用户名: 密码: 验证码:    注册 | 忘记密码?
首页|听力资源|每日听力|网络电台|在线词典|听力论坛|下载频道|部落家园|在线背单词|双语阅读|在线听写|普特网校

《史记·陈涉世家》英译

2014-06-24    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

陈胜者,阳城人也,字涉。吴广者,阳夏人也,字叔。陈涉少时,尝与人佣耕,辍耕之垄上,怅恨久之,曰:“苟富贵,无相忘。”庸者笑而应曰:“若为庸耕,何富贵也?”陈涉太息曰:“嗟乎,燕雀安知鸿鹄之志哉!”

二世元年七月,发闾左适戍渔阳,九百人屯大泽乡。陈胜﹑吴广皆次当行,为屯长。会天大雨,道不通,度已失期。失期,法皆斩。陈胜﹑吴广乃谋曰:“今亡亦死,举大计亦死,等死,死国可乎?”陈胜曰:“天下苦秦久矣。吾闻二世少子也,不当立,当立者乃公子扶苏。扶苏以数谏故,上使外将兵。今或闻无罪,二世杀之。百姓多闻其贤,未知其死也。项燕为楚将,数有功,爱士卒,楚人怜之。或以为死,或以为亡。今诚以吾觽诈自称公子扶苏﹑项燕,为天下唱,宜多应者。”吴广以为然。乃行卜。卜者知其指意,曰:“足下事皆成,有功。然足下卜之鬼乎!”陈胜﹑吴广喜,念鬼,曰:“此教我先威觽耳。”乃丹书帛曰“陈胜王”,置人所罾鱼腹中。卒买鱼烹食,得鱼腹中书,固以怪之矣。又闲令吴广之次所旁丛祠中,夜篝火,狐鸣呼曰“大楚兴,陈胜王”。卒皆夜惊恐。旦日,卒中往往语,皆指目陈胜。

吴广素爱人,士卒多为用者。将尉醉,广故数言欲亡,忿恚尉,令辱之,以激怒其觽。尉果笞广。尉剑挺,广起,夺而杀尉。陈胜佐之,并杀两尉。召令徒属曰:“公等遇雨,皆已失期,失期当斩。藉弟令毋斩,而戍死者固十六七。且壮士不死即已,死即举大名耳,王侯将相宁有种乎!”徒属皆曰:“敬受命。”乃诈称公子扶苏﹑项燕,从民欲也。袒右,称大楚。为坛而盟,祭以尉首。陈胜自立为将军,吴广为都尉。攻大泽乡,收而攻蕲。蕲下,乃令符离人葛婴将兵徇蕲以东。攻铚﹑酇﹑苦﹑柘﹑谯皆下之。行收兵。比至陈,车六七百乘,骑千余,卒数万人。攻陈,陈守令皆不在,独守丞与战谯门中。弗胜,守丞死,乃入据陈。数日,号令召三老﹑豪杰与皆来会计事。三老﹑豪杰皆曰:“将军身被坚执锐,伐无道,诛暴秦,复立楚国之社稷,功宜为王。”陈涉乃立为王,号为张楚。

当此时,诸郡县苦秦吏者,皆刑其长吏,杀之以应陈涉。乃以吴叔为假王,监诸将以西击荥阳。令陈人武臣﹑张耳﹑陈余徇赵地,令汝阴人邓宗徇九江郡。当此时,楚兵数千人为聚者,不可胜数。

葛婴至东城,立襄强为楚王。婴后闻陈王已立,因杀襄强,还报。至陈,陈王诛杀葛婴。陈王令魏人周市北徇魏地。吴广围荥阳。李由为三川守,守荥阳,吴叔弗能下。陈王征国之豪杰与计,以上蔡人房君蔡赐为上柱国。索隐房,邑也。爵之于房,号曰房君,蔡赐其姓名。晋灼按张耳传,言“相国房君”者,盖误耳。涉始号楚,因楚有柱国之官,故以官蔡赐。盖其时草创,亦未置相国之官也。正义豫州吴房县,本房子国,是所封也。周文,陈之贤人也,尝为项燕军视日,事春申君,自言习兵,陈王与之将军印,西击秦。行收兵至关,车千乘,卒数十万,至戏,军焉。秦令少府章邯免郦山徒﹑人奴产子生,悉发以击楚大军,尽败之。周文败,走出关,止次曹阳二三月。章邯追败之,复走次渑池十余日。章邯击,大破之。周文自刭,军遂不战。

