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欧阳修《祭石曼卿文》英译

2015-02-05    来源:wikisouce    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

原文:

祭石曼卿文

欧阳修

维治平四年七月日,具官欧阳修,谨遣尚书都省令史李敭,至于太清,以清酌庶羞之奠,致祭于亡友曼卿之墓下,而吊之以文。曰:

呜呼曼卿!生而为英,死而为灵。其同乎万物生死,而复归于无物者,暂聚之形;不与万物共尽,而卓然其不朽者,后世之名。此自古圣贤,莫不皆然,而著在简册者,昭如日星。

呜呼曼卿!吾不见子久矣,犹能仿佛子之平生。其轩昂磊落,突兀峥嵘而埋藏于地下者,意其不化为朽壤,而为金玉之精。不然,生长松之千尺,产灵芝而九茎。奈何荒烟野蔓,荆棘纵横;风凄露下,走磷飞萤!但见牧童樵叟,歌吟而上下,与夫惊禽骇兽,悲鸣踯躅而咿嘤。今固如此,更千秋而万岁兮,安知其不穴藏狐貉与鼯鼪?此自古圣贤亦皆然兮,独不见夫累累乎旷野与荒城!

呜呼曼卿!盛衰之理,吾固知其如此,而感念畴昔,悲凉凄怆,不觉临风而陨涕者,有愧乎太上之忘情。尚飨!

 

现代语翻译:

在英宗治平四年七月某日,备具官爵履历的欧阳修,差遣尚书都省令史李到太清之下,以清酒和各种美味的菜肴作奠仪,致祭于亡友石曼卿的墓前,并作一篇文章吊祭说:

“唉!曼卿,在世时是英雄,死后成为神灵。他同万物一道生死,最后又回归到无物的地方。他是暂时相聚的形体,不与万物一道灭亡。他卓越挺立,永垂不朽,给后世留下英名。这从古至今,都是这样的,留著于史册,像日月星辰一样明亮。

唉!曼卿,我没有看见你已经很久了,还能仿佛记得你生前的容貌。你气宇轩昂,襟怀坦白,光明磊落,高大英俊,虽然埋藏在地下,想来不会腐朽化为泥土,而会变成金玉的精华。如果不是这样,此地为什么生长着高达千尺的松树,出产有九根茎的灵芝草。无奈荒烟野草,藤蔓缠绕,荆棘纵横;风雨凄凉,霜露下降;磷火飘动,飞萤明灭;只见牧童与老樵夫唱着山歌,上上下下;惊恐的飞禽与害怕的野兽,前后徘徊,发出悲切的鸣叫呼声。今天已经是这样,再过了千秋万岁,怎知道不是穴洞里面,深藏着狐狸貉子、鼯鼠和黄鼠狼?而自古以来,圣贤都是这样,单单看不到累累相连的旷野和荒城么!

唉!曼卿,古今盛衰的道理,我本来就知道是这样的,而思念从前的情景,悲凉凄惨,不觉得要面临着风而流泪,但对‘太上忘情’这句话,很有些惭愧。希望你来享用这祭礼!”

 

英译:

At a Grave

Man-ch‘ing, thy birth gave a hero, thy death a God! Like the vulgar herd thou wast born and didst die, returning to the domain of nothingness. But thy earthly form could not perish like theirs. There was that within which could not decay: thy bright memory will endure through all generations. For such is the lot of the wise and good: their names are inscribed imperishably, to shine like the stars for ever.

Man-ch‘ing, ’tis long since we met. Yet methinks I see thee now, as then, lofty of mien, courage upon thy brow. Ah! when the grave closed over thee, it was not into foul earth, but into the pure essence of gold and gems that thy dear form was changed. Or haply thou art some towering pine some rare, some wondrous plant. What boots it now? Here in thy loneliness the spreading brambles weave around thy head, while the chill wind blows across thy bed moist with the dew of heaven. The will-o’-the-wisp and the fire-fly flit by: naught heard but the shepherd and the woodman singing songs on the hill-side; naught seen but the startled bird rising, the affrighted beast scampering from their presence, as they pass to and fro and pour forth their plaintive lays. Such is thy solitude now. A thousand, ten thousand years hence, the fox and the badger will burrow into thy tomb, and the weasel make its nest within. For this also has ever been the lot of the wise and good. Do not their graves, scattered on every side, bear ample witness of this?

Alas! Man-ch‘ing, I know full well that all things are overtaken, sooner or later, by decay. But musing over days by-gone, my heart grows sad; and standing thus near to thy departed spirit, my tears flow afresh, and I blush for the heartlessness of God. O Man-ch‘ing, rest in peace!

 

创作背景:

石曼卿(994—1041),名延年,北宋河南宋城(今河南商丘)人。累举进士不第。曾历任太常寺太祝、大理寺丞、太子中允等。他非常关心边事,对契丹和西夏之患曾提出谏言。为人作诗,豪放跌宕。欧阳修《石曼卿墓表》称其为人“以气自豪。读书不治章句,独慕古人奇节伟行非常之功,视世俗屑屑无足动其意者”。并云:“其为文章,劲健称其意气。”欧阳修很了解、敬佩石曼卿,因此在他卒后26年,又有此祭墓之作。

译者:Herbert Allen Giles

(Wikisouce)



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