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中国城市介绍---南京(2)

2015-07-09    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

中国城市介绍---南京(2)

Nanjing has an extremely  rich  and complex history,derived from its position as a political and economic center for the agriculturally rich southeast China region. Habitation in the area goes back some 5 000 years,documented by the discovery of several prehistoric,Shang and zhou era sites. During the Warring  States period there was a walled city that had  an  armaments  foundry there.  After the break up of the Han dynasty,Nanjing be came the}capital of a number of short-lived dynasties,especially for the southern dynasties during the 4th-6th century period of division between barbarian Northern and native Chinese Southern dynasties. At that time Nanjing was also a center for the propagation of Buddhism. When China was reunified under the Sui in the late 6th century,the Sui ruler established his capital at present day Xi'an and demolished all the old palace buildings at Nanjing. The building of the Grand Canal,however, aided the economic importance of the city,and it became a center of weaving,especially of brocade,and of metal foundries.
作为我国农业产量最高的东南地区的政治和经济中心,南京有着极为丰富、复杂的历史。这里的人类居住史可以追溯到大约5 000年前。根据一些史前资料记载,这里发现了商朝和周朝的遗址。战国时期,这里是个城墙环绕的城市,而且还有个兵器铸造厂。汉朝崩溃后,南京成为若于个短命王朝的都城,尤其是4至6世纪期间,北方蛮人与华南当地人之间的分裂纷争,南朝的宋、齐、梁、陈等相继在此定都。那时,南京也是佛教传播的一个中心。到了6世纪末的隋朝,中国得以重新统一,隋朝统治者定都于今日的西安,并拆除了南京所有的古老的宫殿楼阁。然而,大运河的兴建却赋予南京重要的经济地位,使其成为纺织,尤其是锦缎以及金属制品的中心城市。

Nanjing's decline lasted until the founding of the Ming dynasty,when it was established as the capital of the Ming by its founder, Zhu Yuanzhang (the Hongwu Emperor ). Hongwu repopulated the city with in-migrant craftsmen and wealthy families from elsewhere in southeastern China,meanwhile deporting most of the resident population to far away Yunnan. He also undertook a massive building program,including an imperial palace and massive city walls,parts of which still stand. The city became an administrative center and the site of imperial examinations,as well as a manufacturing center.
南京的衰败一直持续到明朝的建立。明始祖朱元璋(洪武皇帝)在此建都。洪武皇帝从我国南方的其它城市引进了许多能工巧匠和富绰家族,重新组建了南京居民人口。同时,他又把大部分原有的居民流放到遥远的云南。他还着手了一项宏伟的建设规划,其中包括一座皇宫和一道坚固的城墙。这些城墙的某些部分如今依然保存完好。从那以后,南京成为了行政管理中心、官试点和制造业中心。


The third Ming emperor, known by his reign title as the Yongle emperor,usurped the throne from his nephew and moved the capital back to Beijing,close to his princely power base and the former capital during the Yuan. Nanjing continued as a secondary capital,with its own shadow bureaucracy,a site for an imperial university and metropolitan examinations,and an important textile production center. When the Manchus invaded north China Nanjing held out briefly as a center of Ming resistance,but eventually fell.
明朝的第三任皇帝,即永乐皇帝,从其侄子手中篡夺了王位,并迁都北京,以紧靠这个王侯权力基地和当年元朝的首都。南京仍然是第二皇都:具有其自身的影子官僚气派、皇家大学所在地、官方考试所在地和重要的纺织品中心。清兵入关华北时,南京作为明朝抵抗力量的中心城市,只是简单地稍作抵抗便以失败告终。

With the overthrow of the Manchus in 1911 and the establishment of a Chinese Republic,Nanjing again became the national capital. The unhappy and often violent history of the city continued,however,as it was the site of mass executions of Communists by Chiang Kai-shek in 1927,and of the infamous“Nanjing Massacre" by Japanese forces who occupied the city in 1937,when some 300 000 residents of the city perished. After 1945 Nanjing again became the capital of the Guomindang government. After peace talks between the Guomindang and the Communists held there in 1947 broke down,Nanjing was captured by People's Liberation Army in 1949. Today it is an important industrial base for the automobile,electronics,and machine tool industries,petrochemical production and steel foundries,and aeronautical training.
1911年,清朝被推翻,中华民国成立,南京又一次被定为首都。然而,这座城市的令人难过且常常充满暴力的历史仍在继续:1927年,蒋介石在这里屠杀了大批共产党人;1937年,占领南京的日本侵略军在这里进行了臭名昭著的“南京大屠杀”,30万市民被惨巡杀害;1945年后,南京再次成为国民政府的首都;1947年,在此举行的国共和谈不欢而散;1949年,人民解放军占领了南京。如今,南京已经成为汽车、电子、机械工业、石油化工、钢铁和航天训练等工业的重要基地。

After liberation on April 23,1949,Nanjing became a municipality directly under the Central Government of People's Central Government. In September 1952,Nanjing was decided a city under the jurisdiction of the provincial government of Jiangsu provincial government. On January 1,1953,the People's Government of Jiangsu Province was established,with Nanjing being the provincial capital of Jiangsu Province. In February of 1994,upon consent by the State Council,Central Organization Committee defined the administrative rank of Nanjing was the vice province grade.
1949年4月23日,南京解放,成为中央人民政府直辖市。1952年9月,南京为江苏省省辖市。1953年1月1日,江苏省人民政府成立,南京为江苏省省会。1994年2月,经国务院同意,中央机构编制委员会明确南京的行政级别为副省级。


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