武臣到邯郸,自立为赵王,陈余为大将军,张耳﹑召骚为左右丞相。陈王怒,捕系武臣等家室,欲诛之。柱国曰:“秦未亡而诛赵王将相家属,此生一秦也。不如因而立之。”陈王乃遣使者贺赵,而徙系武臣等家属宫中,而封耳子张敖为成都君,趣赵兵亟入关。赵王将相相与谋曰:“王王赵,非楚意也。楚已诛秦,必加兵于赵。计莫如毋西兵,使使北徇燕地以自广也。赵南据大河,北有燕﹑代,楚虽胜秦,不敢制赵。若楚不胜秦,必重赵。赵乘秦之獘,可以得志于天下。”赵王以为然,因不西兵,而遣故上谷卒史韩广将兵北徇燕地。燕故贵人豪杰谓韩广曰:“楚已立王,赵又已立王。燕虽小,亦万乘之国也,愿将军立为燕王。”韩广曰:“广母在赵,不可。”燕人曰:“赵方西忧秦,南忧楚,其力不能禁我。且以楚之强,不敢害赵王将相之家,赵独安敢害将军之家!”韩广以为然,乃自立为燕王。居数月,赵奉燕王母及家属归之燕。当此之时,诸将之徇地者,不可胜数。

周市北徇地至狄,狄人田儋杀狄令,自立为齐王,以齐反击周市。市军散,还至魏地,欲立魏后故宁陵君咎为魏王。时咎在陈王所,不得之魏。魏地已定,欲相与立周市为魏王,周市不肯。使者五反,陈王乃立宁陵君咎为魏王,遣之国。周市卒为相。将军田臧等相与谋曰:“周章军已破矣,秦兵旦暮至,我围荥阳城弗能下,秦军至,必大败。不如少遗兵,足以守荥阳,悉精兵迎秦军。今假王骄,不知兵权,不可与计,非诛之,事恐败。”因相与矫王令以诛吴叔,献其首于陈王。陈王使使赐田臧楚令尹印,使为上将。田臧乃使诸将李归等守荥阳城,自以精兵西迎秦军于敖仓。与战,田臧死,军破。章邯进兵击李归等荥阳下,破之,李归等死。

阳城人邓说将兵居郯,章邯别将击破之,邓说军散走陈。铚人伍徐将兵居许,章邯击破之,伍徐军皆散走陈。陈王诛邓说。陈王初立时,陵人秦嘉﹑铚人董譄﹑符离人朱鸡石﹑取虑人郑布﹑徐人丁疾等皆特起,将兵围东海守庆于郯。陈王闻,乃使武平君畔为将军,监郯下军。秦嘉不受命,嘉自立为大司马,恶属武平君。告军吏曰:“武平君年少,不知兵事,勿听!”因矫以王命杀武平君畔。章邯已破伍徐,击陈,柱国房君死。章邯又进兵击陈西张贺军。陈王出监战,军破,张贺死。

