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星巴克CEO:不让扩张变烂尾

2013-10-29    来源:WSJ    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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Howard Schultz: What Next, Starbucks?

Starbucks CEO Howard Schultz says he's never been a 'coffee person.' Sitting in his sprawling Seattle office overlooking Puget Sound, he says that what he's always been is a merchant. It's a title he is particularly comfortable with one morning earlier this month. A few hours before, his company's stock price reached $76.24 a share, the highest it had been in its 42-year history.

It is Mr. Schultz's second stint as CEO of Starbucks, a company he has led since he bought it in 1987. He took an eight-year hiatus as chief executive from 2000 to 2008 to become chairman, and by the end of that time the company's stock plunged 43% in a single year. Since 2008, Mr. Schultz has been focused on turning the company around, a feat that has finally started to bear fruit-and, lately, juice, yogurt and pastries.

Under Mr. Schultz's leadership, Starbucks has become a global consumer brand that isn't only a coffee shop but increasingly an all-day restaurant, design concept and health-food conglomerate. Mr. Schultz is the first to admit that rapid growth caused the company's crash a few years ago. He's determined not to let that happen again. 'In 2006 and 2007, I think growth covered up a lot of mistakes,' he says. 'Hubris and a sense of entitlement set in.'

Today Starbucks has more than 19,000 stores world-wide, including over 11,000 in the U.S. Thousands more are planned in Latin America and Asia combined. But Mr. Schultz is set on expanding their scope. 'We cannot be content with the status quo,' he says. 'Any business today that embraces the status quo as an operating principle is going to be on a death march.'

For one, Starbucks will be rolling out a series of new offerings in an effort to turn what used to be primarily a morning business into an all-day cafe. Some stores serve wine and many have started selling dishes with healthy fare like quinoa and kale.

The company plans to introduce some new design concepts, including a modern, modular drive-through made from reconfigured shipping containers. A drive-through window will be a part of 60% of the 1,500 new U.S. stores that are planned for the next five years. There will also be new 'coffee tribute' locations, such as the recently opened Kerry Center flagship in Beijing, a two-story store with coffee bars, contemporary furniture, locally sourced Chinese artifacts and a series of coffee workshops. And last week the company announced the opening of a store within the Parisian shopping center Galeries Lafayette, as part of a planned move into more retail spaces.

They are all part of Starbucks' recent efforts to extend its reach beyond coffee. In 2011, it bought the juice company Evolution Fresh for $30 million, and together they recently rolled out a new food and beverage line. Since then, Starbucks bought the San Francisco-based patisserie La Boulange for $100 million and the tea company Teavana for $620 million. And it has joined with the French corporation Groupe Danone to launch a line of Greek yogurt products.

Mr. Schultz doesn't think this kind of growth will result in the same problems as the company's past spurt did. 'These are all businesses we are already in, and these acquisitions will enhance our position as long as there is a heavy level of discipline and rigor attached to decisions,' he says. In the near term, he says that he isn't planning to make any more acquisitions. However, he says, 'I think there will be more strategic partnerships.'

Starbucks also has expanded into digital and social media, including a partnership with the mobile payments company Square, and is now processing four million mobile transactions a week. Starbucks' annual revenue of over $13 billion comes mostly from single sales that average $5-so 'because of the frequency of people coming to Starbucks,' Mr. Schultz says, 'we had the opportunity to crack the code on mobile transactions.'

Born in a housing project in Brooklyn, New York, Mr. Schultz, 60, looks nothing like the hipster baristas who now populate his former borough. Today he is wearing a dark tailored suit and tie, and speaking in careful C-suite sound bites.

He stands up to show me the early inspiration for what became Starbucks-a framed picture of a piece of pie behind a screen in an old Horn & Hardart automat in New York. When his aunt took him there as a 10-year- old, he asked her how one piece of pie after another suddenly appeared in the vending machine. 'My aunt convinced me there was a magician behind the counter,' he says. 'That was the beginning of understanding how to romance a customer.'

The son of a former U.S. Army sergeant, Mr. Schultz was the first in his family to go to college. After attending Northern Michigan University on an athletic scholarship, he got a job working as a salesman for Xerox Corporation. He joined what was then called the Starbucks Coffee Company in 1982 as director of marketing. Back then, the company only sold coffee beans, tea and spices.

