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自由职业者怎样避免白干活

2014-06-11    来源:向Anne提问    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

自由职业者获得了更多的自主权,但是每月到点拿钱的日子就别指望了。有时候,你按时完成并交付了工作,但却没有收到付款支票。怎么办?试试行家为你介绍的六个方法。

Dear Annie: After losing my job in 2011, when my department was eliminated in a restructuring, I decided to go out on my own and do web design and SEO consulting on a freelance basis. It's been great, except for one big problem. Over and over, I do the work, the client is happy with it, everything's cool, but I end up waiting and waiting to get paid -- and, in a couple of cases, have not been paid at all despite repeated, polite reminders.
亲爱的安妮:2011年的公司重组撤掉了我所在的部门,我也因此丢掉了饭碗。我决定自谋职业,做一名自由职业者,提供网页设计和SEO咨询服务。这种工作模式很不错,但是有一个大问题。很多时候,客户对我的工作非常满意,一切都进展得很顺利。但是在最后结账时,我却得一等再等。有些时候,尽管我反复委婉地提醒对方,但有些活我最终还是没能拿到报酬。

I've been lucky enough to get most of these gigs through my network of friends, and friends of friends, so I don't want things to get nasty. (For example, I really don't want to take anybody to court.) But I have bills and expenses like everyone else, so the suspense over when, or whether, I'll get paid is making me crazy. Is this a common problem for freelancers, or am I doing something wrong? Do you have any suggestions? — Broke in Boston
我能通过朋友和朋友的朋友获得大多数工作,这一点非常幸运。所以,我不想把事情弄糟。(例如,我真的不想把任何人告上法庭。)但是,和所有人一样,我需要支付各类账单。总是担心付款时间以及能否付款,这几乎把我逼疯了。这是自由职业者面临的普遍问题吗?还是我哪些地方做错了?对此您有什么好的建议吗?—— B.B.

Dear B.B.: I'm sorry to report that your dilemma is not at all unusual. One recent study of self-employed people in New York state, for instance, found that 316,000 of them (about 35%) were paid late at least once during the preceding year, and some 214,000 (14%) did work for one or more clients who never paid them at all. Total lost wages in the Empire State alone, over a 12-month span: More than $3 billion.
亲爱的B.B.:我很遗憾的告诉你,你所面临的窘境并不罕见。最近在纽约州开展的一项针对自由职业者的调查发现,有31.6万名(约35%)受访者在上一年度经历过至少一次付款延迟,约21.4万名(14%)受访者曾经遇到一个或多个客户没有付款。仅纽约州一年的工资损失总额就超过30亿美元。

"Delays in payment usually aren't deliberate on the client's part," notes Sara Horowitz, who founded and runs Freelancers Union, a Brooklyn-based nonprofit association that offers health insurance and other resources to the self-employed. "It's just that your invoices get lumped in with all the other accounts payable -- and, especially since the recession, more companies are pushing those out beyond 30 days to 60, or even 90."
位于布鲁克林的自由职业者联盟(Freelancers Union)是一家为自由职业者提供医疗保险和其他资源的非盈利性协会。联盟创始人和运营人萨拉•霍洛维兹指出:“很多情况下,客户不是故意延迟付款。只是因为你的发票与所有其他应付款项的发票集中到了一起。特别是自经济衰退以来,许多公司把付款周期从30天延迟到60天,甚至是90天。”

Intentional or not, she agrees with you that the damage to individuals' livelihoods is "not acceptable." In response, the Freelancers Union drafted a bill called the Freelancer Payment Protection Act, now wending its way through the New York State legislature, that would give the self-employed many of the same remedies for non-payment that regular employees now have, including the right to file grievances with the state department of labor.
无论客户是不是故意的,霍洛维兹都认同你的观点——它给个人生活造成的伤害是“无法接受的”。为此,自由职业者联盟起草了《自由职业者报酬保护法案》(the Freelancer Payment Protection Act),目前正努力通过纽约州立法。这样一来,自由职业者就能享受许多与正式员工相同的解决方法,包括向州立劳务部投诉的权利。

With the U.S. freelance population now at 42 million and growing, Horowitz expects that other states will eventually adopt similar measures. In the meantime, though, and before you hire a lawyer or a collection agency, Horowitz -- who, incidentally, wrote a terrifically useful book calledThe Freelancer's Bible — has six suggestions.
美国现有4,200万名自由职业者,而且人数还在不断增加。霍洛维兹希望其他州今后也会采取类似的措施。但是,在你聘用律师或收款中介机构之前,霍洛维兹【她曾写过一本非常有用的书,名为《自由职业者圣经》(The Freelancer's Bible)】还给出了下面六条建议。

1. Include payment terms in a written contract up front
1. 事先把支付条款写入书面合同

If you're getting most of your assignments from friends, maybe you aren't formalizing contracts in writing, but you should. (Freelancers Union's web site has a free customizable contract you can use.) "Negotiate a time limit. If their policy is 90 days and yours is 30, maybe you can agree on 60," says Horowitz. "The contract can also specify a late fee, usually a percentage of the total amount."
如果你大部分工作都来自朋友,那你可能没有正式的书面合同。但是,你的确应该把合同正式化。(你可以免费使用自由职业者联盟网站上的定制版合同。)霍洛维兹指出:“商定一个期限。如果客户的付款期限是90天,而你的期限是30天,则可以把期限商定为60天。此外,合同还可以明确占总费用一定比例的滞纳金。”

