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吴若增《市场不是一切》英译

2015-08-12    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

吴若增《市场不是一切》英译

市场不是一切

吴若增

已经看得越来越清楚了,市场不是万能的,也有它的局限。因此,采取立法手段,或使用国家宏观调控手段,对涉及到国计民生的某些领域进行社会调节,就是非常必要的了。 比方说:看病问题、住房问题、教育问题。

这三个问题,都是涉及到国计民生的基础性问题,直接关系到每一位国民的生活甚至是生存,其重要性怎么说都不过分。在过去计划经济条件下,在城市里虽系人人有份,却是低质量的,现在随着改革开放以来的经济发展,质量的改善的条件和可能已与过去不可同日而语,因此,理应进一步造福全民。然而如果在认识上发生偏颇,却可能使其走入误区,造成新的社会不公平。

这个偏颇这个误区,就是不可以把它们完全地抛入市场。市场经济取代计划经济,极大地解放了生产力。这一点,已为实践所证明。但实践也证明,在我们施行社会主义市场经济的时候,却不可患上“市场崇拜症”,以为一切都可通过市场来解决。

毋庸讳言,这几年广大中低收入者也就是中国普通民众,越来越为看病问题、住房问题、子女上学问题所苦。乃至这三个问题,已经成为了影响社会稳定的因素。为此,全国上下以及媒体都在进行认真的研讨,以求解决之策。在我看来,问题出在某些专家、学者所患的“市场崇拜症”上,正是他们在前些年大力鼓吹“市场决定论”,医疗部门、教育部门、房屋开发商们才为了所谓“创收”、为了攫取不当利益而不择手段,弄得房价一路飙升老百姓买不起房,看病越来越贵老百姓有病只好忍着,学校乱收费老百姓因了子女上学问题而返贫……

应该看到,在现代社会里,普通民众基本生活需要如住房、教育、医疗这样的问题,本来就具有普遍社会福利意义,因此社会有责任通过法律或通过政府去给以调节,决不能允许相关部门或某些人巧取豪夺。

这里,另有一个认识问题,也须引起人们的注意:法律调节或政府调节不等于计划经济返回,因此不必担心走回头路。现在世界上发达国家在这三个问题上,施行的也是市场经济与社会调节相结合的办法,效果不错,同时也没有施行计划经济之嫌。对此,当然可供我们参考甚至引用。

译文:

The Market Isn’t Everything

Wu Ruozeng

It has been more and more clear that the market is not all-powerful, that it has certain limitations. In view of this fact, legislative or state macro-control measures should be taken to implement social regulation in fields such as medical care, housing and schooling, all of which have a direct bearing on the nation’s economy and the people’s livelihood.

These three basic matters are all directly related to the life, even the survival of every countryman. Their importance cannot therefore be over-estimated. Although in the past, during the era of the planned economy, every urban resident had a share of social welfare, it was only welfare of low quality. Nowadays, with the economic development that has occurred since the beginning of reform and opening-up, the possibility of improving in these areas has become greater than ever before. It should bring further benefits to the people. Yet, if our understanding regarding these matters becomes distorted, we may form mistaken ideas and, through them, create new social injustices.

One such biased understanding, one such mistaken idea, is the idea that all of these matters can be solved through the market alone. The replacement of the planned economy with the market economy has greatly liberated productive forces. This much has been verified through practice. However, practice has also proved that, while implementing the socialist market economy, we should avoid the tendency towards “market worship”—in which it is taken for granted that everything can be solved through the market.

There is no denying that, during the past few years, the broad masses of people with low or medium income, that is the ordinary Chinese people, have been harassed more and more by such problems as medical care, housing and schooling of their children. These three problems have become factors affecting our social stability. For this reason, the media, as well as the nation as a whole, have been carrying out earnest research in order to find appropriate solutions. In my opinion, the crucial point lies with the “market worship” of certain experts and scholars. It was because of their exclusively advocating “market determinism” in the past few years that some hospitals, schools and real estate agencies, in the name of “increasing income”, have begun making fabulous profits by fair means or foul. Ordinary people cannot afford to buy new houses because the prices have gone up so fast. They don’t go to hospital when they fall ill because medical care has become so dear. And they have fallen into poverty again because of the arbitrary collection of fees in the schools where their children study…

It should be noticed that in modern societies, the basic necessities of life, such as housing, education and medical care, are matters of principal “social welfare” significance. Therefore, the government is responsible for the regulation of these issues by law. No department or individual should be allowed to make profits by cheating or by force.

But here, there is a problem of understanding worthy of our attention: regulation by law or by government does not mean going back to the planned economy. So, we shouldn’t worry about the risk of retrogression. The developed countries in the world now also integrate market economics alongside social regulation in dealing with these three problems. They have created just such as a satisfactory balance without accusations of implementing a planned economy. We can certainly refer to their experience, even to adopt their methods in the future.

(孟庆升 译)



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