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双语:超级成功人士更易患抑郁症?

2015-03-17    来源:forbes    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

双语:超级成功人士更易患抑郁症?
Why The Super-Successful Get Depressed

Whether the uber-successful – the CEOs, the founders, the innovators – are more or less prone to depression than the average person is a tricky and fascinating, not to mention controversial, question. We know that the average CEO is more likely to possess subtle psychopathic traits and be more prone to addiction (see here and here for rundowns of those issues, respectively). In fact, those tendencies may even help the individual rise to such heights in the first place. But what about other forms of mental health issue, like clinical depression? That particular disorder is much less likely a cause for their stardom, but rather a strange symptom of its presence.
相对于普通人,超级成功人士——首席执行官(CEO)、创始人、创新者——是更容易还是更不容易患上抑郁症呢?这是一个复杂、诱人且存有争议的问题。众所周知,一般而言,CEO们往往更有可能带有轻度的病态性格特征,而且更容易上瘾。事实上,他们之所以能飞黄腾达,一定程度上还仰赖于这些倾向。可是其他形式的心理健康问题,如临床抑郁症呢?这种症状不大可能是他们成名的铺路砖,而恰恰是成功所带来的副作用。

A smattering of research has suggested that authority may be linked to depression, and that CEOs may be depressed at more than double the rate of the general public (which is already about 20%). Some popular articles have argued that extreme success has so many strings attached that it can pull a person down completely. Some studies even suggest that rich kids are, counter-intuitively, more depressed and anxious than their middle- or low-income peers. And we know from cross-national research that depression is more common in wealthy countries than in the less wealthy, less industrialized ones. But this doesn’t tell us much about the prevalence of depression in the upper vs. the lower socioeconomic classes within a country.
少数的研究已经表明,权力可能与抑郁相关,而CEO患上抑郁症的几率要比普通人(现在大约是20%)多出一倍。一些流传较广的文章认为,超级成功所牵涉的问题之众,往往会彻底拖垮一个人。一些研究甚至表明,与我们的直觉相反,富二代要比中低层收入的同龄人更沮丧和焦虑。而我们从一项跨国研究中得知,抑郁症在富裕国家比工业化程度较低的贫穷国家更为普遍。至于一个国家内部,上流阶层和较低的社会经济阶层的抑郁情况,我们不甚了解。

From psychologists who have treated the very high-functioning C-suite types over the years, the consensus seems to be that this group is indeed more prone to major depression – for a variety of reasons – than people of other socioeconomic strata. “Uber-success can be depressogenic,” says Todd Essig, Forbes contributor and psychologist in New York City. “Many C-suite executives are prone to depression, despite their success, maybe even because of it.”
在这几年来一直治疗高素质C级高管的心理学家之中,一个共识就是,出于各种原因,这个群体确实要比其他社会经济阶层的人更容易患上严重的抑郁症。“超级成功可能是抑郁症发病的诱因,”纽约市的心理学家、福布斯专栏作家托德·埃西格(Todd Essig)表示,“无论有多成功,很多C级高管很容易患上抑郁症,也许成功正是抑郁症的诱因。”

It’s important to point out that depression can affect everyone, in any stratum. No one, no matter how richly or simply one lives, is immune. That said, there seems to be something about extreme success that puts one at higher risk for depression – perhaps because it’s so pressurized, so lonely, or so empty, it triggers depression in those you’d least expect it. In fact, some of the most successful people in history have suffered from relentless, incapacitating depression – some have won their battles, or, at least, continued to battle. Some, sadly, succumb to it.
值得指出是,抑郁会影响到任何阶层的任何人。无论你的生活多么奢侈或简朴,都有可能患上抑郁。话虽如此,超级成功似乎存在某种特质,会大大提高罹患抑郁症的风险——或许是因为与之如影随形的的巨大压力、寂寞和空虚,最终在最想不到的人群中引发抑郁症。其实,历史上一些最成功人士都饱受抑郁症的痛苦折磨——有些人战胜了抑郁,或者说至少没有停止战斗。不幸的是,还有一些人被抑郁打败。

So why does depression affect the super-successful, the ones who seem have it all? Here are some reasons the people who “should” be happy are often exactly the opposite. It may be hard to empathize with the wealthy depressed person, but it’s definitely worth trying to understand. A follow-up piece will look at how these individuals recover from depression.
那么,抑郁症为什么会影响那些超级成功、似乎拥有一切的人呢?为什么原本应该幸福的人,现实中却恰恰相反?下文列举了几个原因。患有抑郁症的富人或许难以触动人们的悲悯之心,但这绝对是一件值得你尝试去了解的事情。

