,他们能帮到你。克里斯托弗•勒翰和马克•法比亚尼被《新闻周刊》(Newsweek)发表于1996年的一篇人物特稿戏称为“灾难大师”,他们曾经为比尔•克林顿的总统大选活动立下汗马功劳,后来还帮助这位美国前总统安然度过弹劾危机。在最近与导演比尔•古登泰格合作撰写的一本平装书中,两位作者以公司高管为受众,重新总结了他们在政治危机管理中汲取的经验教训。《灾难大师:损失控制10大军规》(Masters of Disaster: The Ten Commandments of Damage Control)一书把他们的忠告提炼为10条规则。为方便读者记忆,我们反过来又把这些戒律进一步提炼为十大要点。别客气,拿走不谢。

1: Full disclosure
1: 充分披露

Put the whole story out. All at once. Full stop. Otherwise, risk "getting completely run over by it," say Lehane et al. This advice is as ubiquitous as it is accurate. The classic example is Tiger Woods, who let rumors of his affairs brew in the press for days until he came clean. Instead of the awkward nonresponse, a swift and complete confession would have limited the damage. Bonus tip: Respond immediately to that errant reply-all e-mail.

2: Speak to your core audience
2: 向核心受众说明原委

Everyone in crisis has a target audience -- usually the people with firing power. For a school superintendent it's parents, for a college coach it's the board of trustees, and for a corporation it's shareholders and analysts. For one public company, the authors took a 10-page press release and distilled it into a three-sentence missive for shareholders, saying, "The company is pleased to have put this matter behind it once and for all." The stock price went up on the news.

3: Don't feed the fire

See rule number one. The truth will out eventually, so disclose everything fully and quickly. The authors write, "The longer it takes you to get to the bottom line, the longer you will be in crisis."

4: Details matter
4: 细节至关重要

Move fast, but not too fast. Meg Whitman was caught off-guard for detailed questions about her voting record when she announced her bid for governor in 2009. "She was not ready for her close-up," the authors say. The result was a gut punch to the campaign. Get the small facts worked out before the big reveal or disclosure.

5: Hold your head high
5: 挺胸抬头

The poster boy for this rule is Gavin Newsom who, facing reports of an affair, told the press, "everything you've read is true," gave a dignified apology, and didn't address it again. He revealed all, deflated speculation, and then "had the discipline to shut up."

6: Be straight about what you know, what you don't know, and what you are going to do to fix the problem
6: 坦率地说出你知道什么,不知道什么,你打算采取什么措施解决问题。

This one is mostly self-explanatory. Instead of pretending to know it all, defer to experts. So, if you're a mining CEO and there's been a collapse, bring out the geologists rather than speculating on the mechanics yourself.

7: Respond with overwhelming force
7: 以压倒性的力量予以回应

A few tried-and-true strategies: announce the formation of a commission, launch an internal review, or appoint a respected expert to overhaul the offending department. It's also important to have a company line and stick to it. Companies that are good at crisis management make sure every public-facing employee is relentlessly on-message.

8: First in, first out
8: 先入先出

Minimize your role in the drama as much as possible. So, if you're a baseball player accused of steroid use, fess up, blame the sport's "loose culture," and make the story about something larger than yourself.

9: Don't get Swiftboated
9: 不要无视居心不良的指控

In 2004, John Kerry fell prey to the obviously politically motivated Swiftboat Veterans for Truth by refusing to dignify the smears with a response -- until the damage to his poll numbers was already done. It was a case study in the importance of refuting scurrilous accusations early and forcefully.
2004年,一个名为“快艇老兵寻求真相”(Swiftboat Veterans for Truth)的组织质疑民主党总统候选人约翰•克里越战事迹的真实性。克里起初不愿回应这个明显带有政治目的的诽谤,直至这起事件对他的支持率造成了难以挽回的损害。通过这一案例,我们应该明白,迅速且有力地驳斥下流无耻的指控是多么重要。

10: They dissemble, you destroy
10: 揭穿对手的险恶动机

Seize on any errors or inconsistencies from the opposing side to undermine its credibility and change the narrative. For example, are your accusers politically motivated? Sounds like the whole thing might be a partisan plot.

This abridged advice is, of course, just a fraction of the wisdom offered in this smart, 257-page book. If you really want to learn from the "Masters," you can find it here.

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