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司马迁《史记.田单列传》英译

2014-06-25    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

史记·田单列传

司马迁

田单者,齐诸田疏属也。闵王时,单为临灾市掾,不见知。及燕使乐毅伐破齐,齐闵王出奔,已而保莒城。燕师长驱平齐,而田单走安平,令其宗人尽断其车轴末而傅铁笼。已而燕军攻安平,城坏,齐人走,争涂,以轊折车败,为燕所虏。唯田单宗人以铁笼故得脱,东保即墨。燕既尽降齐城,唯独莒、即墨不下。

燕军闻齐王在莒,并兵攻之。淖齿既杀闵王于莒,因坚守距燕军,数年不下。燕引兵东围即墨。即墨大夫出与战,败死。城中相与推田单,曰:“安平之战,田单宗人以铁笼故得全,习兵。”立以为将军,以即墨距燕。

顷之,燕昭王卒,惠王立,与乐毅有隙。田单闻之,乃纵反间于燕,宣言曰:“齐王已死,城之不拔者二耳。乐毅畏诛而不敢归,以伐齐为名,实欲连兵南面而王齐。齐人未附,故且缓攻即墨以待其事。齐人所惧,唯恐他将之来,即墨残矣。”燕王以为然,使骑劫代乐毅。

乐毅因归赵,燕人士卒忿。而田单乃令城中人食必祭其先祖于庭,飞鸟悉翔舞城中下食。燕人怪之。田单因宣言曰:“神来下教我。”乃令城中人曰:“当有神人为我师。”有一卒曰:“臣可以为师乎?”因反走。田单乃起,引还,东乡坐,师事之。卒曰:“臣欺君,诚无能也。”田单曰:“子勿言也!”因师之。每出约束,必称神师。乃宣言曰:“吾唯惧燕军之劓所得齐卒置之前行与我战,即墨败矣。”燕人闻之,如其言。城中人见齐诸降者尽劓,皆怒,坚守惟恐见得。单又纵反间曰:“吾惧燕人掘吾城外冢墓,僇先人,可为寒心。”燕人尽掘垄墓,烧死人。即墨人从城上望见,皆涕泣,俱欲出战,怒自十倍。

田单知士卒之可用,乃身操版插,与士卒分功。妻妾编于队伍之间,尽散饮食飨士。令甲卒皆伏,使老弱女子乘城,遣使约降于燕,燕军皆呼万岁。田单又收民金得千溢,令即墨富豪遗燕将,曰:“即墨即降,愿无掳吾族家妻妾,令安堵。”燕将大喜,许之。燕军由此益懈。

田单乃收城中得千余牛,为绛缯衣,画以五彩龙文,束兵刃于其角,而灌脂束苇于尾,烧其端。凿城数十穴,夜纵牛,壮士五千人随其后。牛尾热,怒而奔燕军,燕军夜大惊。牛尾炬火光明炫耀,燕军视之,皆龙文,所触尽死伤。五千人因衔枚击之,而城中鼓噪从之,老弱皆击铜器为声,声动天地。燕军大骇,败走。齐人遂夷杀其将骑劫。燕军扰乱奔走,齐人追亡逐北,所过城邑,皆畔燕而归。

田单兵日益多,乘胜,燕日败亡,卒至河上,而齐七十余城皆复为齐。乃迎襄王于莒,入临灾而听政。襄王封田单,号曰安平君。

太史公曰:兵以正合,以奇胜。善之者出奇无穷;奇正还相生,如环之无端。夫始如处女,适人开户;后如脱兔,适不及距,其田单之谓邪!

初,淖齿之杀湣王也,莒人求湣王子法章,得之太史嬓之家,为人灌园。嬓女怜而善遇之。後法章私以情告女,女遂与通。及莒人共立法章为齐王,以莒距燕,而太史氏女遂为后,所谓“君王后”也。

燕之初入齐,闻画邑人王蠋贤,主令军中曰“环画邑三十里无入”,以王蠋之故。已而使人谓蠋曰:“齐人多高子之义,吾以子为将,封子万家。”蠋固谢。燕人曰:“子不听,吾引三军而屠画邑。”王蠋曰:“忠臣不事二君,贞女不更二夫。齐王不听吾谏,故退而耕於野。国既破亡,吾不能存;今又劫之以兵为君将,是助桀为暴也。与其生而无义,固不如烹!”遂经其颈于树枝,自奋绝脰而死。齐亡大夫闻之,曰:“王蠋,布衣也,义不北面于燕,况在位食禄者乎!”乃相聚如莒,求诸子,立为襄王。

Tian Dan
 
Tian Dan belonged to a distant branch of the royal house of Tian in the state of Qi. During the reign of King Min, he was a minor official in Linzi.

When Yue Yi, a general of the state of Yan, defeated the army of Qi, King Min fled from his capital to the city of Ju, while the soldiers of Yan advanced unopposed to conquer Qi. Then Tian Dan fled to Anping and ordered his clansmen to saw off the projecting ends of their chariot-axles and fit iron guards round the stumps. When the troops of Yan took Anping by storm, the men of Qi fled and, in the melee on the road, the other chariots’ axles ends broke and their occupants were captured. Tian Dan and his kinsmen were the only ones to escape, thanks to their reinforced axles, and they went east to defend Jimo. Alone of all the cities of Qi, Ju and Jimo were holding out against Yan.

As the men of Yan knew that King Min was in Ju, they attacked the city in strength. Nao Chi assassinated the king and defended Ju stubbornly, holding out against the besiegers for several years. Yan’s troops then marched east to lay siege to Jimo. Its governor going out to give battle was defeated and killed.

