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双语:印度应该搞教育不应该买战机

2015-04-16    来源:fortune    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

双语:印度应该搞教育不应该买战机

India's Wrong Priorities: As Children Go Hungry PM Modi Buys Fighter Jets In France

On the occasion of Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s recent state visit to France (GDP per capita, $42,000) it was announced that India (GDP per capita, $6,000) would purchase 36 “ready to fly” Rafale fighter jets from French aerospace behemoth Dassault Aviation. Great news for France! This brings in revenue and creates lots of jobs. This is especially so as there have been difficulties getting customers; so far, until PM Modi’s proposed purchase, the only sale had been to Egyptian military dictator Abdel Fattah al-Sisi.
印度总理纳伦德拉·莫迪(Narendra Modi)近日对法国(人均国内生产总值:4.2万美元)进行国事访问,期间宣布印度(人均国内生产总值:6000美元)将向法国航空航天业巨头达索航空(Dassault Aviation)购买36架“随时起飞”的阵风式战斗机。这对法国而言可谓天大的好消息,不仅可以带来可观的收入,还可以提供大量的就业机会。对于一直难以获得新顾客的达索航空而言,情况尤其如此;到目前为止,在莫迪提议购买战斗机之前,该公司唯一的一笔订单来自埃及军事独裁者阿卜杜勒·法塔赫·塞西(Abdel Fattah al-Sisi)。

The implications for India, however, are depressing: one more vivid illustration of misguided policies at the expense of the poor. 960 million Indians live on less than $2 a day. Reading the data is one thing; seeing the consequences, as I did recently driving through the slums on the outskirts of Jaipur, is heart-wrenching. Their plight could not be worse. Rafale jet fighters are about the last thing they need!
然而,此举给印度造成的影响却不容乐观:是以牺牲穷人利益为代价的错误政策路线的又一个鲜活例证。在印度,靠不足2美元生活费维持一天生计的人多达9.6亿人。光是读到这些数据或许还无法体验到其中的辛酸,但真正看到这个问题的严重后果才叫人痛彻心扉。前不久,我驾车穿过了位于斋浦尔郊区的贫民窟。他们的情况再糟糕不过了。他们最不需要的东西就是阵风式战斗机吧!

India will soon surpass China to become the world’s most populous nation, reaching 1.6 billion by the middle of the century. The demographic profiles of the two countries are totally different. Whereas China faces the challenges of a rapidly aging society, hence a decrease in the labor pool; with its huge demographic dividend (50% of the population is less than 25, 65% less than 35) India needs to create millions and millions of jobs. If hundreds of millions of Indians remain mired in poverty and the young fail to be educated, employed and motivated, the consequences could be truly dramatic for Indians, but also for the world in the 21st century. Not only will India have failed; humanity will have failed.
印度很快将超越中国,成为世界人口第一大国,在本世纪中叶达到16亿人。但这两个国家的人口统计特征却截然不同。中国目前正面临社会迅速老龄化带来的重重挑战,因此劳动力减少;而在印度,巨大的人口红利(一半的人口不到25岁,65%的人口不到35岁)却使它必须创造上千万的工作岗位。如果上亿印度人依然深陷贫困的泥潭,而年轻人又缺少教育、就业和上进的动力,那么在21世纪,无论对于印度,还是全世界来说,后果都不堪设想。遭殃的不仅是印度,还有全人类。

India matters to the world. With a civilization stretching back thousands of years, India has a great deal to contribute to global civilization. The richer India is not only materially, but also culturally and spiritually, the richer the planet is; this had been the case for centuries until the impoverishment of the country caused by 200 years of British colonialism. (But that should be a challenge, not an excuse!)
印度的好坏从来都事关全世界。作为四大文明古国之一的印度,为世界文明的发展作出了巨大贡献。印度在物质,还有在文化和精神上越是富足,整个地球也会愈加富足。在印度陷入英国殖民之前的很多个世纪中一直是如此,然而两百年的英国殖民却让它变得一穷二白。(这应该是一个挑战,而不是借口!)