While on a trip to Milan during his early days at Starbucks, Mr. Schultz saw what it could become in the atmosphere of Italian cafes: a 'third place,' after home and work, that would sell a new menu of cappuccinos and lattes for the masses. His bosses didn't go for the idea, so Mr. Schultz started his own company; in 1987, he bought Starbucks for nearly $4 million and kept the name for his new concept based on Italian cafes. 'What we saw in Italy was this unique relationship that coffee bars had to the community and people,' he says.

Today, Mr. Schultz says that he doesn't see the spate of high-quality coffee concerns such as Stumptown and Intelligentsia as competition. Still, Starbucks (traditionally known and at times criticized for its darker roasts) released a new lighter-roasted coffee called Blonde to appeal to the same customers. 'I think there's a really important role for these independent coffee stores,' he adds. 'It creates jobs for people, and I think it raises the quality of coffee for the most part in America...and the more people who are exposed to better quality coffee is good for Starbucks.'

One issue that has been more of a headache is gun control. Earlier this month, Mr. Schultz wrote an open letter to customers asking them not to bring guns into its U.S. stores. The company's guidelines on guns used to vary in accordance with state laws, leading to demonstrations in its stores by both sides of the debate. 'We're not pro- or antigun, but we do believe our customers and people would be more comfortable if guns were not part of our store experience,' he explains.

Outside the U.S., Starbucks is now in 62 countries. 'The biggest opportunity we have is clearly in Asia,' he says. So far, there are 1,000 stores in both China and Japan, 16 in India and one in Vietnam. Mr. Schultz hopes to open thousands more in China.

'We've been in China now for over a decade,' he says. 'The most gratifying thing is, when we first got there, most of our customers were tourists and expats, and now they're Chinese nationals.'

He's still mindful of keeping growth from turning into a bad sequel. He is drafting a year-end memo tentatively called 'Playing the Long Game.'

'I'm making sure that we don't get seduced or intoxicated with either short-term results or short-term wins and that we're in this to build a great, enduring company,' he says.


星巴克(Starbucks)CEO霍华德·舒尔茨(Howard Schultz)说他从来不是一个仅仅做咖啡的人。在俯瞰西雅图普捷湾(Puget Sound)的宽大办公室里,他说自己一直以来就是一位商人。9月的某天上午,他觉得这个称谓尤其妥帖:当时星巴克股价达到每股76.24美元,创其42年历史的最高水平。

现在是舒尔茨第二次担任星巴克的CEO。他从1987年收购星巴克以来一直领导着这家公司。2000年到2008年的八年间,舒尔茨不再当首席执行长,只当董事长。到那段时期结束时,公司股价一年时间便重挫43%。从2008年起,他将精力倾注于公司的翻身之战,而这一战役终于已经开始结出果实──最近还有了果汁、酸奶和糕点。

在舒尔茨的领导下,星巴克已经成为一个全球化的消费品牌,它不只是一家咖啡店,也越来越多地成为一家兼营全天候餐馆、设计概念和健康食品的企业集团。他一点也不否认几年前的高速扩张导致了公司的崩盘,决心不再重蹈覆辙。他说:“我认为2006年到2007年的扩张掩盖了很多失误。傲慢和资格意识蔓延开来。”

今天的星巴克在全世界拥有超过一万九千家门店,其中美国有一万一千多家。还计划在拉丁美洲和亚洲再开数千家。但舒尔茨决心要扩大这些门店的经营范围。他说:“我们不能满足于现状。今天任何一家将现状视为经营原则的企业都将踏上死亡之路。”

首先,星巴克将推出一系列新产品,以求把过去以上午营业为主的模式变成全天候模式。部分门店有葡萄酒出售,很多门店已经在开始贩售藜麦和甘蓝等健康食品。

星巴克计划推出一些新的设计概念,包括用集装箱改装而成的现代式、模块化的驾车外带餐厅。未来五年在美国新开的1,500家门店当中,60%都将有驾车外带窗口。它还将新开一种名叫“咖啡礼赞”(coffee tribute)的场所,前不久在北京嘉里中心(Kerry Center)开业的旗舰店就是其中之一。这家店分上下两层,内有咖啡吧台、当代风格家具、从本地采集的中国手工艺品和一系列的咖啡工坊。9月24日,星巴克在巴黎购物中心老佛爷(Galeries Lafayette)内的一家门店开业,这是星巴克按计划向更多零售场所迈进过程中采取的一个步骤。

