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美国总统简介:约翰 亚当斯

2014-08-26    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

John Adams
约翰•亚当斯


Learned and thoughtful, John Adams was more remarkable as a political philosopher than as a politician. "People and nations are forged in the fires of adversity," he said, doubtless thinking of his own as well as the American experience.
约翰•亚当斯学识渊博、思维缜密,他作为一位政治哲学家而广为人知,而不是政治家。“人民和国家在逆境里被锻造,”他说道,毫无疑问,他认为自己也和美国人的经历一样。

Adams was born in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1735. A Harvard-educated lawyer, he early became identified with the patriot cause; a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses, he led in the movement for independence.
亚当斯于1735出世在马萨诸塞殖民湾。作为一名哈佛大学毕业的律师,他把爱国主义作为事业;他曾作为代表参加了第一次和第二次大陆会议,并领导了独立运动。

During the Revolutionary War he served in France and Holland in diplomatic roles, and helped negotiate the treaty of peace. From 1785 to 1788 he was minister to the Court of St. James's, returning to be elected Vice President under George Washington.
革命战争期间,他作为外交官服务于法国和荷兰之间,并且帮助谈判和平条约。从1785年到1788年,他是詹姆士法庭的部长,回国之后在乔治·华盛顿当总统期间被选举为副总统。

Adams' two terms as Vice President were frustrating experiences for a man of his vigor, intellect, and vanity. He complained to his wife Abigail, "My country has in its wisdom contrived for me the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived."
亚当斯担任两任副总统对他这样一个充满精力、才智、和自负的人来说是令人沮丧的经历。他曾向他的妻子阿比盖尔抱怨到,“ 我们的国家自作聪明,拿最微不足道的职位给我,就像某人的一时兴起或突发奇想一样”。

When Adams became President, the war between the French and British was causing great difficulties for the United States on the high seas and intense partisanship among contending factions within the Nation.
在亚当斯担任总统时,法国和英国之间的战争为美国在公海和国内强烈的党派之争的问题上造成了很大的困难。

His administration focused on France, where the Directory, the ruling group, had refused to receive the American envoy and had suspended commercial relations.
亚当斯政府把重点放在法国,当时工党作为执政党,拒绝接受美国特使,并暂停美法之间的商业关系。

Adams sent three commissioners to France, but in the spring of 1798 word arrived that the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand and the Directory had refused to negotiate with them unless they would first pay a substantial bribe. Adams reported the insult to Congress, and the Senate printed the correspondence, in which the Frenchmen were referred to only as "X, Y, and Z."
亚当斯曾派三名专员前往法国,但是在1798年春天,消息传来法国外交部长塔列朗和工党拒绝与他们谈判,除非他们先支付一大笔贿赂金。亚当斯把这次侮辱报告给了国会,随后参议院印发了回执,文中称法国人为“X,Y,和Z。”

The Nation broke out into what Jefferson called "the X. Y. Z. fever," increased in intensity by Adams's exhortations. The populace cheered itself hoarse wherever the President appeared. Never had the Federalists been so popular.
杰斐逊所谓的“XYZ热”迅速在全国蔓延开来,在亚当斯的鼓动下越演越烈。无论总统出现在哪,民众都欢呼雀跃。联邦党从未受如此备受欢迎过。


Congress appropriated money to complete three new frigates and to build additional ships, and authorized the raising of a provisional army. It also passed the Alien and Sedition Acts, intended to frighten foreign agents out of the country and to stifle the attacks of Republican editors.
国会拨款组建了三艘新的护卫舰以及更多的船只,并授权组建一支临时的军队。它还通过了煽动分裂法案,企图恐吓外国代理人出境和遏制共和国破坏者的攻击行为。

President Adams did not call for a declaration of war, but hostilities began at sea. At first, American shipping was almost defenseless against French privateers, but by 1800 armed merchantmen and U.S. warships were clearing the sea-lanes.
亚当斯总统并未宣战,但是战争在海边一触即发。一开始,美国船只对法国私掠船几乎毫无还手之力,但是1800名武装商船和美国军舰扫清了航道。

Despite several brilliant naval victories, war fever subsided. Word came to Adams that France also had no stomach for war and would receive an envoy with respect. Long negotiations ended the quasi war.
尽管海军战绩不错,战争的硝烟也慢慢退去。有消息传给亚当斯,法国也不想战争,出于尊重,他们会接待特使。长时间的谈判结束了这场名副其实的战争。

Sending a peace mission to France brought the full fury of the Hamiltonians against Adams. In the campaign of 1800 the Republicans were united and effective, the Federalists badly divided. Nevertheless, Adams polled only a few less electoral votes than Jefferson, who became President.
和平使命被带到法国后,汉密尔顿对亚当斯大动肝火。在1800年的选举中,共和党众志成城,而联邦党却分歧不断。不过,亚当斯仅比杰弗逊落后几张选票,后者当上了总统。

On November 1, 1800, just before the election, Adams arrived in the new Capital City to take up his residence in the White House. On his second evening in its damp, unfinished rooms, he wrote his wife, "Before I end my letter, I pray Heaven to bestow the best of Blessings on this House and all that shall hereafter inhabit it. May none but honest and wise Men ever rule under this roof."
1800年11月1日,就在选举之前,亚当斯抵达新的首都并在白宫就住。在潮湿的、未完善的房间里,他给妻子写信道,“在写完这封信之前,我祈祷上帝庇护这间房子以及将住在这儿的主人。但愿只有诚实和智慧的人才能住在这个屋里。”

Adams retired to his farm in Quincy. Here he penned his elaborate letters to Thomas Jefferson. Here on July 4, 1826, he whispered his last words: "Thomas Jefferson survives." But Jefferson had died at Monticello a few hours earlier.
亚当斯退休后回到昆西的农场。在这里,他写下他对托马斯杰佛逊肺腑之言。在1826年7月4日,他低声说了最后一句话:“托马斯•杰佛逊还活着。”但就在几小时之前,杰佛逊已经在蒙蒂塞洛去世了。


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