In short, India has a lot to offer the world; but to be in a position to do so it has to improve radically the lives of hundreds of millions of its own citizens. A country that has 44% of its children under five suffering from malnutrition – providing the world with one-third of the total population of hungry children – can perhaps become a world power (if it keeps on buying state-of-the-art French fighter jets), but certainly not a world role model: India’s purchase of fighter jets may be a means to achieve greater hard power, but in the process, as domestic social conditions of misery and injustice continue to fester, it is losing soft power.
简言之,印度能对世界做出巨大贡献,但是要想实现这一点,就必须从根本上改善其数亿国民的生活水平。在印度, 5岁以下儿童里有44%面临营养不良——占到全球饥饿儿童总数的三分之一——如果这个国家继续向法国购买最先进的战斗机,那么它或许可以成为世界强权,但肯定不会成为世界的榜样:印度购买战机或许是提高其硬实力的方式之一,但是在这个过程中,由于穷困和不公导致的国内社会环境愈加糜烂,使得其软实力正在流失。

There are structural and policy issues: education, apart from that for the elite, is appalling; infrastructure is equally so; there is widespread corruption; and widespread disease. Life expectancy in India ranks 167th (out of 228) in the world: at 68 years, it is significantly lower than China (75.3), but also than other developing countries such as Sri Lanka (76.5), Vietnam (73) and Indonesia (72.5).
印度目前正面临结构性和政策问题:教育质量极其糟糕,只有少数精英能享受优质教育;基础设施弱得一塌糊涂;腐败无处不在;疾病广泛流行。印度的人均寿命在世界排名第167位,为68岁,它不仅远远低于中国(75.3岁),还要低于斯里兰卡(76.5岁)、越南(73岁)和印尼(72.5岁)等其他发展中国家。

But perhaps more fundamental is the problem of mindsets. In his thought-provoking book Being Indian, former diplomat, politician, author and thought leader Pavan Varma stresses that in the Indian elite “there is a remarkable tolerance of inequity, filth and human suffering”. He adds that “concern for the deprived and the suffering is not a prominent feature of the Indian personality. The rich in India have always lived a life quite oblivious to the ocean of poverty around them”. Less than ten minutes from the slums on the outskirts of Jaipur there are very nice upper income (heavily guarded) residential areas. One city: two universes.
但也许印度面临的更根本的问题在于思维模式。前外交官、政治家、作者及思想领袖帕凡· 瓦尔玛(Pavan Varma)在其发人深省的《在印度为人》(Being Indian)一书中强调,印度精英圈“对不公平、道德败坏和人类苦难极度麻木”。他还说,“对贫困和痛苦的关心并不是印度人性格的突出特征。印度富人过着朱门酒肉臭的生活,对于周围的穷人从来都是视而不见。”距离斋浦尔郊区贫民窟不到10分钟的车程,就是戒备森严的高档住宅区。这简直就是“一个城市,两个世界”。

There are change makers. At NIIT University (NU) in Rajasthan where I am visiting professor there is an admirable program known as Community Connect. Every single student has to be engaged, including in what is known as Each One – Teach One, whereby NU students are allotted a pupil from the poor rural areas to whom they must reach out and teach basic skills. The objective of the program is to enable NU students to appreciate and inculcate values like ‘sensitivity towards the under-privileged’ and a ‘humanitarian attitude’. Given the dismal state of Indian primary and secondary public education, students at the tertiary level are by definition privileged. In conversations with the students my impression is that they see the Community Connect program as an opportunity, not a chore, and are committed to continuing engaging in social activities post-graduation.
在印度,涌现出了一批变革推动者。位于拉贾斯坦邦的印度国家信息技术学院(NIIT University,以下简称NU)开展了一个名为“社群心连心(Community Connect)”的项目,引来啧啧称赞,而我在这所学校担任客座教授。每一位学生都要积极参与,其中包括一个名为“一对一帮教”(Each One – Teach One)的项目,即NU的每一位学生会分配到来自贫困地区的一名小学生,之后必须与配对的小学生取得联络并向他们教授基本技能。这一项目的宗旨是帮助NU的学生了解和培养诸如“对弱势群体保持敏感”和 “人道主义态度”之类的价值观。考虑到印度当前令人堪忧的中小学教育,理论上来说,能上大学的学生都是出生在物质条件优越的家庭。在和这群学生交谈中,我的感觉是,他们把“社群心连心”视为一次机会,而不是一项令人厌烦的工作,并承诺毕业后会继续参与各种社会公益活动。

There are indeed many admirable initiatives emanating from academe, some businesses, and NGOs. There is the Housing and Land Rights Network, which fights for the rights of the homeless, especially homeless women who are the most destitute of the destitute. I got to know the Network during their courageous struggle against the brutal forced evictions of Delhi slum dwellers for the 2010 Commonwealth Games. Another questionable priority!
事实上,有很多值得称赞的倡议是来自学术界、一些企业和非营利组织。比如,为流浪汉,尤其是为一贫如洗、无家可归的女性争取权利的住房与地权网络(Housing and Land Rights Network)。据我了解,该组织曾与印度为举办英联邦运动会(2010 Commonwealth Games)而强行拆迁新德里贫民窟的行为作斗争。说到英联邦运动会,又是一个值得质疑的所谓国家重点项目!

