用户名: 密码: 验证码:    注册 | 忘记密码?
首页|听力资源|每日听力|网络电台|在线词典|听力论坛|下载频道|部落家园|在线背单词|双语阅读|在线听写|普特网校
您的位置:主页 > 英语能力 > 翻译 > 笔译 > 练习材料 > 经济 >

国家需要做什么才能让电动车成为主流?

2015-06-23    来源:fortune    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

国家需要做什么才能让电动车成为主流?

缺乏公共充电设施,是阻碍多数人购买电动汽车的一个主要壁垒。要想促进电动汽车的销量和提高消费者对它的信心,就必须投入巨资建设一个有更多充电站的公用充电网络,唯有如此,以特斯拉为代表的电动汽车才有机会走向主流。而在建设充电基础设施方面,电力公司将发挥不可替代的作用。

Like rooftop solar—now one of America’s fastest growing industries—electric cars are poised to hit their tipping point. As we’ve seen with other clean energy technologies, each product generation brings rapid improvement. Starting this fall, the second generation of electric cars will be arriving at showrooms —starting with the Tesla Model X and Chevy Volt – offering greater range and more model choices.
像家用太阳能电板一样(它如今已经是美国增长最快的行业之一),电动汽车的发展也即将达到一个临界点。我们已经从其它清洁能源技术上见识到了,每一次产品换代都会给技术带来快速改进。从今年秋天开始,第二代电动汽车将会陆续开售,首先与消费者见面的将是新的特斯拉Model X和雪佛兰Volt。新一代的电动汽车不仅可选车型更多,续航里程也更长。

As with renewable energy, taking the electric vehicle market to the next level will require big investments in creating a robust network of public charging stations and creating new business models to make such investments worth it.
如同可再生能源一样,电动汽车市场要想发展到更高的水平,需要投入巨资建设强大的公共充电站网络,并创建能够让这笔投资获得回报的新型商业模式。

It has been widely recognized that the lack of publicly available charging infrastructure – including at workplaces and apartment buildings —is a key barrier to mass adoption of electric vehicles. The infrastructure gap is in large part a “financing gap.” As a recent National Academies of Science study on electric vehicle barriers confirms, it is hard to identify any standalone private sector entities that have an “attractive business case for absorbing the full capital costs of investments in public charging infrastructure.
一项广泛共识是,缺乏公共充电设施(包括在工作地点和公寓楼),是阻碍多数人购买电动汽车的一个主要壁垒。基础设施缺口在很大程度上意味着资金缺口。美国国家科学院最近针对电动汽车发展壁垒的一项研究也表明,很难找到一个有吸引力的私营公司案例“来承担全部的公共充电基础设施投资成本。”

Utility companies are in the unique position to finance charging stations because they can capture the grid-wide benefits of large-scale electrification, especially the benefit of greater utilization of fixed assets. However, the conundrum for owners of charging stations is that while a safety net of more stations is needed to drive sales and further reliance of cars using electricity for their fuel, the vast majority of the charging is still likely to happen at home. By creating incentives for home charging to happen duringoff peak hours, utility companies can generaterevenues that exceed their cost of service, even with time-of-use rates.This is because the distribution system and other fixed assets are sized to meet peak loads and thus are underutilized during off-peak hours.
在为充电站建设提供资金方面,电力公司处于一个独特地位,因为它们能在全网范围内享受到电动汽车大规模普及带来的好处,尤其是它还能提高电力公司的固定资产利用率。不过充电站的所有者也面临一个难题:尽管要想促进电动汽车的销量和提高消费者对它的信心,就必须建设一个有更多充电站的公用充电网络,但电动汽车大多时候还是在车主家里完成充电的。不过,如果电力公司提供了激励,鼓励车主在非用电高峰时段来公共充电站充电,公司就可以产生超过服务成本的收益,哪怕基于分时电价政策。原因在于,输电系统和其它固定资产是为了满足高峰用电而设计的,因此在非高峰时段都处于利用率不足的状态。

The problem is how to build EV load, and to do such you need a “safety net” to reduce “range anxiety” which then drives adoption, but because the network is more of a safety net, it will not be the primary location to charge, versus at home. So a network drives EV adoption and load, which then predominately occurs off peak which allows utility to increase their capacity utilization rates of fixed assets, which then allows them to collect more net revenues.
要想增加电动汽车的数量,就需要一张“安全网”,来减轻车主的“里程焦虑症”。不过由于车主首选的是在家充电,而不是在公共充电站充电,因而充电站网络的主要作用是促进电动汽车的普及率,然后吸引车主在非用电高峰时候来公共充电站充电,从而提高固定资产的产能利用率,使电力公司可以获得更多的净收入。