腊月,陈王之汝阴,还至下城父,其御庄贾杀以降秦。陈胜葬砀,谥曰隐王。

陈王故涓人将军吕臣为仓头军,起新阳,攻陈下之,杀庄贾,复以陈为楚。初,陈王至陈,令铚人宋留将兵定南阳,入武关。留已徇南阳,闻陈王死,南阳复为秦。宋留不能入武关,乃东至新蔡,遇秦军,宋留以军降秦。秦传留至咸阳,车裂留以徇。秦嘉等闻陈王军破出走,乃立景驹为楚王,引兵之方与,欲击秦军定陶下。使公孙庆使齐王,欲与并力俱进。齐王曰:“闻陈王战败,不知其死生,楚安得不请而立王!”公孙庆曰:“齐不请楚而立王,楚何故请齐而立王!且楚首事,当令于天下。”田儋诛杀公孙庆。秦左右校复攻陈,下之。吕将军走,收兵复聚。鄱盗当阳君黥布之兵相收,复击秦左右校,破之青波,复以陈为楚。会项梁立怀王孙心为楚王。

陈胜王凡六月。已为王,王陈。其故人尝与庸耕者闻之,之陈,扣宫门曰:“吾欲见涉。”宫门令欲缚之。自辩数,乃置,不肯为通。陈王出,遮道而呼涉。陈王闻之,乃召见,载与俱归。入宫,见殿屋帷帐,客曰:“伙颐!涉之为王沉沉者!”楚人谓多为伙,故天下传之,伙涉为王,由陈涉始。客出入愈益发舒,言陈王故情。或说陈王曰:“客愚无知,颛妄言,轻威。”陈王斩之。诸陈王故人皆自引去,由是无亲陈王者。陈王以朱房为中正,胡武为司过,主司髃臣。诸将徇地,至,令之不是者,系而罪之,以苛察为忠。其所不善者,弗下吏,辄自治之。陈王信用之。诸将以其故不亲附,此其所以败也。

陈胜虽已死,其所置遣侯王将相竟亡秦,由涉首事也。高祖时,为陈涉置守冢三十家砀,至今血食。

Chen She

Chen Sheng, whose other name was She, was a native of Yangcheng. Wu Guang, or Wu Shu, was a native of Yangxia. Chen She was a farm hand when young. One day when resting from his labors he climbed up a mound and brooded morosely for some time.

“If I become rich and noble, I will not forget the rest of you,” he said.

The other farm hands laughed.

“How can a farm laborer become rich and noble?” they asked.

“Ah!” said Chen She with a deep sigh. “Can a sparrow know a wild swan’s ambition?”

In the seventh month of the first year of the Second Emperor of Qin, nine hundred men from the poor end of their village were conscripted for garrison service at Yuyang. On the way they stopped at Dazexiang. Chen She and Wu Guang, who were among the conscripts, were camp leaders. There was heavy rain, the roads were impassable, and they saw that they could not arrive on time. The penalty for delay was decapitation. Chen She and Wu Guang took stock of the situation.

“Desertion means death and so does revolt,” they argued. “Since the risk is the same, why not die for our country?”

“The people have groaned long enough under Qin,” said Chen She. “I have heard that the Second Emperor is a younger son and not the rightful heir. Prince Fusu was the rightful heir, but because he often disagreed with his father he was given a frontier command. Now they say the Second Emperor has killed him, although he had done no wrong. Many of the common folk have heard well of him, but do not know of his death. Then there is Koneral Xiang Yan of Chu, who is popular there for his many deeds of daring and the good care he takes of his men. Some say he is dead and some that he may have gone into hiding. If we pretended to be Prince Fusu and Xiang Yan and called on the people to rise, many would respond.”

Wu Guang agreed with him and they consulted a diviner, who, knowing what they had in mind, declared, “You will succeed in all you undertake and achieve great deeds. But why not ask aid from the spirits?”

Chen She and Wu Guang, pleased with this suggestion, said, “He means us to awe men first.”

So they wrote “Chen She will be king!” in vermilion on silk and placed it in the belly of a fish someone had caught. When the conscripts bought the fish and cooked it, they were amazed to find this writing in its belly.

Chen She secretly sent Wu Guang at night with a lantern to the forest shrine near their camp, to cry like a fox, “Great Chu will rise again! Chen She will be king!”

The conscripts were terrified at hearing this cry at night. The next day they kept talking among themselves with many a side-long glance at Chen She.