Water distribution and access to sanitation in Indian villages are terrible; girls (and it is always girls!) need to walk huge distances to fetch water from wells, thereby missing out on school. Over a-third of females in India are illiterate; there are more illiterate females in India than in the rest of the world combined. Fighting female illiteracy should be a greater priority than buying French fighter jets. The plight of women is terrible, beginning with a gender gap in education of Himalayan proportions. Again there are private initiatives such as the impressive Mumbai-based Educate Girls Foundation which is actively engaged in seeking to reduce the gap.
在印度的农村,供水和公共卫生设施条件也极为恶劣;女孩子(总是女孩子!)要走上很远的路去井里打水,因此错失了上学的机会。在印度,超过三分之一的女性是文盲;印度未接受教育的女性人数高出世界其他国家未接受教育的女性总和。消除女性文盲应该要比购买法国战斗机重要得多。印度女性当前的处境苦不堪言,根源就在于男女受教育比例失衡。在这个领域,也有着众多民间机构在积极参与其中,想要缩小印度教育上的性别差距,比如总部位于孟买的杰出机构女子教育基金会(Educate Girls Foundation)。

Ultimately however all of the good work of corporations, universities, NGOs, foundations, philanthropists, religious institutions, etc will not lift hundreds of millions out of a life of desperate destitution. No country has ever succeeded in reducing poverty without having government actively engaged in creating the proper conditions and opportunities for individuals to rise from poverty. This is another one of the big differences between China and India: though China also has spent unseemly amounts on weaponry, it did at least get its social priorities right by virtually eradicating illiteracy, investing massively in primary education, including for girls, and thereby greatly reducing poverty. As author Pallavi Aiyar has written in her excellent book Smoke and Mirrors: An Experience of China, if born rich it is better to be Indian, if born poor it is better to be Chinese.
然而,企业、大学、非营利组织、基金会、慈善家和宗教机构等等所做这些工作还不足以帮助数亿家庭摆脱贫困的命运。在缺少政府的积极参与,无法为个人创造脱贫致富的适宜条件和机遇的环境下,全世界没有任何一个国家能实现减少贫困现象的目标。这便是中印两国之间的又一个巨大差异:虽然中国也花了许多资金购买武器装备,但它至少把社会发展的优先工作放在了基本消灭文盲并大力投资初级教育上,而且女性的受教育权也得到了关照,从而使得中国的贫困现象大为减少。正如作者帕拉维·艾雅尔(Pallavi Aiyar)在她的《烟雾与镜子:中国经历》(Smoke and Mirrors:An Experience of China)一书中所写道的:生于印度乃豪门之福,生于中国乃寒门之幸。

Of course the Government of India needs to be concerned about security, especially as it is quite a combustible neighborhood. The greatest threat to Indian security, however, is domestic. India should be “attacking” its perceived external “enemies” with weapons of mass seduction – as a democratic, just, equitable, inclusive, gender empowering, and humane nation – rather than through weapons of mass destruction.
当然,印度政府确实有必要照顾到国家安全,尤其是它有着一帮不易相处的左邻右舍。然而,印度安全面临的最大威胁来自其国内。印度应该动用其大规模魅力武器——争做一个民主、公正、公平、包容和性别平等的人性化国家——而不是使用大规模杀伤性武器——去攻击它认为的外部“敌人”。

The greatest means to enhance security in South Asia is not more weapons. Member states of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) have one of the world’s lowest rates of intra-regional trade. This is especially the case of trade between Pakistan and India. As the early 19th century French political economist Frédéric Bastiat is alleged to have said: “if goods don’t cross borders, armies (or indeed Rafale fighter jets) will”. Both Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif should have his portrait and quote hung in their respective offices.
在南亚地区加强国家安全的最佳方式不是穷兵黩武。南亚区域合作联盟(South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation)的成员国创下了全球区域内贸易的最低纪录之一。巴基斯坦和印度之间的贸易尤其如此。据19世纪法国政治经济学家弗雷德里克·巴斯夏(Frédéric Bastiat)所说:“如果跨越国界的不是货物,就会是军队(或者阵风式战斗机)。”印度总理纳伦德拉·莫迪和巴基斯坦总理纳瓦兹·谢里夫(Nawaz Sharif)都应该把巴斯夏肖像和语录挂在他们的办公室。

Think of the hungry children of India, give back the Rafale fighter jets to France (we’ll survive).
想想印度那些面黄肌瘦的孩子,把阵风式战斗机退回给法国吧(没有它们印度照样会过得好好的)。



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