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双语:体格强健的男性更具备领导才能?

2016-03-14    来源:外研社    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

双语:体格强健的男性更具备领导才能?

Men with muscly physiques are perceived as possessing stronger leadership skills than their skinnier colleagues, a new study shows。
最新研究发现,有着强健体格的男性被认为比体型清瘦的同事更具领导才能。

While intelligence and level-headedness might seem more important for people wishing to exude management potential, researchers at UC Berkeley‘s Haas School of Business identified an overwhelming connection between physical prowess and high status。
尽管有意发挥自己管理潜质的人更看重智慧与冷静这些因素,加州伯克利分校哈斯商学院(微博)的研究人员却发现,强健体魄与位居高位的关系十分紧密。

For the published study, titled ‘The role of physical formidability in human social status allocation’, a selection of men underwent strength tests before being photographed。 Volunteers were then shown and told they were looking at candidates newly hired by a consultancy firm。
以“强健体魄在人类社会地位分配中的作用”为题发表的一项研究挑选出了一组男性,并对他们进行了体力测试,然后为他们拍摄了照片。之后,让志愿者看了这些照片,并告诉他们,照片上的人是一家咨询机构最新聘用的人员。

Next they were asked to rate each man based on how much they admired him, held him in high esteem, how much they could imagine his career progressing, and how he might respond to others in his company。
志愿者得依据对他们的仰慕程度、对他们职业发展以及如何应对同事的预期来评价这些人。

“The physically strong men in the pictures were given higher status because they are perceived as leaders,” said Professor Cameron Anderson, who led the study with Professor Aaron Lukaszewski。 “Our findings are consistent with a lot of real examples of strong men in positions of power。”
卡梅伦·安德森教授与亚伦·卢卡谢夫斯基教授是这项研究的带头人。卡梅伦·安德森教授指出:“志愿者把图片中有着强健体魄的男性视为是领导者,所以这些男性获得的地位更高。真实生活中,有许多体型健壮的男性成为领袖人物的例子,这与我们的发现相符。

To ensure that men weren‘t being chosen based on good looks, the volunteers - roughly a 50/50 split between men and women - were also asked to rate each candidate’s “overall attractiveness”。 The men photographed were also each dressed in identical plain white tank tops so that clothing choice did not influence results。
为了确保先前的评价不是基于出色的相貌,志愿者(男女比例大约各占一半)还被要求评价这些人的“整体吸引力”。照片上的男性都穿着相同的白色背心,以防衣着影响实验结果。

After that initial experiment, researchers used Photoshop to switch the heads on each body。 In this round, volunteers again favoured stronger bodies – even if they were attached to a ‘weak’ face。
第一轮实验过后,研究人员利用Photoshop把不同照片的头部与身体做了调换。这次,尽管志愿者心仪的是那些“柔弱”的面孔,但在领导力方面,体格强健的人依然是他们的优先选择。

It may be assumed that any connection between bodily strength and leadership is a consequence of intimidating weaker colleagues with over-the-top, macho acts of masculinity, but the opposite may in fact be true。

人们也许会想当然地认为体魄和领导力之间产生联系是因为大块头的强壮威猛对那些相对文弱的同事起到了震慑作用,然而事实却正好相反。

“Strong men who were perceived as being likely to behave aggressively toward other group members were actually granted less status than their apparently gentler counterparts,” Lukaszewski says。
卢卡谢夫斯基说:“人们如果认为一位体魄强健的男性可能在其他组员前表现得咄咄逼人,那么给他的地位就会低于与他同样健壮但更加温和的同事。

“Together, the results suggest that the conferral of status upon formidable men, perhaps counter-intuitively, serves a fundamentally pro-social function – to enhance the effectiveness of cooperation within the group。”
他还补充道:“总之,结果显示,强健的男性被赋予领导者的角色,或许与直觉相悖,但这能提高团队合作的效率,从根本上是有利于社会的。”

Berkeley‘s results, which are only applicable to men (no link was found between female leadership and physical strength), are in part reflected on the political stage。
某种程度上,伯克利分校的研究结果在政治舞台上得到了反映,但这个结果仅代表了男性群体(还没有研究发现女性的领导力与体格相关)。

Russian president Vladimir Putin would certainly see his strapping figure as an example of the findings – though with height a factor, his case is weakened by being only 5ft 7in。 Barack Obama, meanwhile, who keeps his 6ft 2in frame lean with regular basketball, may be a more convincing case study。
俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔·普金肯定会赞同他健壮的身材就是证明这些发现的一个例子——但如果从身高看的话,他的信服力略逊一筹,普金身高仅170.18厘米。贝拉克·奥巴马的例子可能更有说服力。他身高187.96厘米,经常打篮球使他体格匀称。

Not all is lost for diminutive, physically feeble leaders, however。 While the gym may boost one‘s chances of being seen as capable, Professor Cameron insists it isn’t the only thing。
但体格瘦弱的人也不是无望成为领导者。卡梅伦教授强调说,虽然健身可以增加一个人被视作有领导力的几率,但健身不是唯一的出路。

“If you‘re behaving in ways that demonstrate you are a leader or are not a leader, strength doesn’t matter,” he says。
他接着说:“如果你表现得像个领导者,是否有强健的体魄无关紧要。而反之,有再好的体魄也无济于事。”



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