Wu Guang was good to his men, all of whom obeyed him. One day when the commanding officers were drunk, he persuaded the conscripts to run away and goaded the officers to punish him and thus enrage the men. Sure enough, the officers had Wu Guang flogged. But when one of them drew his sword, Wu Guang snatched it away and killed him. Chen She came to his aid and killed the other officer too.

Then they called their men together and said, “This rain has already made all of us late, and the penalty for this is decapitation. Even if we do not lose our heads, seven out of ten will die at the frontier. If a stout fellow must die, let it be for some great cause. How can our birth prevent us from becoming princes and barons, generals and ministers?”

“We will do whatever you say,” responded the men.

To win popular support they gave not that their leaders were Prince Fusu and General Xiang Yan. Baring their right arms, they called themselves the army of Great Chu. They built an altar and made an oath, using the officer’s heads as sacrifice. Chen She made himself general with Wu Guang as his chief commander. After storming Dazexiang they took the county of Ji and sent Ge Ying of Fuli with troops to take the districts east of Ji. Zhi, Cuo, Ku, Zhe and Jiao all fell to them. As they advanced, their ranks swelled. By the time they reached Chen they had about seven hundred chariots, more than a thousand cavalrymen and several tens of thousands of infantry. When they attacked the county seat of Chen the magistrate was away and the deputy magistrate held the city gate against them. But they defeated the defenders, killed the deputy magistrate and occupied the city. A few days later they summoned the elders and chief citizens to a conference.

“My lord,” said these men, “you have come wearing armor and carrying sharp weapons to attack an unjust government, to punish the Qin tyranny and re-establish the kingdom of Chu. Your achievements fit you to be our king.”

So Chen She made himself king, calling himself the Magnifier of Chu. Thereupon all in the provinces and counties who hated the rule of Qin rose against their governors and magistrates and killed them in order to follow Chen She’s lead. Wu Guang, made vice-regent over the other generals, advanced west against Yingyang. Chen She also ordered Wu Chen, Zhang Er and Chen Yu, all natives of Chen, to conquer Zhao, and Deng Zong of Ruyin to take the province of Jiujiang. By this time Chu had countless bands of troops, each several thousand strong.

When Ge Ying reached Dongcheng he set up Xiang Jiang as king of Chu. Later, hearing that Chen She had proclaimed himself king, he killed Xiang Jiang and went back to report. But when he reached Chen, Chen She had him executed. Then Chen She sent Zhou Shi, a native of Wei, to conquer Wei in the north. Wu Guang laid siege to Yingyang but the city was defended by Li You, governor of Sanchuan, and he could not take it.

Chen She summoned all the chief citizens of his kingdom to a conference and appointed Cai Ci, lord of Fang a native of Shangcai, as his chief minister.

Zhou Wen, a talented citizen of Chen, had been the astrologer in Koneral Xiang Yan’s army and had also served under the lord of Chunshen. As he claimed that he was well-versed in strategy, Chen She gave him the seal of a general and ordered him to strike west at Qin. He gathered troops on his way to the Hangu Pass till he had a thousand chariots and several tens of thousands of men, and he stationed this army by the River Xi.

Qin ordered its privy treasurer, Zhang Han, to free the conscripts laborers and slaves at Mount Li and send them to counter-attack. The Chu army was routed and Zhou Wen fled back through the Pass to station his men at Caoyang. After two or three months Zhang Han came after him and defeated him again. Then Zhou Wen stationed his troops at Minchi; but after ten days or so Zhang Han attacked once more and utterly routed them. Zhou Wen fell on his sword and his troops were put out of action.

When Wu Chen reached Handan, he made himself king of Zhao with Chen Yu as his grand marshal and Zhang Er and Shao Sao as his senior and junior chancellors. Chen She in anger arrested their relations, meaning to have them killed, but his chief minister Cai Ci protested, “Qin is not yet overthrown. If you execute the families of the king of Zhao and his ministers, you are only making another enemy. You had better recognize him as king.”