2. Get a portion paid before the project is finished
2. 要求在项目完成前获得部分款项

To help even out your cash flow, and since you're committing your time and effort in advance, Horowitz recommends charging some "earnest money" when the contract is signed, or payable at an agreed upon point in the project -- say, when the work is half complete. Not only are partial payments often more digestible for clients, but they give you an early warning that you may be wasting your time on a deadbeat: If you don't see a check at the halfway mark (if that was the deal), are you sure you want to finish the job?
为了帮你平衡现金流,而且考虑到你提前付出自己的时间和精力,霍洛维兹建议,签合同时收取 “预付款”,或在项目的约定时间(如工作完成一半时)收取部分费用。客户通常愿意支付部分款项,同时它还相当于提前向你发出了一个警告:没准你已经浪费了大量的时间。试想,如果(有约在先,)而你的工作都已经进行了一半,却还没有拿到支票,你还愿意继续干吗?

3. Practice prompt, preventive invoicing
3.实施迅速且带有预防性的发票措施

"You should send invoices right away, while everyone's in love with your work," Horowitz says. "No love? All the more reason to bill them and close the books." Invoices should be sent "in triplicate," she adds. "Send each invoice by snail mail, email, and with a phone message saying the invoice was sent. If this is what you do on Round One, let them imagine what Round Two and Three will be like."
“客户对你的工作感到满意的时候,立即递送发票,”霍洛维兹指出。“如果客户不满意呢?那就更要立即递送发票和结账了。”她还补充道,发票要“一式三份,分别通过邮寄信件、电子邮件和手机邮件(告知发票已寄送)形式发出。如果这是你的第一轮做法,让他们设想一下第二轮和第三轮会是什么情况。”

4. Get acquainted with someone in accounting
4. 结识会计人员

"You'll glean information about their procedures and get to know someone in a position to help if there's a delay," says Horowitz. "It's also helpful for keeping your primary work contact unsullied by the money thing." When starting each new gig, she advises, say something like, "I know you're busy. Is there someone in accounts payable I could reach out to?"
“收集有关会计程序的信息,结识几个能在付款延迟时为你提供帮助的人,”霍洛维兹说。“这也能帮助你避免因为账款问题给主要工作关系带来不良影响。”她建议,每次开始新的项目时,可以这样说:“我知道您很忙。在应收账款方面,我可以联系哪位会计人员?”

5. Consider delegating your billing to the cloud
5. 考虑把账单上传到云端

"This is one time when making things less personal can really help," says Horowitz. "Documentation is nine-tenths of the collection game, so think about hiring an online service to track your time on projects, send invoices for them, including late-payment follow-up, and handle payment transactions." You can find these services by searching under "online invoicing" or "online billing."
“让事情公开化,而不是私下处理,确实会有所帮助,”霍洛维兹称。“证明文件是决定‘收款游戏’成败的关键所在。所以,考虑使用在线服务追踪你的项目周期,递送项目发票,包括付款延迟追踪和处理支付业务。”你可以通过搜索“在线发票”或“在线账单”找到这些服务。

6. Have a follow-up system
6. 制定跟进机制

"Start with an email, friendly but firm, pointing out that your invoice hasn't been paid," says Horowitz. "If there's no response, a more formal notice could be next, recapping the billing information and saying, 'This payment is now however-many days, or weeks, late. Please contact me to discuss this serious matter.' Keep your tone professional, factual, and solution-oriented."
“首先发送措辞友好、但语气坚决的电子邮件,说明尚未付款,”霍洛维兹指出。“如果没有得到回应,可以发送更加正式的通知,重新描述账单信息,同时指出,‘这笔款项已经延迟了数日或数周时间。请与我联系,讨论这个严重的问题。’要让你的措辞更专业,以事实为基础,而且重在解决问题。”

It's important to keep track of every contact with clients, she adds: "If you and the client work out a payment plan -- where, for example, you agree to accept the balance due in installments instead of all at once -- summarize it in an email for the record. Keep copies of every letter and email and a phone log. You're building documentation for possible use in court, or to hand over to a collections agency, if it comes to that."
重要的是,要记录与客户的所有联系情况。她补充说:“如果你和客户制定支付计划——例如,你同意接受分期付款,而不是一次性支付欠款——在电子邮件中进行总结,作为正式记录。要保存每封信件和电子邮件,留存通话记录。如果事情发展到一定程度,可以在法庭上使用你留存的证明文件,或将文件转交给收款中介机构。”

Making sure you get paid may sound like a second job on top of your regular work, which is why many freelancers put off dealing with it, but that's a mistake. "Don't procrastinate on follow-up," Horowitz says. "The older the debt, the harder it will be to collect." Good luck.
或许,确保劳有所得听起来像是固定工作之外的第二份工作,这也正是许多自由职业者推迟处理付款的一个原因,但这种做法是错误的。“不要延迟跟进,”霍洛维兹指出。“欠款时间越长,就越难收回。”祝你好运。

Talkback: If you've done freelance work, or are self-employed now, did you ever have trouble getting paid? What did you do about it? Leave a comment below.
反馈:如果你曾经或现在依然是自由职业者,你在付款方面有没有遇到过困难?你是怎么处理的?欢迎评论。(向Anne提问)



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