The competition is wearying
竞争令人疲惫

“I have had a number of high-profile individuals in my practice over the years,” says Deborah Serani, psychologist and author of the award-winning book Living with Depression, “and there’s no doubt in my mind that they struggle more with depression… They constantly compare themselves to the Joneses. Countries that are low-income, on the other hand, have low depression rates. When you come from premier country, there’s extreme competition and extreme feelings of failure: You constantly ask yourself, ‘Am I a have, or a have-not? Or am I an almost-have?’”
“行医这些年中,我接触过不少知名人士,”心理学家、获奖著作《与抑郁症和谐共处》(Living with Depression)的作者黛博拉·塞拉尼(Deborah Serani)表示,“毫无疑问,在我印象中,他们更多地受到抑郁症的困扰……他们不停地拿自己和别人攀比。而另一方面,在低收入国家,抑郁症比率相对较低。如果你出生在富裕国家,你就会面临极端激烈的竞争和失败的困扰:你不停地问自己,‘我是有钱人、穷人,还是不上不下?’”

Essig also points out that trying to find worth by looking further up the ladder is pretty consistently a self-destructive endeavor. And it often adds to depression. “Some people habitually measure their self-worth by whoever seems to be more successful than they are, a recipe for constant depression-inducing envy.”
埃西格还指出,通过向上攀比而尝试发现自己的价值几乎无一例外是自我毁灭性的努力。它只会加重抑郁。“有些人习惯性拿更成功的人衡量自身价值,这是长期抑郁——包括嫉妒——的诱导因素。”

Working all the time doesn’t allow them to focus on the simple things
不停地工作使他们难以专注简单的事情

There’s something comforting about being a regular Joe, and about being one of the pack, Serani says. In contrast, extreme success, and the extraordinary amount of time and effort it takes to get there, can make for a life that feels precipitous and lonely. “Most of us are all doing the same thing, and there’s comfort in that – we bitch about taxes, about gas being high; there’s something soothing about everybody being in same boat. When you start having elitist big jumps upwards, then things change. There’s a lot of disconnect – from simple things, like sitting down for dinner with your family, where the discussion is about family stuff, like ‘Billy hit me,’ or ‘Sally stole my lunch.’” That’s the stuff that brings texture and joy to life; and people may lose a lot of that richness when they’re consumed with a business 24/7.
做一个普通人令人安心,塞拉尼说。相比之下,超级成功,以及为走到这一步而付出的无数时间和精力,往往令人产生一路上险象环生、高处不胜寒之感。“我们大多数人都在做着同样的事情,我们抱怨税收、抱怨汽油价格高,这种“同舟共济”的感觉令人安心。当你开始展开精英式的巨大跳跃时,那么一切将发生改变。你开始与普通生活脱节,比如坐下来与家人共进晚餐,这时所有的讨论都是关乎家庭琐事,比如‘比利打我,’或者‘萨利偷吃了我的午餐’,那才是带给生活质感和快乐的东西;而当人们每天24小时、每周七天都在专注于事业时,生活的乐趣就会消失无踪。

They may feel detached from their former selves
可能会迷失曾经的自我

Extreme wealth, especially when it comes very suddenly, can leave people feeling detached from themselves, or as if they don’t quite know how to identify themselves any more. “Sometimes there are conflicts about felt identity,” says Essig. “For example, one person said to me ‘the bigger the bonus, the less I feel like myself.’”
突如其来的巨额财富,尤其会让人产生一种迷失自我的感觉,抑或是不知该如何找到自我认同。“有时候,你感知到的自我认同会与你自身产生冲突,”埃西格说,“比如,有人对我说,‘奖金越高,我感觉越不像自己。’”

Privilege may make them less resilient
家境富裕不利于心理素质的培养

Arnold Washton, a psychologist at Compass Health Group says that depression may also be more common in the people who have only known wealth, since they may not be familiar with bootstrapping themselves through difficult times. So when they find themselves in bumpy or uncharted territory, they may not fare as well, and, in fact, may fare very poorly. “Being born into wealth and privilege, people often show the opposite characteristics – they don’t have the experience, because they’ve been shielded from it. They might not respond as well. Whereas people who are really self-made and struggled a lot to get to the top may be more resilient.”
Compass Health Group的心理学家阿诺·沃世顿(Arnold Washton)表示,那些只知财富不止贫穷的人更容易抑郁,因为他们或许并不了解如何靠自己的努力渡过难关。所以当他们发现自己面临坎坷道路,或身处未知领域时,可能就会手足无措,甚至一败涂地。“含着金钥匙出生的人往往反倒容易抑郁——他们不曾经历过大风大浪,因为家境将他们与困难想隔绝。因而也会应对失措。相比之下,那些真正白手起家、经历艰难险阻、最终获得成功的人则拥有更强的心理素质。”