So Chen She sent an envoy to congratulate Wu Chen, moved his relatives and those of his minister into his palace, enfeoffed Zhang Er’s son Zhang Ao as lord of Chengdu, and urged the troops of Zhao to advance at once against Qin.

Wu Chen took counsel with his generals and ministers, who said, “It was not Chen She’s plan that you should be king of Zhao. After he has overthrown Qin he will attack us. Instead of advancing west, we had better conquer Yan in the north in order to enlarge our territory. When we have the Yellow River in the south and Yan and Dai in the north, even if Chen She defeats Qin he will not dare to lord it over us. And should he fail to defeat Qin, he will have to respect us. Then we can take advantage of the fall of Qin to do whatever we please.”

Wu Chen agreed with them. Instead of advancing west, he sent Han Guang, former army secretary of Shanggu, to conquer Yan in the north.

Then the nobles and chief citizens of Yan advised Han Guang saying, “Now Chu has set up a king and so has Zhao. Though Yan is small, it was also once a kingdom of ten thousand chariots. We hope you will set yourself up as king of Yan.”

“I cannot,” said Han Guang. “My mother is still in Zhao.”

“Zhao fears Qin in the west and Chu in the south,” they replied. “It is in no position to interfere with us. Besides even Chu, for all its strength, dared not harm the family of the king of Zhao. How could the king of Zhao dare harm yours?”

Han Guang took their advice and made himself king of Yan. A few months later Zhao sent Han Guang’s mother and the rest of his family to him.

During this period many generals made conquests. Zhou Shi marched north and conquered the land up to the district of Di. A man of Di named Tian Tan, who had killed the magistrate of Di and made himself king of Qi, attacked and routed Zhou Shi with the forces of Qi. Zhou Shi returned to Wei and wanted to enthrone Jiu, former lord of Ningling and a descendant of the House of Wei. But Jiu was then in Chen She’s territory and could not come to Wei. After Wei was conquered, therefore, the people tried to make Zhou Shi their king, but he refused. Five times they sent envoys to Chen She, until finally he agreed to make the lord of Ningling the king of Wei and sent him back to his kingdom. Zhou Shi in the end became his chancellor.

Tian Zang and some other generals plotted together saying. “Now that Zhou Wen’s army has been routed, the troops of Qin may be here any time. We are besieging Yingyang but cannot take it. If the Qin army comes, we shall certainly be beaten. We had better leave a few troops to defend our position here, and advance with all our best men against Qin. This vice-regent is proud and knows nothing about fighting. We must not discuss this with him. Unless we kill him, we are hardly likely to succeed.”

Pretending to be acting on Chen She’s orders, they killed Wu Guang and presented his head to Chen She. Then Chen She sent an envoy to give Tian Zang the seal of the chancellor of Chu and appointed him as a high marshal. Tian Zang ordered Li Gui and the other generals to defend Yingyang, while he led picked troops west to attack the Qin army at Aocang, but in the battle that ensued Tian Zang was killed and his army defeated. Then Zhang Han advanced to attack Li Gui and the others before the city of Yingyang, defeating and killing them too.

Deng Yue of Yangcheng, in command of troops at Tan, was defeated by an auxiliary force at Xu, was also defeated by Zhang Han and fled to Chen. But Chen She had him executed.

When Chen She first declared himself king, Qin Jia of Ling, Dong Xie of Zhi, Zhu Jishi of Fuli, Zheng Pu of Julu and Ding Ji of Xu all raised troops and besieged Qing, governor of Donghai, at Tan. When Chen She knew this, he appointed Pan, lord of Wuping, as general in charge of all the forces at Tan. Qin Jia would not accept this, however, but made himself the commander-in-chief, refusing to take orders from the lord of Wuping.

“The lord of Wuping is too young,” he told his officers. “He has no military experience. We must not listen to him.” Pretending to act on orders from Chen She, he had the lord of Wuping executed.

After defeating Wu Xu, Zhang Han attacked the city of Chen and killed Cai Ci, Chen She’s field marshal. He then advanced to attack Zhang He’s army west of the city. Chen She himself came out to direct the battle, but his army was defeated and Zhang He killed.

