用户名: 密码: 验证码:    注册 | 忘记密码?
您的位置:主页 > 英语能力 > 翻译 > 笔译 > 练习材料 > 职场 >


2014-07-22    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

8 Ways To Save Time

You can't change the number of hours in a day, but you can fill them more efficiently, with less stress and mental effort. You've likely heard this before, and perhaps your past efforts at time management have been, well, a waste of time. But most people's attempts to increase productivity get derailed by two virtues of modern living: technology and options.

Today's onslaught of tech -- smartphones, iPads, search engines, social media -- is fragmenting our attention spans, gumming our mental gears with useless facts, and turning us into surface-level thinkers. At the same time, all the communication choices we have today -- email, IM, text, Skype or Gmail chat -- are thwarting efficiency.

But we don't have to give up technology to regain control. "You need to set expectations of yourself and other people," says Daniel Markovitz, a blogger on time management for the Harvard Business Review. "You need to say, 'Here's the Bat Phone number. Use it if there's an emergency. Otherwise, leave me alone to do my job.'" Here, eight ways to manage time.

1. Finish simple tasks
1. 完成简单的任务

Always complete easy tasks, like reading a memo -- never switch between small projects. "The mind holds only about seven pieces of information at a time," says Carnegie Mellon psychologist David Creswell. "If you switch to other tasks, those pieces of information get scrambled and need to be relearned. It's a complete time waster." Bottom line: Don't try to do two simple tasks at once.

2. Break up complex tasks
2. 分解复杂的任务

Complex tasks like building a budget differ from simple ones: You can complete them more quickly and efficiently by breaking them up. Creswell found people who had to complete challenging tasks did so more effectively when they took a two-minute break and worked on something completely different -- for example, doing a crossword when trying to finish your taxes.

"Your brain is unconsciously processing information during distractor tasks, and it does a better job," Creswell says. "Even a two-minute period of checking email can have a beneficial effect." But note he's not advising multitasking here -- always learn the contours of a problem thoroughly before distracting yourself with a menial task for a few minutes. Also, choose something completely different from your main project. "The more distinct it is, the better," he says.
“当你转移注意力时,大脑在不知不觉地处理信息,而且这样的效果更好,” 克雷斯韦尔讲道。“即使只是花两分钟去查邮件也很有益。”但是注意他不是提倡同时处理多项任务——在用小事转移注意力之前,总要先彻底弄懂大问题的概要。同时,选和你的主要项目完全不同的事情来做。“越不同越好,”他讲道。

3. Build willpower
3. 培养意志力

Willpower is key to efficiency -- and just like the muscles in your body, if you exercise it more frequently, you can improve it.

Florida State University psychologist Roy Baumeister found that making people perform simple willpower exercises -- like using their nondominant hand to open doors or brush their teeth -- strengthened their focus during more important tasks.

"When you practice overriding habitual ways, you are exerting deliberate control over your actions," says Baumeister. "If you can get people to do willpower exercises like these, it will improve how well they manage their time and help them develop the willpower to make better decisions." Hone your willpower by breaking a routine like driving the same way to work or by giving up a bad habit like junk food for a week.
“当你练习战胜惯常方式时,你在特意地控制自己的行为,” 鲍迈斯特讲道。“做这些意志力练习会帮助人们提高时间管理的能力,同时锻炼他们的意志力从而做出更好的决定。”打破常规的习惯——比如每天开同样的路回家,或者坚持一星期放弃坏习惯——比如垃圾食品,能帮助你培养意志力。

Willpower gets depleted when you use it too much -- which is why judges and surgeons, who make decisions all day, begin to make generic or underinformed ones later on. Avoid making major decisions after a series of hard choices. When possible, make the toughest decisions when your willpower is strongest -- in the morning for most, says Baumeister. You can identify this time by experience, he says. Are you more likely to forgo a workout in the morning or afternoon? Do you get more done at work when you first get in or before you leave?

4. Develop Google discipline
4. 限制网上搜索

Gorging on all the data available today has made us a nation of distracted thinkers. How many times have you searched for an answer online only to find yourself wandering through a hyperlink forest, gobbling up factoids, switching from LinkedIn to Facebook to email?