上面说的这些,都是星巴克为了将业务范围拓展至咖啡之外而采取的措施。2011年它以3,000万美元的价格买下果汁公司Evolution Fresh,最近双方一起推出了一个新的食品饮料系列。之后星巴克又以一亿美元买下旧金山糕点公司La Boulange、6.2亿美元买下茶叶公司Teavana。另外它还携手法国达能集团(Groupe Danone)推出了一个希腊酸奶产品系列。

舒尔茨认为这种类型的扩张不会造成公司过去扩张时产生的那些问题。他说:“这些都是我们已经在做的业务,只要决策伴随着很大程度的自控和严谨,这些收购就会增强我们的地位。”他表示短时间内不打算再做收购。但他也说:“我觉得还会有更多的战略合作关系。”

包括与手机支付公司Square的合作在内,星巴克还进军了数字和社交媒体领域,现在一个星期处理的手机交易达400万笔。星巴克130多亿美元的年收入主要来自平均每笔五美元的销售,所以舒尔茨说“由于人们前往星巴克的频率,我们获得了解码手机交易的机会”。

在纽约布鲁克林公屋中出生、现年60岁的舒尔茨看上去一点也不像现今布鲁克林那种雅痞咖啡师。今天他穿着深色定制正装、打着领带,字斟句酌地讲着符合老总身份的话。

他站起来向我展示星巴克的早期灵感来源──一张加框照片,显示的是纽约一家Horn & Hardart自动贩售餐厅内一个橱窗背后的一个派。10岁那年被阿姨带去那里就餐时,他问阿姨那些派是怎么一个接一个突然出现在自动售餐机里的。他说:“阿姨说柜台背后有一个魔术师,我信以为真。我就是在那个时候开始去体会该如何吸引客户的。”

舒尔茨的父亲是一名前美国陆军中士,舒尔茨是家族中的第一个大学生,凭借体育奖学金上了北密歇根大学(Northern Michigan University)。毕业之后,他在施乐公司(Xerox Corporation)找到了一份推销员的工作。1982年,他加入当时的“星巴克咖啡公司”(Starbucks Coffee Company)任营销总监。彼时星巴克只售咖啡豆、茶叶和香料。

舒尔茨加入星巴克不久之后去了趟米兰。在那期间,他想到星巴克在意大利咖啡厅那样的氛围下可以成为一个什么样子:一个向大众销售卡布奇诺和拿铁等新型饮品、处于家与公司之外的“第三场所”。老板们没有按他这个想法去做,于是舒尔茨成立了自己的公司,后来以接近400万美元的价格买下了星巴克,将这个品牌用于他以意大利咖啡厅为基础的新概念。他说:“我们在意大利看到的,是咖啡吧与社区和人之间的这种独特关系。”

如今,舒尔茨说他并不认为Stumptown和Intelligentsia等众多高品质咖啡企业对星巴克构成了竞争。但为了吸引同一批客户,过去一直以深度烘焙而著称、有时候还因此受到批评的星巴克推出了一种浅度烘焙的新型咖啡Blonde。他说:“我觉得这些独立咖啡店担负着一种非常重要的角色。它为人创造就业岗位,而我觉得,它在美国大部分地区都是提高了咖啡质量……而接触到更优质咖啡的人增多,对星巴克来说是一件好事。”

一个更头疼的问题是枪支管制。9月中旬,舒尔茨向客户发表公开信,呼吁他们不要把枪支带入星巴克的美国门店。过去该公司在枪支问题上的方针依各州法律的不同而不同,导致辩论双方都跑到它的门店去举行示威活动。舒尔茨解释:“我们既不挺枪也不反枪,但我们相信,如果枪支不是我们门店体验的一部分,客户和别人都会感到更加安心。”

在美国以外,星巴克现已涉足62个国家。他说:“我们所拥有的最大机遇无疑是在亚洲。”到目前为止,日本和中国都有1,000家门店,印度有16家,越南有一家。舒尔茨希望在中国再开几千家。

他说:“我们进入中国已经10多年了。最让人高兴的方面是,我们最开始去的时候大部分客户都是游客和外侨,现在则都是中国人。”

舒尔茨仍然很注意不让扩张演变成烂尾。他正在起草一份年终备忘录,题目暂定为“高瞻远瞩”(Playing the Long Game)。

他说:“我要确保我们不被短线成绩或短线成功所诱惑、所麻醉,我们的目的是要打造一家卓越的、长青的公司。”



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