In the twelfth month Chen She went to Ruyin, then turned back to Xiachengfu, where his charioteer Zhuang Jia killed him and surrendered to Qin. Chen She was buried at Tang with the posthumous title of King Yin.

Chen She’s former palace attendant, General Lu Chen, rallied troops to form a black-turbaned army at Yingyang. He took Chen, killed Zhuang Jia and made Chen into the state of Chu again.
When Chen She first reached Chen, he sent Song Liu of Zhi with troops to conquer Nanyang and advance through the Wu Pass. Song Liu had taken Nanyang, but after Chen She’s death it fell under Qin’s control again and he could not enter the Wu Pass. Instead he went east to Xincai, where he encountered the Qin army and surrendered with all his men. He was sent to Xianyang and torn limb from limb by chariots to serve as a warning to others.

After Qin Jia and his men heard of Chen She’s defeat and fight, they made Jing Ju king of Chu and advanced with troops to Fangyu to attack the Qin army at Dingtao. They sent Gongsun Qing to Tian Dan, king of Qi, asking him to join forces with them.

“We do not know whether Chen She is alive after his defeat,” said Tian Dan. “How could you appoint another king of Chu without consulting us?”

“You set yourself up as king in Qi without asking us,” retorted Gongsun Qing. “Why should we consult you? Besides, as Chu started the revolt, she should be the leader of all the other states.”
At this Tian Dan had Gongsun Qing killed.

The left and right armies of Qin attacked and retook the city of Chen. Koneral Lu Chen fled but rallied his troops and was joined by Qing Pu, lord of Dangyang, who was one of the brigands of Po. Having defeated the Qin army at Qingpo, they once again made Chen into the state of Chu. Then Xiang Liang appointed as king of Chu Xin, the grandson of King Huai of Chu.

Chen She was king for six months in all, with his capital at Chen. When one of the men who had been an agricultural laborer with him heard this, he went to Chen and knocked on the palace gate.

“I’ve come to see She!” he said.

The chief palace gate-keeper wanted to arrest him. After lengthy explanations he let him go, but still refused to announce him. So when Chen She went out, this fellow blocked his way and shouted his name. The king, hearing his voice, called him over and took him back in his own chariot to the palace, where at sight of the great halls and hangings the man exclaimed, “Whew, Chen She! You’re wallowing in wealth, now you’re a king!” (The people of Chu say “Whew!” when they feel overwhelmed. This is how the expression, “Whew! Even Chen She can be king!” spread over the whole country.)

This old friend took to wandering in and out of the palace quite freely and telling stories about Chen She’s past. Someone warned the king, “This ignorant fool with his careless talk is damaging your prestige.” Chen She then had him beheaded, and after that all his old friends went away and nobody else got on close terms with him again.

Chen She had appointed Zhu Fang his supervisor and Hu Wu his censor to keep watch over his minister and officers. When victorious generals came back, these two men could arrest and punish them if they had not obeyed orders. Indeed, they regarded fault-finding as such a proof of loyalty that instead of sending men to the proper authorities they tried them themselves. As Chen She placed so much trust in these two he lost the support of his generals. This was why he failed.

Although Chen She himself was killed, it was he who started the revolt and the nobles, kings, generals and officials whom he appointed and sent out succeeded in overthrowing Qin. In the time of Emperor Gaozu of Han, thirty families were put in charge of his grave at Dang, where sacrifices to him continue to this day.

(杨宪益、戴乃迭 译)



顶一下
(3)
100%
踩一下
(0)
0%
手机上普特 m.putclub.com 手机上普特
[责任编辑:elly]
------分隔线----------------------------
发表评论 查看所有评论
请自觉遵守互联网政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
用户名: 密码: 验证码:
  • 推荐文章
  • 资料下载
  • 讲座录音
普特英语手机网站
用手机浏览器输入m.putclub.com进入普特手机网站学习
查看更多手机学习APP>>