Research shows when people look for an answer on the Web, they visit too many sites when only one or two would do. Limit your searching to what you need for a project. Whenever possible, turn off all other technology, like email and your phone, when completing a project on your computer.
研究显示, 在网上搜寻答案时,事实上只有一两个网站就可以提供解答,而人们往往会去浏览很多网站。在项目工作中,限制自己的搜寻在需要范围内。用电脑做项目时,可能的时候,关掉诸如邮箱和电话的其他所有高科技。

5. Keep a calendar, not a to-do list
5. 安排日程表,而不是待办清单

To-do lists are ineffective because they lack context: Research shows people leave the most difficult tasks undone at the end of the day. Instead, Markovitz advises laying out blocks of time for each task. "I tell people to have a healthy relationship with their calendars," he says. "How can you prioritize if you don't know how much time you have? You need to make mindful decisions about the finite amount of time you have to work." Blocking out time provides structure and gives you micro-deadlines to complete tasks. Leave a few empty spaces for inevitable crises and interruptions, and to make room for tasks that may take longer.

6. Pull, don't push
6. 提取信息,而非推送

Most of us are bombarded with emails, calls, and requests that don't necessarily need our attention that moment -- or even that day.

"People push information on us when it's ready, not when we need it," says Markovitz. Instead, Markovitz suggests pulling information when needed rather than passively receiving it anytime.
“人们在准备就绪时讲信息推向我们,而不是在我们需要的时候,” 马科维茨讲道。与此相对,马科维茨建议在需要的时候去提取信息,而不是任何时候都被动地接收信息。

How to pull, not push? If a project is complicated and involves multiple people, talk about it instead of emailing. Don't constantly check and respond to emails – process messages in batches, like once every three hours. Create an email signature that says you don't have time to respond to everything, and if it's urgent, to call. The same goes for meetings: Do you really need to be there? "You need to set expectations," says Markovitz. "You need to slow down the avalanche of information coming at you.
"怎样去提取,而不是推送呢?当项目本身复杂同时有多方人员参与时,与其发邮件,不如口头交流。不要频繁地查看和回复邮件——批量处理信息,比如每三小时一次。创建一个电子签名,说明你没有时间回复所有邮件,有紧急事件请打电话。开会也一样:你一定要在场么?“你需要设定期望值,” 马科维茨讲道。“你需要放慢奔涌而来的信息。”

7. Limit your choices
7. 限制你的日常选择

While you can't change the number of decisions you make for your job, you can limit daily choices at home. For instance, President Obama wears only blue or gray suits to curb unnecessary decisions. He also uses "decision" memos with three check boxes: agree, disagree and discuss.

"Too much choice is paralyzing," says Sheena Iyengar, a Columbia University business professor. "You walk into your office and a bazillion people will come at you from every side -- emails, calls, meetings. Ask yourself: Are you being proactive or just reacting? If you're reacting, then half the day goes by before you say, 'Wait a minute, what am I supposed to be working on?'" Establish routines that let you focus on what you need to do first.

8. Prep the night before
8. 前一天做好准备

While it's important to get a good night's sleep, the time just before bed is ideal for getting your thoughts together for the next day -- and not just because it lessens what you have to do tomorrow.

Scans of sleeping people show our brains work on solving problems when we're not awake, so reviewing a little work before bed helps imprint on your brain exactly what needs to be solved. "We've all had that aha moment in the shower the next morning," says Creswell. "That's because you've let the unconscious mind operate organically on the imprinted information." But avoid overly stressful projects before bed, which may cause you to toss and turn with worry. And don't work on anything with a screen within an hour of bed: Studies show the blue light in screens can lead to fitful sleep.
对入睡后人们的大脑扫描显示:在我们没醒着的时候,大脑在自行解决问题,因此睡前小小地回顾下工作可以帮助大脑留下印象,知道在睡眠阶段应该解决什么问题。“第二天清晨洗澡时,我们都有过灵光乍现的瞬间,” 克雷斯韦尔讲道。“那是因为你让大脑在留下信息印象之后无意识地运转了。”但是避免在睡前去想压力很大的项目,这样做可能会让你辗转忧虑。而且,睡前一小时不要对着屏幕做事:研究显示屏幕辐射出的蓝光会让睡眠断断续续。

手机上普特 m.putclub.com 手机上普特
发表评论 查看所有评论
用户名: 密码: 验证码:
  • 推荐文章
  • 资料下载
  • 讲座录音