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35岁以后创业还有戏吗

2014-04-11    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

创业并不只是20出头年轻人的游戏,年龄较大的企业家现在也开始积极投身创业。最新调查显示,就美国总体而言,35到44岁这个年龄段的人创业参与度其实是最高的,而且其中不乏LinkedIn的雷德•霍夫曼和Zynga的马克•平卡斯这样的佼佼者。

Recently, there's been much conversation about how Silicon Valley has become one of the most ageist places in America, where twentysomethings rule the startup scene. While that might be true, that's not necessarily the case across the rest of America.
最近听不少人说,硅谷已经成为美国最歧视老年人的地方之一,这片创业热土完全是二十来岁年轻人的天下。虽然这种说法或许没错,但它并不一定适用于美国其他地区。

In fact, 35-to-44-year-olds hold the highest level of participation in entrepreneurship in the U.S. as a whole, according to a 2012 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) U.S. Report by Babson College. Though that's not exactly old, the report does suggest that there are a surprising number of small companies springing up under the leadership of older entrepreneurs who fall outside the twentysomething visionary we often hear about in Silicon Valley.
根据巴布森学院(Babson College)2012年发布的《全球创业观察美国报告》(Global Entrepreneurship Monitor U.S. Report ),就美国总体而言,35到44岁这个年龄段的人创业参与度其实是最高的。虽然这个年龄段并不算老,但这份报告的确表明,在年长创业者的领导下,数量惊人的小企业正如雨后春笋般不断涌现,而这群人并不属于我们时常听说的那些二十出头、富有远见的硅谷青年才俊的范畴。

A few factors may explain the underlying complexities of this trend: The nation's transition from a manufacturing-based to a service-based economy in the 1990s saw the exit of many older employees from the workplace. And in the years following the Great Recession and subsequent massive layoffs, older employees -- out of either necessity or desire -- began seeking opportunities outside traditional office environments. "Almost without fail, people in the 45-55 age range get to a place where they go through a professional midlife crisis. They know that once they get to older they are less marketable so they make a move," according to Sharon Hulce, president and CEO of Employment Resource Group.
有几个因素或许可以解释这个极其复杂的趋势:上世纪90年代,美国经济从制造型转向服务型,许多年龄较大的员工纷纷离职。随后几年爆发的“大萧条”引发了一波大规模裁员潮,年长的员工——无论是生活所迫,还是自身愿望——开始在传统的工作环境之外寻找机会。就业资源集团(Employment Resource Group)总裁兼CEO莎朗•休斯克说:“处于45岁到55岁这一年龄段的人几乎毫无例外地陷入职场中年危机。他们知道,要是年龄再大些,他们就会变得更加没有‘销路’。于是,他们采取了行动。”

Older entrepreneurs with their vast experience and networks and mature perspectives represent a vital resource for shaping America's commerce. In the technology sector where youth is so often valorized, Jim Clark formed Shutterfly at the age of 55, Kevin Ryan of Gilt Groupe was in his 40s and Mike Ramsay was 47 when he co-founded TiVo. In addition, Phillip James of Lot 18, Reid Hoffman of LinkedIn (LKND), and Mark Pincus of Zynga (ZNGA) defied the model of the youthful startup by establishing new business models later in life.
年长的创业者往往具有丰富的经验,深厚的人脉网络和成熟的视角。他们是塑造美国商业版图的重要资源。在年轻人攻城拔寨的技术领域,吉姆•克拉克55岁时创办了快门网(Shutterfly),凯文•莱恩40多岁时创办了吉尔特集团(Gilt Groupe),迈克•拉姆齐与他人合伙创建替您录科技公司(TiVo)时已经47岁。此外,Lot 18公司的菲利普•詹姆斯,商务社交网站LinkedIn的雷德•霍夫曼和星佳公司(Zynga)的马克•平卡斯同样不畏活力四射的青春创业风暴,在各自人生的后半段创建了全新的商业模式。

Beyond tech, there's Zipcar founder Robin Case, who was 40 when she launched the company and Ely Callaway, who formed Callaway Golf Company at the age of 63.
这样的案例不仅仅局限于高科技领域。比如,罗宾•凯斯40岁时创建了吉普卡租车公司(Zipcar),63岁的伊利•卡拉威创办了拉威高尔夫公司(Callaway Golf Company)。

The Babson College report also highlights a growing number of so-called opportunity entrepreneurs, including Americans who are leaping into entrepreneurship based on their perception of promising opportunities ahead. This trend also marks a direct contrast to the 2008 economic recession, a time when the primary motivation behind entrepreneurialism was loss rather than gain -- a reaction referred to as "necessity entrepreneurship."Given our ever-changing economy, entrepreneurial ventures have become not only a sensible life choice, but constitute viable solutions to the ageism that can undermine many traditional workplace environments.
巴布森学院发布的这份报告还凸显了另一个现象:所谓的机遇型创业者越来越多。比如,有不少美国人完全是凭借着自己对未来机遇的感知而走上创业之路的。这个趋势跟肇始于2008年的经济衰退期形成了鲜明的对比。那段时期,创业精神背后的主要动机是损失而不是收益,也就是所谓的“生存型创业”。鉴于经济形势瞬息万变的特性,创业已不仅仅是一种明智的人生选择,它还很有希望消除正在侵蚀许多传统工作环境的年龄歧视现象。

Technology fuels Americans' appetite for entrepreneurship. Budding business owners of any age can easily start an online business without much overhead at all. There's no need to begin with a physical, brick-and-mortar location right away -- even if selling physical items. Products or services can easily be tested, evaluated, and experimented with before the budding entrepreneur commits to larger expenses, such as an office lease or an advertising budget.
科技正在助长美国人的创业热情。无论年龄高低,任何人都可以非常轻松地在网上开办一家企业,无需支付太多的经营开销。不一定非得先开办一家实体店面,哪怕你出售的是实物商品。在初出茅庐的创业者需要承受更大开支(比如租赁办公空间和广告预算等等)之前,他或她可以很容易地对产品或服务进行测试、评估或实验。

Above all, it's essential to realize that the key to success is not having the "right" personality or being the "right" age; it's aligning one's skill set with the right opportunity.
总之,我们必须认识到,成功的关键并不是拥有“恰当的”个性或“恰当的”年龄;成功的关键是把一个人的技能组合与恰当的机遇联系起来。

Lea Elaine Green is a senior content specialist at Volusion, an Austin, Texas-based e-commerce platform provider.
本文作者莱亚•伊莱恩•格林是一位高级内容专家,供职于德克萨斯州奥斯汀市的电子商务平台提供商Volusion公司。



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