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《中庸》中英文版 第十八章

2016-04-12    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

《中庸》中英文版 第十八章

 

第十八章 齐家

子曰:“武王、周公,其达孝乎!夫孝者,善继人之志,善述人之事者也。春秋修其祖庙,陈其宗器,设其裳衣,荐其时食。宗庙之礼,所以序昭穆也。序爵,所以辨贵贱也。序事,所以辨贤也,旅酬下为上,所以逮贱也。燕毛,所以序齿也。践其位,行其礼,奏其乐,敬其所尊,爱其所亲,事死如事生,事亡如事存,孝之至也。郊社之礼,所以事上帝也。宗庙之礼,所以祀乎其先也。明乎郊社之礼、禘尝之义,治国其如示诸掌乎!”

The Master said, "How far-extending was the filial piety of King Wu and the duke of Chau!

"Now filial piety is seen in the skillful carrying out of the wishes of our forefathers, and the skillful carrying forward of their undertakings.

"In spring and autumn, they repaired and beautified the temple halls of their fathers, set forth their ancestral vessels, displayed their various robes, and presented the offerings of the several seasons.

"By means of the ceremonies of the ancestral temple, they distinguished the royal kindred according to their order of descent. By ordering the parties present according to their rank, they distinguished the more noble and the less. By the arrangement of the services, they made a distinction of talents and worth. In the ceremony of general pledging, the inferiors presented the cup to their superiors, and thus something was given the lowest to do. At the concluding feast, places were given according to the hair, and thus was made the distinction of years.

"They occupied the places of their forefathers, practiced their ceremonies, and performed their music. They reverenced those whom they honored, and loved those whom they regarded with affection. Thus they served the dead as they would have served them alive; they served the departed as they would have served them had they been continued among them.

"By the ceremonies of the sacrifices to Heaven and Earth they served God, and by the ceremonies of the ancestral temple they sacrificed to their ancestors. He who understands the ceremonies of the sacrifices to Heaven and Earth, and the meaning of the several sacrifices to ancestors, would find the government of a kingdom as easy as to look into his palm!"

【原文】

子曰:“武王,周公,其达孝矣乎1!夫孝者,善继人之志2;善述人之事者也。春秋,修其祖庙3,陈其宗器4,设其裳衣5,荐其时食6。

“宗庙之礼,所以序昭穆也7。序爵8,所以辨贵贱也;序事9,所以辨贤也;旅酬下为上10,所以逮贱也11;燕毛12,所以序齿也13。

“践其位14,行其礼,奏其乐;敬其所尊,爱其所亲;事死如事生,事亡如事存,孝之至也。

“郊社之礼15,所以事上帝也;宗庙之礼,所以祀乎其先也。明乎郊社之礼,谛尝之义16,治国其如示诸掌乎17!”

【译文】

孔子说:“周武王和周公真是最守孝道的人吧!所说的孝道,就是善于继承先人的遗志,善于继续先人未完成的功业。在春秋两季祭祀的时节,整修祖宗庙宇,陈列祭祀器具,摆设先王遗留下来的衣裳,进献祭祀应时的鲜美食品。

“按照宗庙祭祀的礼制,把父子、长幼、亲疏的次序排列出来;把官职爵位的次序排列出来,就能将贵贱分辨清楚;在众人劝酒时把执事职位的次序排列出来,就能将才能的高低分辨清楚;晚辈必须先向长辈举杯,这样祖先的恩惠就会延及到晚辈,宴饮时按头发的颜色来决定宴席坐次,这样就能使老小长幼秩序井然。

“站在适宜的位置上,行先王传下的祭礼,演奏先王时代的音乐,尊敬先王所尊敬的,爱戴先王所爱戴的。侍奉死去的人就像侍奉活着的人一样;侍奉亡故的人就像侍奉生存着的人一样,这才是孝的最高境界。

“制定了祀天祭地的礼节,是用来侍奉皇天后土的;制定了宗庙的礼节,是用来祭祀祖先的。明白了郊社的礼节,大祭小祭的意义,那么治理天下国家的道理,也就像看着自己手掌上的东西那样容易明白啊!”

【注】

1、达:通“大”字。

2、人:指祖先。下面“人”字同此意思。

3、春秋:一年四季的代称。这里指祭祖的季节。《诗经•鲁颂•必宫》:“春秋匪解(懈),享祀不忒。”修:整理。

4、陈其宗器:陈,陈列。宗器,古代宗庙祭祀时所用的器物。郑玄注:“宗器,祭器也。”又一说:宗器,祖宗传下来的贵重器具,用于礼乐。《左传•襄公二十三年》:“重之以宗器。”杜预注:“宗庙礼乐之器,钟磬之属。”

5、裳衣:指祖宗生前穿过的衣服。裳是下衣,衣是上装。

6、荐其时食:荐,进献、献上。时食,指古代祭祀祖先所献上的时令鲜食。

7、序昭穆:排列昭穆的次序。是古代一种宗法制度,宗庙的次序是有规定的,以始祖庙的牌位居中,以下二世、四世、六世,位于始祖的左方,称为昭。三世、五世、七世位于右方,称为穆。《周礼•春官•小宗伯》:“辨庙祧之昭穆。”郑玄注:“父曰昭,子曰穆。”在这里指祭祀的时候,可以排列出父子、长幼、亲疏的次序。

8、序爵:祭祀者按官爵大小,以公、侯、卿、大夫分为四等排列先后。

9、序事:按在祭祀中担任的职务排列先后次序。事,职事,职务。

10、旅酬下为上:旅,众。酬,以酒相劝为酬。郑玄注:“先自饮,乃饮宾,为酬。”下为上,祭祀将终,旁系亲属的兄弟(宾)与直系亲属的兄弟(主)按次序敬酒。现在“下”,以主人身份向“上”敬酒,因此叫做“下为上”。

11、所以逮贱也:逮,及。这句意为祖宗的恩惠荣誉达到在下位的卑贱者。

12、燕毛:燕,同“宴”,宴会。毛,毛发,头发,意为长幼。指祭祀完毕,举行宴饮时,以毛发的颜色来区别老少长幼,安排宴会的坐次。

13、序齿:齿,年令。即依据年令的大小来定宴会的坐次或饮酒的顺序。

14、践其位:各就各位,站到应站的位置。

15、郊社之礼:周代在冬至的时候,在南郊举行祀天的仪式,称之 为“郊”;夏至的时候,在北效举行祭地的仪式,称之为“社”。

16、禘尝:禘(di),五年一次大祭,极为隆重,只有天子有权举办。尝:为宗庙四时祭祀之一,每年秋季举行。《礼记•王制》:“天子诸候宗庙之祭,春曰礿,夏曰禘,秋曰尝,冬曰烝。”

17、治国,其如示掌乎:这里是说,治理国家容易,如同容易看清自己的手掌一样。示,同“视”。此与《论语》文意大同小异。《论语•八佾》:“或问禘之说,子曰:‘不知也;知其说者之于天下也,其如示诸期乎!’指其掌。”



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