This creates a rare “win-win” situation where electric vehicle drivers, utilities and all utility customers can benefit from increased investments in electrification. A recentCalifornia study estimated that utility companies could earn $2.26 to $8.11 billion in net revenues from large-scale commercialization of EVs. This is sufficient to allow utilities to invest both in installing charging infrastructure and return some of the revenues to their customers in the form of lower rates.
这样就建立了一种难得的“双赢”模式,使电动汽车的车主、电力公司和所有电力用户都能从公共充电站的建设投资中获益。加州最近的一项研究表明,电力公司从电动汽车大规模商用化过程中可获得22.6亿至81.1亿美元的净收入。这足以推动电力公司投资安装公共充电设施,然后以较低的分时电价的模式将部分收入返还给顾客。

The value of having a flexible load on the grid will grow even further with higher amounts of wind and solar. Electric vehicles can be programmed to charge during peak solar or wind generation periods, preventing this valuable electricity from being wasted. In the future, electric vehicles could increase their value by putting electricity back into the grid as well (commonly known as “Vehicle-to-Grid” or V2G).
随着风能和太阳能发电比例的加大,让电网负担弹性化的价值还会变得更大。电动汽车可以在太阳能和风能发电的高峰时期充电,以避免这些宝贵的电力资源被浪费。在不远的将来,随着“还电入网”技术的成熟(Vehicle-to-Grid,即在用电高峰时通过逆变技术向电网回馈能量),电动汽车的价值还会进一步提高。

California is leading the way. The three largest utilities – Pacific Gas & Electric, Southern California Edison, and San Diego Gas & Electric – are seeking to invest $1.1 billion in infrastructure deployment to support 60,000 publicly available charging ports. In comparison, the federal government as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 stimulus packageappropriated about $400 million for the nation to help install infrastructure stations. Other utilities across the country are also moving forward with installing charging stations, including Southern Company and Kansas City Power and Light.
在充电站网络的建设上,美国加州走在了前列。当地最大的三家电力公司:太平洋电气、南加州爱迪生和圣地亚哥电气正计划投资11亿美元建设约6万个公共充电桩。相比之下,根据2009年的《美国复苏与再投资法案》,联邦政府只调拨了约4亿美元用于建设公用充电站。美国的其他电力公司也在纷纷建设汽车充电站,如南方电力和堪萨斯市电力照明公司等。

While there is legitimate debate as to whether utilities should go as far as owning and operating recharge stations, there is broad agreement among stakeholders — including charging companies, utilities, automakers, and NGOs — that utilities should expand their investments in publicly available infrastructure, as evidenced by a recent decision at the California Public Utilities Commission. By partnering with charging companies and automakers, utility companies have the opportunity to make the most effective use of their investments.
至于电力公司是否应该自己拥有和运营电动汽车充电站,目前仍有一定争议。不过包括充电公司、电力公司、汽车厂商和非政府组织在内的许多利益相关方都普遍认为,电力公司应该扩大在公共充电基础设施领域的投资,这一点从加州公共事业委员会最近的一项决议中便可看出。通过与充电公司和汽车厂商的合作,电力公司有机会使他们的投资得到最有效的利用。

The future low carbon economy will critically depend on replacing coal, oil and natural gas with zero carbon energy. Charging electric vehicles on renewable electricity is a key strategy for achieving deep reductions in carbon pollution. Utility investments in charging infrastructure, partnered with charging companies EV manufacturers and renewable energy providers, offer a rare win-win-win opportunity to accelerate this vision. More broadly, the utilities have a critical role to play through the infrastructure investment, including software and other systems needed to integrate EVs, storage, and customer demand solutions with intermittent renewable energy production . Together, these new collaborative business models offer tremendous promise to address climate change while driving innovation and better grid utilization.
未来的低碳经济主要依靠用无碳能源来取代煤炭、石油和天然气。用可再生电力给电动汽车充电,则是大大减少碳排放污染的重要战略。电力公司携手充电公司、汽车厂商和可再生能源供应商投资公共充电设施,为加速实现这一愿景提供了一个难得的双赢机会。更广泛地说,在整个基础设施(包括软件、其它需要集成电动汽车的系统建设、存储、间歇性可再生能源的客户需求解决方案)投资的过程中,电力公司都扮演了不可替代的角色。这些协作型商业模式为解决气候变化挑战带来了巨大希望,同时也将促进创新,并提高电网利用率。

Nancy E. Pfund is founder and managing partner of DBL Partners, a San Francisco-based venture capital firm. DBL owns SolarCity, which was an early investor of Tesla. Pfund sits on the board of directors of SolarCity.
本文作者南希·普方德是旧金山风投机构DBL Partners的创始人兼任事股东。DBL控股的企业包括特斯拉的早期投资方SolarCity公司,她本人也是SolarCity的董事会成员之一。

(fortunechina)



顶一下
(0)
0%
踩一下
(0)
0%
手机上普特 m.putclub.com 手机上普特
[责任编辑:elly]
------分隔线----------------------------
发表评论 查看所有评论
请自觉遵守互联网政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
用户名: 密码: 验证码:
  • 推荐文章
  • 资料下载
  • 讲座录音
普特英语手机网站
用手机浏览器输入m.putclub.com进入普特手机网站学习
查看更多手机学习APP>>