用户名: 密码: 验证码:    注册 | 忘记密码?
首页|听力资源|每日听力|网络电台|在线词典|听力论坛|下载频道|部落家园|在线背单词|双语阅读|在线听写|普特网校
您的位置:主页 > 英语能力 > 翻译 > 笔译 > 练习材料 > 文化 >

美国总统简介:托马斯 杰佛逊

2014-08-28    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

说到美国的历史,就离不开说美国总统。这个系列要讲述的总统们在美国历史上创造过丰功伟业,留下了让无数后人为此借鉴与学习的经验。

Thomas Jefferson
托马斯•杰佛逊


In the thick of party conflict in 1800, Thomas Jefferson wrote in a private letter, "I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man."
在1800年的党派冲突的浓雾中,托马斯杰佛逊在一封私人信件中写道,“我向上帝保证永远敌视任何形式的对人类心灵的专制。”

This powerful advocate of liberty was born in 1743 in Albemarle County, Virginia, inheriting from his father, a planter and surveyor, some 5,000 acres of land, and from his mother, a Randolph, high social standing. He studied at the College of William and Mary, then read law. In 1772 he married Martha Wayles Skelton, a widow, and took her to live in his partly constructed mountaintop home, Monticello.
这位崇尚自由的积极倡导者于1743出生在弗吉尼亚州阿尔贝马尔县,他从父亲那里继承了一台播种机、测量仪和5000英亩的土地,并从他的母亲,一位伦道夫贵族那里获得了很高的社会地位。他在“威廉-玛丽”学院学习,然后读了法律专业。1772年,他娶了玛莎•威尔斯,一个寡妇,并带她生活在他蒙蒂塞洛山还没完工的的家里。

Freckled and sandy-haired, rather tall and awkward, Jefferson was eloquent as a correspondent, but he was no public speaker. In the Virginia House of Burgesses and the Continental Congress, he contributed his pen rather than his voice to the patriot cause. As the "silent member" of the Congress, Jefferson, at 33, drafted the Declaration of Independence. In years following he labored to make its words a reality in Virginia. Most notably, he wrote a bill establishing religious freedom, enacted in 1786.
这位崇尚自由的积极倡导者于1743出生在弗吉尼亚州阿尔贝马尔县,他从父亲那里继承了一台播种机、测量仪和5000英亩的土地,并从他的母亲,一位伦道夫贵族那里获得了很高的社会地位。他在“威廉-玛丽”学院学习,然后读了法律专业。1772年,他娶了玛莎•威尔斯,一个寡妇,并带她生活在他蒙蒂塞洛山还没完工的的家里。

Jefferson succeeded Benjamin Franklin as minister to France in 1785. His sympathy for the French Revolution led him into conflict with Alexander Hamilton when Jefferson was Secretary of State in President Washington's Cabinet. He resigned in 1793.
杰佛逊于1785接替本杰明•富兰克林作为法国外交部长。他对法国大革命的同情导致了他与亚力山大•汉密尔顿的冲突,时任华盛顿总统内阁的国务卿。他于1793辞职。

Sharp political conflict developed, and two separate parties, the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans, began to form. Jefferson gradually assumed leadership of the Republicans, who sympathized with the revolutionary cause in France. Attacking Federalist policies, he opposed a strong centralized Government and championed the rights of states.
随着激烈的政治冲突愈演愈烈,两个独立的党派,即联邦派和民主共和党开始形成。杰佛逊逐渐担任共和党的领袖,共和当支持法国革的命事业。他抨击联邦政策,反对一个中央政府集权,拥护国家人权


As a reluctant candidate for President in 1796, Jefferson came within three votes of election. Through a flaw in the Constitution, he became Vice President, although an opponent of President Adams. In 1800 the defect caused a more serious problem. Republican electors, attempting to name both a President and a Vice President from their own party, cast a tie vote between Jefferson and Aaron Burr. The House of Representatives settled the tie. Hamilton, disliking both Jefferson and Burr, nevertheless urged Jefferson's election.
1796年,经过三轮选举,杰斐逊才勉强成为总统候选人。由于宪法的漏洞,尽管对手是亚当斯总统,他却成为了副总统。在1800年,宪法的漏洞造成了更严重的问题。共和党试图在自己党内提名总统和副总统,造成杰佛逊和亚伦·伯尔之间的票数一样。最后由众议院来解决这场平局。汉密尔顿,既不喜欢杰佛逊,也不喜欢伯尔,然而还是促成了杰佛逊的当选。

When Jefferson assumed the Presidency, the crisis in France had passed. He slashed Army and Navy expenditures, cut the budget, eliminated the tax on whiskey so unpopular in the West, yet reduced the national debt by a third. He also sent a naval squadron to fight the Barbary pirates, who were harassing American commerce in the Mediterranean. Further, although the Constitution made no provision for the acquisition of new land, Jefferson suppressed his qualms over constitutionality when he had the opportunity to acquire the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon in 1803.
在杰佛逊担任总统时,法国的危机已经过去了。他削减了陆军和海军的支出,削减预算,取消了对威士忌这种西方人最喜爱的酒进行征税,但减少了国家债务的三分之一。他还派出海军舰队对抗巴巴里海盗,因为他们骚扰美国在地中海域的商业。此外,尽管宪法没有对新的土地收购做出规定,但在1803年,当他有机会从拿破仑手里获得路易斯安那的领土时,杰佛逊抑制住了他对这一做法的合宪性的顾忌。

During Jefferson's second term, he was increasingly preoccupied with keeping the Nation from involvement in the Napoleonic wars, though both England and France interfered with the neutral rights of American merchantmen. Jefferson's attempted solution, an embargo upon American shipping, worked badly and was unpopular.
在杰佛逊的第二任期期间,尽管英国和法国在不断阻挠美国商人中立的权利,他还是不断地集中力量阻止美国参与拿破仑战争。杰佛逊尝试对美国航运贸易禁运,但并不起作用工作。

Jefferson retired to Monticello to ponder such projects as his grand designs for the University of Virginia. A French nobleman observed that he had placed his house and his mind "on an elevated situation, from which he might contemplate the universe."
杰佛逊退休后回到蒙蒂塞洛,开始思考诸如成立弗吉尼亚大学这样的项目伟大的设计等。一位法国贵族注意到,他已经把他的住宅和他的心置于”一个很高的位置,从那里他可能会审视整个宙“。

He died on July 4, 1826.
他于1826年7月4日去世。


顶一下
(0)
0%
踩一下
(0)
0%
手机上普特 m.putclub.com 手机上普特
[责任编辑:Tina]
------分隔线----------------------------
发表评论 查看所有评论
请自觉遵守互联网政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
用户名: 密码: 验证码:
  • 推荐文章
  • 资料下载
  • 讲座录音
普特英语手机网站
用手机浏览器输入m.putclub.com进入普特手机网站学习
查看更多手机学习APP>>