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双语:何为气候心理学?

2016-02-24    来源:Eco中文论坛    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

Climate psychology
气候心理学


People's beliefs and motives influence the effectiveness of green policies
人们种种观念和动机影响绿色环保政策的实施效果
 
In December talks in Paris involving more than 200 countries may result in a new agreement aimed at reducing carbon emissions. In the months leading up to the conference, The Economist will be publishing guest columns by experts on the economic issues involved. Here, Céline Nauges, of the Toulouse School of Economics, and Sarah Ann Wheeler, of the University of Adelaide, warn governments to be conscious of unintended side effects of policies designed to encourage green behaviour.
今年十二月的巴黎气候峰会上,200多个参与国将在碳减排问题上达成新的共识。《经济学人》将于该峰会召开之前的数月里刊登涉及经济问题的专家专栏。来自图卢兹经济学院的席琳·诺德(Céline Nauges)和阿德莱德大学的莎拉·安娜·惠勒(Sarah Ann Wheeler)提醒相关政府尽快意识到相关促进社会环保行为政策将产生种种负面效应。
 
REDUCING carbon footprints will require fundamental changes in consumer, producer and government behaviour. Economists argue that consumers will adopt pro-environmental behaviour when doing so saves money, but they are less likely to undertake measures that are costly, do not satisfy their aims or require inconvenient lifestyle changes. But economic motives are only part of the story and psychological studies have shown there may be more complex mechanisms involved, sometimes with unexpected consequences.
碳减排要想取得良好效果,消费者,生产者和政府三者的行为需作出根本性的改进。经济学家称,环保所带来的经济节俭会促进普及消费者环保行为,但对那些消费高,不理想或给生活带来不便的环保措施,大多数消费者还是不愿去采取。然而,经济动机仅仅是环保动机中的一部分。心理学研究显示,环保动机蕴含着更复杂的机制,有时伴随着难以预料的后果。
 
The adoption of a more efficient technology is sometimes followed by an increase in energy consumption. For economists, this rebound effect can be explained by the cheaper energy prices due to improved efficiency. However, there are other types of rebound effects, in particular psychological ones. Evidence exists in various domains for moral self-licensing, when people allow themselves to indulge after doing something positive. A recent study showed that residents who were exposed to a water conservation campaign reduced their water use but increased their electricity consumption.
能源消费的提高有时能促进发展更高效的节能技术。经济学家认为,这种反弹作用是由于能源因利用率提高而价格降低所导致的。然而,也存在其他类型的反弹作用,尤其是心理上的。这类情况存在于各个领域,人们为了肯定自我价值,往往在办完某些有意义的事后会选择尽情挥霍。 最近一项研究显示,在亟需节约水资源的地区,水资源使用量会下降而电力消费量则攀升。
 
Ongoing research from an OECD survey covering more than 12,000 households in 11 countries sheds light on drivers of pro-environmental behaviour. The focus is on water and energy domains, with behaviour divided into high-cost (adoption of costly water- and energy-efficient equipment) and low-cost (habits such as switching off lights or taking showers instead of baths). Environmentally motivated households, in the context of this study, believe that human actions can help mitigate the negative consequences of climate change. The rest undertake pro-environmental actions for a variety of other reasons, including financial gain.
最近欧佩克正着手调查来自11个国家的12,000多个家庭的环保情况,该调查清楚地揭露了环保行为的各种动机。他们集中调查了各个家庭水资源和能源的环保情况,发现存在高价环保行为(配备高昂的节水低耗设备)以及低价环保行为(养成关灯或淋浴取代泡浴等环保意识)。参与研究的具有环保意识的家庭们相信,人类的环保行动能缓解气候变化带来的不利影响。环保行为还存在其它多种动机,包括获得经济效益。
 
Results confirm that economic incentives matter but the effect of income is ambiguous. Rich households can adopt high-cost energy mitigation but poorer households are much more likely to develop less wasteful habits about energy and water use. When electricity bills were based directly on households’ electricity consumption this induced high-cost energy mitigation only for non-environmentally motivated households. Volumetric water charges, on the other hand, encouraged both high-cost and low-cost pro-environmental behaviour across all types of households.
调查结果证明,经济性动机能有效促进环保行为,但能否获得经济效益仍是个未知数。富裕家庭会配备高价低耗能设备,而相对贫困的家庭则更可能在水资源和能源的使用上养成节俭习惯。当那些缺乏环保意识的家庭意识到电费是直接来自自己家庭的电力消费量时,他们才打算配置高昂的低耗能设备。另一方面,以量计费的水资源扣费原则会促使各阶层家庭配置高价的节水设备和养成低价的节水意识。
 
This study also sheds light on the relationship between climate-change attitudes and pro-environmental behaviour. Results confirm other studies’ findings that attitudes—here the level of concern related to climate change—positively influence the adoption of pro-environmental behaviour. They also provide evidence that the more costly the mitigation, the more likely it will directly lessen the household’s climate-change concerns. This negative rebound effect is more likely in environmentally motivated households.
这项研究也阐明了人们对气候变化的态度与其环保行为之间的联系。其它研究结果也证明,人们对气候变化的关注对环保行为的养成具有一定的促进作用。这些调查研究同时还拿出证据证明,节能设备越贵,则更可能直接降低家庭对气候变化的关注度。这种消极的反弹作用更可能影响具有环保意识的家庭。
 
These results are striking but they are based on only one year of data. Further insights could be gained from tracking households’ beliefs and actions over time or by conducting more experiments.
这些调查结果虽然不可否认,但都只是为期一年的调查数据。若想得到更合理的结论,需长期跟踪调查家庭的环保意识与行动,或者加强相关研究力度。
 
The findings call for improved economic incentives and educational campaigns that remind households about climate-change risks. Policy-makers who wish to provide incentives must be aware of the possibility of psychological rebound effects with unintended side effects—which may take different forms depending on households’ motivations for preserving the environment.
研究结果呼吁加大经济激励和环保教育力度,让更多家庭了解到气候变化可能带来的危害。相关政府若想制定经济激励政策,须先意识到心理反弹作用可能产生的副作用,这种副作用会因家庭环保动机各异而呈现多样性。



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