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《中庸》中英文版 第十七章

2016-04-12    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

《中庸》中英文版 第十七章

第十七章 齐家

子曰:“无忧者,其惟文王乎!以王季为父,以武王为子,父作之,子述之。武王缵大王、王季、文王之绪,壹戎衣而有天下,身不失天下之显名。尊为天子,富有四海之内。宗庙飨之,子孙保之。

武王末受命。周公成文、武之德,追王大王、王季,上祀先公以天子之礼。斯礼也,达乎诸侯大夫,及士庶人。父为大夫,子为士,葬以大夫,祭以士。父为士,子为大夫,葬以士,祭以大夫。期之丧,达乎大夫。三年之丧,达乎天子。父母之丧,无贵贱一也。”

The Master said, "It is only King Wan of whom it can be said that he had no cause for grief! His father was King Chi, and his son was King Wu. His father laid the foundations of his dignity, and his son transmitted it.

"King Wu continued the enterprise of King T'ai, King Chi, and King Wan. He once buckled on his armor, and got possession of the kingdom. He did not lose the distinguished personal reputation which he had throughout the kingdom. His dignity was the royal throne. His riches were the possession of all within the four seas. He offered his sacrifices in his ancestral temple, and his descendants maintained the sacrifices to himself.

"It was in his old age that King Wu received the appointment to the throne, and the duke of Chau completed the virtuous course of Wan and Wu. He carried up the title of king to T'ai and Chi, and sacrificed to all the former dukes above them with the royal ceremonies. And this rule he extended to the princes of the kingdom, the great officers, the scholars, and the common people. If the father were a great officer and the son a scholar, then the burial was that due to a great officer, and the sacrifice that due to a scholar. If the father were a scholar and the son a great officer, then the burial was that due to a scholar, and the sacrifice that due to a great officer. The one year's mourning was made to extend only to the great officers, but the three years' mourning extended to the Son of Heaven. In the mourning for a father or mother, he allowed no difference between the noble and the mean.

【原文】

子曰:“忧者,其唯文王乎1!以王季为父2,以武王为子3,父作之4,子述之5。武王攒大王6、王季、文王之绪7,壹戎衣而有天下8,身不失天下之显名,尊为天子,富有四海之内,宗庙飨之,子孙保之。

“武王末受命9,周公成文武之德10,追王大王11、王季,上祀先公以天子之礼。斯礼也,达乎诸侯大夫12,及士庶人13。父为大夫,子为士,葬以大夫,祭以士;父为士,子为大夫,葬以士,祭以大夫。期之丧14,达乎大夫;三年之丧,达乎天子;父母之丧,无贵贱,一也。”

【译文】

孔子说:“古代帝王中无忧无虑的,大概只有周文王吧!因为他有贤明的王季做父亲,有英勇的武王做儿子,父亲王季为他开创了基业,儿子周武王继承他的遗志,完成了他所没有完成的事业。武王继续着太王、王季、文王未完成的功业,灭掉了殷,取得了天下。周武王这种以下伐上的正义行动,不仅没有使他自身失掉显赫天下的美名,反而被天下人尊为天子,掌握普天下的财富,世代在宗庙中享受祭祀,子孙永葆祭祀不断。

周武王直到晚年才承受上天之命而为天子,因此他还有许多没来得及完成的事情。武王死后,周公辅助成王才成就了文王和武王的德业,追尊太王、王季为王,有天子的礼制来追祀祖先,并且把这种礼制一直实行到诸候、大夫、以及士和庶人中间。周公制定的礼节规定:如果父亲是大夫,儿子是士的,父死就要按大夫的礼制来安葬、按士的礼制祭祀。如果父亲是士,儿子是大夫的,父死就要按士的礼制安葬,按大夫的礼制祭祀。守丧一周年,通行到大夫,守丧三年整,就只有天子才能使用。至于给父母守丧本身没有贵贱的区别,天子、庶人都是一样的。”

【注】

1、文王:指周文王,西周开国君主古公亶父的孙子,商末周族的领袖,姓姬名昌,在位五十年,统治期间,国力强盛,晚年自号文王。

2、王季:古公亶父的儿子,文王之父,名季烈,号称西伯,为殷纣时西方诸候之长。周太王古公亶父卒,季烈嗣立,修太王的遗业,笃于行义,传位于文王。文王之子周武王即位后,追尊季烈为王季。

3、武王:西周王朝的建立者。姓姬,名发,他继承父亲文王的遗志,灭掉殷商,建立周朝,建都于镐(今陕西省西安市南丰水东岸)。

4、父作之:指父亲王季为文王开创了基业。作,开创。

5、子述之:指儿子武王继承文王的遗志,完成统一大业。述,继承。

6、缵(zuan):继续,继承。大王:即王季之父古公亶父。这里“大”字古读“太”。

7、绪:事业。这时指前人未竟的功业。《诗经•鲁颂•必宫》:“缵禹之绪。”

8、壹戎衣:即歼灭大殷。因为“壹”同“殪”(yi),歼灭。戎,大。衣,“殷”之误读。郑玄注:“衣读如殷,声之误也,齐人言殷声如衣。”据《尚书•康诰》:“天乃大命文王殪戎殷。”另一说,一披挂战袍就伐纣取胜夺得了天下。

9、末:老,指周武王的晚年。

10、周公:西周初年政治家。姓姬名旦,武王同母弟,武王死后,其子成王诵继位,因年幼,由周公代行国政。故又称“叔旦”,因采邑在周地(今陕西岐山北),又称“周公”。周公曾帮助武王灭纣,武王卒时,成王尚幼,于是他摄理朝政。他的兄弟管叔、蔡叔、霍叔等人不服,便与武庚及东方夷族联合反叛。东征之后,周公大规模地分封诸候,并营建洛邑(在今河南洛阳)作为东都,还制礼作乐,建立典章制度。《尚书》中的《大浩》、《康诰》、《多士》、《无逸》、《立政》等篇章中都记载有他的言论。

11、追王:后代加封先祖以“王”的称号叫追王。王,动词用法,即尊……为王。

12、达:到,至。诸候:指西周、春秋时天子分封的各国国君。按规定诸候必须服从天子的命令,并定期向天子朝贡述职,而且有出军赋和服役的义务。按礼规定,其所属上卿应由天子任命,但在其封疆内,世代掌握着统治大权。《国语•周语上》:“诸候春秋受职于王,以临其民。”大夫:古代国君之下有卿、大夫、士三级。

13、及:推及。士:在古代商、西周、春秋时期,士是级别最低的贵族阶层。春秋时,“士”多为卿、大夫的家臣,有的有食田,有的以俸禄为生。《国语•晋语四》:“大夫食邑,士食田。”庶人:西周以后对农业生产者的称呼,其地位次于“士”而高于“工商皂隶”。周王常以庶人作为赏赐臣下的礼物。

14、期之丧:一周年的守丧期。期,指一整年。丧,丧礼,指处理死者殡殓奠馔和拜跪哭泣的礼节,古为“凶礼之一。



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