The defenders at once chose Tian Dan to lead them, saying, “In the battle of Anping, Tian Dan’s kinsmen escaped because of the iron guards fitted to their axles. He understands warfare.” They made him their commander to defend Jimo.

Soon after this, King Zhao of Yan died. His successor King Hui had an aversion to Yue Yi, and when Tian Dan knew this he sowed further dissension between them by declaring, “Qi’s king is dead and only two of its cities remain to be taken. But Yue Yi dares not return for fear of punishment. Under the pretext of subjugating Qi, he is hoping to combine his forces with those of Qi and make himself king here. He is delaying his attack so that the men of Qi may come over to his side. The one thing we fear is that another general might be appointed, for then Jimo must be destroyed.

The king of Yan believed this and made Qi Jie take over Yue Yi’s command, and Yue Yi went back to Zhao, to the great indignation of the soldiers of Yan.

Then Tian Dan ordered the citizens of Jimo to sacrifice to their ancestors in the courtyard before each meal, so that birds flocked down to the city to find food, to the astonishment of the besiegers.

“I have been granted a divine revelation,” announced Tian Dan. Then he told the citizens, “A man with supernatural powers will be our teacher.”

“Can I be that teacher?” cried a soldier, and was running off when Tian Dan stood up and led him to a seat facing east, treating him as a teacher.

“I was fooling, sir,” said the soldier. “I have no special powers.”

“Hush!” whispered Tian Dan. He treated the man as a teacher with divine powers, and attributed all the orders he gave to his divine teacher. He also declared, “My one fear is lest the soldiers of Yan cut off their captives’ noses and place these men in the front ranks against us. For then Jimo is doomed.”

The men of Yan, hearing this, acted upon it. And when the defenders saw this mutilation of all who had surrendered, they were so angry that they resisted manfully, determined not to be captured.

To add fuel to the fire Tian Dan also said, “Heaven help us if the invaders dig up the graves outside the city and defile our ancestors!”

When the men of Yan dug up the graves and burned all the corpses, the defenders watching from the city wall wept with redoubled rage, longing to go out and fight.

Now that he knew that his men were ready for battle, Tian Dan himself set to work with them to repair the defenses, enrolling his wife and concubine in the ranks and sharing all his food and wine with the soldiers. He ordered the men in armor to keep out of sight while the old, the weak and the women mounted the city walls and an envoy was sent out to treat for surrender. At this a great cheer went up in the enemy ranks.

Tian Dan collected a thousand yi of gold from the people and made some wealthy citizens present this sum to the enemy general, saying, “The city is about to surrender. We entreat you to spare our wives, concubines and kinsmen, and let us live in peace!” The Yan general very gladly agreed to this. And the invaders further relaxed their vigilance.

Then Tian Dan assembled more than one thousand bulls, swathed them in red silk, painted them different colors so that they looked like dragons, tied daggers to their horns and tied straw soaked in oil to their tails. At night the straw was set alight and the bulls were let out through dozens of breaches in the city wall. They were followed by five thousand stout fellows. Goaded into fury by their burning tails, the bulls charged the army of Yan, taking the invaders completely by surprise. The flaming torches on their tails cast a lurid light, and to the men of Yan the bulls seemed like so many dragons sowing death and destruction. After them rushed the five thousand, their mouths gagged, followed by the inhabitants, shouting and drumming. The old and infirm beat so loudly on copper vessels that the tumult shook heaven and earth. Yan’s forces fell back in terror. And when their general Qi Jie was killed, the enemy fled in confusion, pursued by the host of Qi. Every town and city they passed threw off Yan’s yoke and flocked to Tian Dan’s support.

Tian Dan’s ranks swelled after each fresh victory, as Yan’s grew daily weaker. When at last the enemy was thrown back to the river, all Qi’s cities – seventy and more – had been revovered. Then Tian Dan invited King Xiang back from the city of Ju to govern in Linzi, and the king enfeoffed him Lord of Anping.

The Grand Historian comments: In war, regular tactics are used to fight a battle and surprise tactics to win it. Skilled commanders show endless resourcefulness in devising an infinite variety of tactics, moving endlessly between regular and surprise ones. First passive as a young girl in face of the enemy, then swift as an escaped hare that cannot be overtaken – these were Tian Dan’s surprise tactics.

Previously, when Nao Chi assassinated King Min, the citizens of Ju sought out the king’s son Fazhang, whom they found working as a gardener for Taishi Jiao. The daughter of the family had taken pity on him and treated him well. He told her who he was, and they became lovers. After the citizens made him king of Qi to hold Ju against Yan, the girl became his queen with the title of Chief Lady.
When the forces of Yan first entered Qi, they heard that Wang Chu of Houyi was a virtuous man. An order was issued forbidding troops to go within thirty li of where he lived, and messengers were sent to him, saying, “The men of Qi speak so highly of your virtue that we will make you a general with a fief of ten thousand households.” When Wang Chu declined this offer, the envoys said, “If you do not agree, we shall bring troops to wipe out this district.”

“A loyal subject cannot serve two masters, a chaste woman cannot change her husband,” replied Wang Chu. “Since the king of Qi ignored my advice I retired to till the fields. Now that our land is conquered I have nothing to live for, and today you are trying to force me to be your general. If I consented, I should be aiding a tyrant. I would rather die in the cauldron than live without virtue.”

He tied a halter to a tree and with one leap hanged himself.

When the ministers of Qi heard this they said, “Wang Chu was an ordinary citizen, yet he would not submit to Yan. What an example for those of us who have official positions and government emoluments!” So they went to Ju to find the prince and set him up as King Xiang.

(杨宪益、戴乃迭 译)



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