用户名: 密码: 验证码:    注册 | 忘记密码?
首页|听力资源|每日听力|网络电台|在线词典|听力论坛|下载频道|部落家园|在线背单词|双语阅读|在线听写|普特网校

《大谈幸福时要看一看还有哪些人不幸福》英译

2015-06-25    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

梁衡《大谈幸福时要看一看还有哪些人不幸福》英译

大谈幸福时要看一看还有哪些人不幸福

梁衡

最近关于什么是幸福的话题突然热了起来,特别是正当两会之际,名人荟萃,不少代表、委员纷纷在镜头前表达自己的幸福公式。但是那些还不够幸福的人却不见有什么公式。我静听静看了几天,虽没有公式,却有一点想法。

幸福的主体是公民个人,要靠自己感受。构成幸福的内容有三个方面:物质、精神、情感。情感也属精神,但又有区别,特别是对个体的人来说更显重要。恩格斯在马克思墓前的讲话里说,马克思的贡献是发现人先得生存,解决吃穿住(物质),然后才是宗教、政治(精神)。他还说过,人是各种社会关系的总和。这“总和”除政治、经济关系外,很大一块是情感关系,是和谐。总之,人要幸福,离不开物质享受、精神追求和情感支持。这三个方面依时代、环境不同都有个最低标准,比如恩格尔系数、最低工资规定等等。但在特殊情况下,可此消彼长,如为追求理想,短期内牺牲物质利益,亦觉幸福。我们这里讨论的是正常情况,所以三方面都要顾及。

幸福虽然是主观的体验但是要有外部条件,国家的责任就是为公民创造幸福的条件。这次两会正当“十一五”与“十二五”交替之际,政府关注民生,“幸福热”的话题,折射着民众对新的幸福、更加幸福的追求。所以当我们大谈幸福时要看一看还有哪些人不幸福。大致来说,有几种情形。1.全国还有贫困人口1.5亿,工薪族收入偏低,在物质上不幸福;2.社会就业难,找不到工作的大学生,无固定职业的不幸福;3.部分人虽已脱贫,但仍感种种之不公,情感上不幸福;4.学生负担过重,两亿中小学生一想起考试就不幸福;5.已进入老龄社会,空巢老人门倚黄昏,精神上不幸福;6.腐败严重,国财私用,纳税人心中有气,不幸福;7.改革尚有许多未竟课程,忧国之士,心急情迫;8.表达不畅,少数多年上访者,心中有冤、有怨,不幸福。

举出上述情形,不是把社会说得一塌糊涂,只是承认前进中的矛盾,也正是两会要议的民生话题。从上面所举的不幸福也可看出,主要是精神和情感层面的,这说明我们在物质方面已经有很大的改善。改革30多年,我们已经收获了很多的幸福,如实施社会低保、免除农业税、义务教育、改善住房等等。但幸福不说跑不掉,不幸福不说不得了,那是矛盾,是隐患,会影响民心,影响科学决策。治国者要长怀天下忧。治大国如烹小鲜,需要更精心、更高明的施政和管理。恩格斯说:“我们的目的是要建立社会主义制度,这种制度将给所有的人提供健康而有益的工作,给所有的人提供充裕的物质生活和闲暇的时间,给所有的人提供真正的充分的自由。”这里他再三强调所有的人都要能够物质充裕、精神自由。我们的共同富裕和两个文明也有其意。那是个理想的社会、人人幸福的社会,太遥远了。我们就先说当前吧,如果五年之后,能让更多的人获得更多的幸福感,那真是国家之大幸,人民之大幸。当然那时又会有新的矛盾,我们还会再去追求更高更新的幸福。

译文:

People Who Are Not Yet Happy

What happiness means has suddenly become a hot topic lately, especially during the annual sessions of the NPC and the CPPCC, when a large number of celebrities gather. Many deputies of the NPC and members of the CPPCC vie to put forward their “happiness formulas” before news cameras. However no formula has been raised by those who do not yet feel really happy. I have watched in silence for several days. I have formed no formulas but have some ideas of my own.

It is the individual citizens that are the perceivers of happiness. Happiness consists of these components respectively of material, spiritual, and emotional. Emotion belongs to the category of spirit but is somewhat different, as it is more important to individuals. In his speech in front of Marx’s tomb, Engels said Marx’s contribution was his finding that people had to survive by solving the issues of eating, wearing, and inhabiting (material conditions) before they could pursue religion and politics (spiritual things). He also said that people are the sum of all social relations, a great part of which is emotional, or harmony, in addition to political and economic relations. In the final analysis, none of material enjoyment, spiritual pursuance, or emotional support is indispensable for people to feel happiness. These three components have a minimum standard at different times and with different environment, such as the Engel’s Coefficient and maintenance of minimum wages, etc. Under special circumstances, however, such components may be of relatively different proportions. For example, people will feel happy when some short-term material interests are sacrificed in order to realize their ideals. But we are here discussing the situation in normal conditions, so attention should be paid to all the three components.

External conditions are indispensable for people’s happiness, though it is a subjective experience. This is the responsibility of the government to create such conditions. The convening of this year’s annual sessions of the NPC and CPPCC is at a time of transition from the Eleventh Five-Year Plan to the Twelfth Five-Year Plan. The fact that the government concerns itself about people’s livelihood and that “happiness craze” becomes a hot topic reflects people’s pursuit of new happiness. Therefore, we must see who are not yet happy when we are talking heatedly about happiness. Generally speaking, there are at present several manifestations of unhappiness: (1) There are still 150 million people in poverty in the whole nation. Wage earner are under paid and are thus unhappy materially. (2) It is difficult to find employment, and so college graduates who fail to find jobs and those without fixed jobs do not feel happy. (30) Some people feel unfair in various ways though they have lifted themselves off poverty. (4) Students are having too heavy burdens and the 200 million students in primary and high schools do not feel happy when they think of numerous examinations. (5) China has entered an ageing society. The elderly in empty nests feel lonely and thus unhappy spiritually. (6) Rampant bureaucratic corruption of officials who usurp public wealth for their personal purposes aroused indignation from the taxpayers. (7) Quite a number of objectives concerning the nation’s reform have not yet been accomplished, therefore, people who concern themselves about the nation’s future are really worried about this. (8) The channel for people to express their demands is not smooth. A number of people have been trying but failed to lodge their complains over the years. They have suffered injustice and grievance and are thus unhappy.

By listing the above situations, I do not mean to say that our society is in great chaos but to admit there are difficulties in our advancement. This issue is a theme about people’s livelihood which the annual sessions were to discuss. It can be seen from the above listing that unhappiness at present mainly concerns the spiritual and emotional level. It proves that things have remarkably improved materially. We have harvested much happiness in the past thirty years or so since the beginning of reform, such as ensuring the minimum social security benefits, exemption of agricultural tax, carrying out compulsory education, and improvement in housing. Happiness will not run away if we do not mention it but it would affect the will of the people and our making of scientific decisions. Those who govern a country should always keep in mind the worries about the country. The governing of a big country is like cooking delicacies, which needs more meticulous and wiser government management and administration.

(陈德彰 译)



顶一下
(2)
100%
踩一下
(0)
0%
手机上普特 m.putclub.com 手机上普特
[责任编辑:elly]
------分隔线----------------------------
发表评论 查看所有评论
请自觉遵守互联网政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
用户名: 密码: 验证码:
  • 推荐文章
  • 资料下载
  • 讲座录音
普特英语手机网站
用手机浏览器输入m.putclub.com进入普特手机网站学习
查看更多手机学习APP>>