The industry can tear them down
行业可能会摧毁他们

The kind of business people are in can also affect depression risk – and the finance world can be hard on both the high-energy and quieter types. “I see a lot of guys from the big firms like Goldman or Morgan Stanley,” says Dr. Greg Dillon, a psychiatrist at Lower Fifth Psychiatric in New York City, “and these are really ‘adolescent’ industries – they want someone who’s fratty, boisterous, young. But if you’re ruled by commitment to deep and thorough thinking, you may get stuck in the back office, and that’s a depressing place to be. Alternatively, the more adolescent, ‘bravado’ guys may never have faced a lot of big challenges. We see a lot of hedge fund guys who really fall apart when times get bad, and really suffer. They really fall.”
所处行业同样会影响抑郁风险——金融界可能对精力充沛和偏文静的人都造成压力。“我接触过很多来自像高盛(Goldman)或者摩根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)等大公司的员工,”纽约市Lower Fifth Psychiatric的心理医生格雷格·狄龙(Dr. Greg Dillon)博士说,“这些真是年轻产业——他们需要的是精力旺盛的年轻人。如果你擅长深入周密的思维,你就会困在后勤部门,而那是一个非常令人沮丧。而那些更加活跃大胆的人,则可能从未面对过很多太大的挑战。在经济不经期的时候,我们看到很多基金行业从业者崩溃、痛苦不堪。他们真的会败下阵来。”

Their values may change over time
价值观会随着时间而改变

When business is bad, it goes without saying that depression would be more likely. In good economic times, Dillon sees clients who can verge on manic – but this is not always the case. People who achieve more and more over the years may find that, even when everything looks great on paper, their goals might be much less gratifying than they thought they’d be. Even if every milestone is hit at exactly the right point, some may find that they feel empty instead of fulfilled – so something has to shift.
不消说,业绩不佳时发生抑郁的可能性更大。在经济较好的时期,狄龙也会遇到处在崩溃边缘的顾客——但事实并非总是如此。年复一年,经过成功的并不断累计,人们会发现,即使一切都进展顺利,当初的目标在达到之后,也许并不像最初想象中那么令人满意。即使按部就班地跨过了每一个里程碑,一些人也会发现自己感到空虚而不是满足——所以有些事情必然要发生改变。

“Those that do mature,” he says, “who have families and kids, who are not Adderall or alcohol addicts – and those who are lucky enough to have failed a couple of times – have learned from it. Those who know enough to say ‘I’ll get out, reinvent myself or my career, and ask myself ‘what’s meaningful here?’ A new job, career, style of business. Or maybe it’s investing more time in family or kids.”
“那些从这些经验中成熟起来的人,”他说,“那些成家立业、不依赖阿得拉(Adderall)等药物也没有染上酒瘾的人,以及那些幸运地失败了几次的人——已经从中吸取了教训。真正懂得的人会说,‘我得跳出去,重塑自己或者自己的事业,并扪心自问,‘做这件事的意义何在?’新的工作,新的事业,新的做事风格。抑或是投入更多的时间陪伴家人。”

The people who can be fluid, changing their values and reorganizing their lives around them, will better off in the long-run, says Dillon.
从长远来看,那些能够适应新环境、改变价值和重组人生的人会过得越来越好,狄龙说。

Again, it may seem hard to empathize with the depression of the super-wealthy (i.e., poor little rich guy, right?), but the extreme stressors, loneliness, hollowness, and disappointments they may experience are very real. Being aware that one is depressed in the first place is one first step to changing it – and depression can be very hard for some people to even determine is there, given its vast array of symptoms, let alone admit to friends and family. More on how the super-successful deal with their depression in the next post.
还是那句话,超级富豪的抑郁可能很难得到人们的同情,不过他们感受到的巨大压力、孤独、空虚和失望却是实实在在的。首先,承认自己患上抑郁症是改变它的第一步——鉴于症状表现不一,有些人甚至确定自己是否患有抑郁症,更不用说向家人和朋友坦白了。

译 刘少宇 校 丁盈幸

psychopathic adj. 精神病的;精神错乱的

symptom n. [临床] 症状;征兆

succumb vi. 屈服;死;被压垮

elitist n. 优秀人才;杰出人物

bumpy adj. 颠簸的;崎岖不平的

resilient adj. 弹回的,有弹力的

milestone n. 里程碑,划时代的事件

reinvent vt. 重新使用;彻底改造;重复发明(在不知他人已发明的情况下)

(forbeschina.com)



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