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G20财长会议或面临诸多争议性问题

2014-02-21    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

As financial officials from the Group of 20 economies prepare to meet in Australia this weekend, we take a look at some of the contentious issues that form a backdrop to the meeting.
二十国集团(Group of 20, 简称G20)财长准备本周末在澳大利亚举行会议,本文列出了形成此次会议整体背景的一些争论性问题。

Who's to blame for capital flight: A growing number of emerging markets are blaming the West for destabilizing capital flows. They argue the U.S.'s move this year to normalize its unorthodox easy money policies is leading to big outflows from their economies as investors look to benefit from rising U.S. yields.
资本逃离谁之过:越来越多的新兴市场将资本流动不稳定归咎于西方国家,他们认为美国今年推进货币政策正常化的举动是导致大量资金流出新兴市场的原因所在,因为这种情况下投资者纷纷从上涨的美国收益率中寻求获益。

But there's a backlash from the West, where officials argue emerging markets should get their own houses in order before casting blame, including making progress with reforms aimed at bolstering their economies. The Federal Reserve, for its part, doesn't accept recent emerging market turmoil is due to its actions.
不过西方国家也作出了激烈反驳,有官员认为新兴市场应当在追究外部责任之前管好自己的事情,这其中包括推进旨在巩固新兴市场本地经济的改革举措。就美国联邦储备委员会(Federal Reserve, 简称:美联储)本身而言,其并不接受有关近期新兴市场震荡缘起美联储政策行动的说法。

The International Monetary Fund, in a paper produced for the G20 meeting, urges caution on all sides. Industrialized nations should keep loose monetary policies in place at a time of fragile global growth, the fund says. Some emerging markets might need to raise interest rates further to get inflation and debt under control after years of easy-money policies, it added.
国际货币基金组织(International Monetary Fund, 简称IMF)在为G20会议准备的报告中敦促各方谨慎行事。IMF称,发达国家应在全球经济增长脆弱的情况下保持宽松货币政策,而一些新兴市场在持续实施了多年宽松货币政策之后可能需要进一步加息以控制通胀和债务水平。

Better central bank coordination: A proposal that's gaining traction is that the world's central banks need to better coordinate action to ensure stability. The IMF, in its paper, called for better coordination of monetary policy.
各国央行之间加强协作:有关全球央行需加强协作以确保稳定的提议已越来越得到认同。IMF在报告中呼吁全球在货币政策方面加强协作。

India's central bank governor, a former IMF chief economist, has been vocal on the need for more cooperation. The IMF last year proposed in a paper that it take on such a coordinating role.
印度央行行长、IMF前首席经济学家呼吁各方增进协作。IMF去年在一份报告中提议其将发挥类似协调作用。

In reality, the talk of such cooperation remains vague and it's going to be very difficult to find common ground. In part, this is because central banks have mandates to protect specific economies. Janet Yellen, the Fed chairwoman, said in testimony this month that she doesn't see emerging-market turmoil as a threat to the U.S. economic outlook. As the U.S. economy recovers, the Fed is likely to wind down its bond-buying program, even if this causes jitters in developing nations.
实际上,有关全球增进协作的探讨依然含糊不清,而且也将很难达成共识,这其中部分原因在于各央行都肩负着维护自己经济体的职责。美联储主席耶伦(Yellen)本月在发表证词时表示,她不认为新兴市场震荡对美国经济前景构成威胁。随着美国经济复苏,美联储可能会缩减债券购买计划,即便此举会引发发展中国家的不安情绪。

U.S.-German tension: U.S. Treasury Secretary Jacob Lew has been on a mission to highlight that trade-dependent Germany should do more to invest and boost domestic demand. The eurozone's economy, although no longer in recession, remains anemic with a rising risk of deflation setting in. The U.S. thinks Germany, Europe's largest economy, should do more to give a kick to demand, helping the zone's weaker exporters.
美国与德国之间的紧张关系:美国财政部长雅各布•卢(Jacob Lew)肩负的一项使命就是强调以贸易为经济支柱的德国应该采取更多行动扩大投资并提振国内需求。目前,欧元区经济虽已摆脱衰退,但仍增长乏力,出现通货紧缩的风险不断上升。在美国看来,作为欧洲最大经济体的德国应该采取更多行动提振需求,扶持欧元区日渐衰弱的出口业。

'We've been clear that in Europe, we think that the countries that have surpluses could do more to stimulate growth, stimulate demand. Europe needs demand. The world needs more demand,' Mr. Lew said last week.
雅各布•卢上周表示:“我们清楚地看到了欧洲的这一问题,我们认为那些拥有顺差的国家可以采取更多措施刺激经济增长和需求;欧洲需要市场需求,世界也需要更多市场需求。”

Germany has brushed off the criticism, arguing that domestic demand is driving its economy.
德国并不接受这样的批评,而且反驳说国内需求正在推动德国经济。

International trade: The U.S. will have some explaining to do on trade. The Obama administration has been pushing regional trade deals, one with the European Union and another with Asia-Pacific nations, as a way to bring down tariffs. Both agreements were endangered last month when Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid broke publicly with the White House, saying he opposed legislation aimed at smoothing the passage of free-trade agreements.
国际贸易问题:美国将要在贸易问题上进行一些解释。为降低关税,奥巴马(Obama)政府一直在争取达成地区贸易协议,其中一份是与欧盟(European Union),另一份是与亚太国家。但就在上个月,这两份协议都有无法达成的危险,因为美国参议院多数党领袖里德(Harry Reid)公开表露了与白宫的分歧。里德说,他反对旨在帮助自由贸易协定顺利获得通过的立法。

An anti-free-trade atmosphere at home might make it difficult for the U.S. to make concessions needed to move the talks forward. The U.S. argues countries like Japan need to do more to lower tariffs on agriculture.
美国国内反对自由贸易协定的氛围可能会使美国很难作出推动相关谈判所需的让步。美国表示,日本等国家需要采取更多行动降低农产品关税。

The next round of discussions on the Asia-Pacific pact take place in Singapore from this weekend. But, for now, there's little sign of forward movement in efforts to further liberalize global trade.
从本周末开始,有关亚太自由贸易协定的新一轮谈判将在新加坡举行。但就目前看来,还没有迹象表明各方为进一步促进全球贸易自由化付出了更多努力。



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