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在家自制美味披萨

2014-02-21    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

Some people insist on pizza drenched in tomato sauce, heaped with cured meats and oozing cheese. Others crave minimalist pies topped with nothing but garlic, olive oil and rosemary, or thinly sliced tomatoes and fresh mozzarella. One way to please everyone at the table is to custom-make pizza at home: Prepare a selection of toppings and take orders.
有些人酷爱浸满番茄酱、堆满熏肉和淌着奶酪的披萨。有人则喜欢上面只有大蒜、橄榄油和迷迭香,或者只放薄薄的西红柿切片和鲜马苏里拉奶酪的极简主义披萨。在餐桌上让所有人都满意的一种方法是在家自制:多准备几种配料,按客人的需求制作。

For me, though, a pizza ultimately succeeds or fails on the quality of its crust. The kind of flour you choose makes a big difference. In the recipe at right, I opt for half whole-wheat flour, half all-purpose or bread flour. The whole wheat makes for a flavorful crust, and provides all the health benefits associated with eating whole grains -- though a crust made solely with this kind of flour would be tough and dry. All-purpose flour has a higher protein content, and bread flour an even higher one; adding either to the mix makes a smoother dough and a lighter, more tender crust. You can also make this recipe using entirely all-purpose or bread flour, or a combo of the two. Experiment until you achieve the texture and taste you crave.
不过对我来说,一个披萨的成败在于饼皮的质量。选择的面粉种类会起到重要作用。在本文的菜谱中,我选用的是一半全麦面粉,一半通用面粉或面包粉。全麦面粉会让做出来的饼皮很香,而且全麦谷物非常健康――不过全部用这种面粉做出来的饼皮会又硬又干。通用面粉的蛋白质含量比较高,面包粉蛋白质含量更高;添加这两种面粉中的任何一种都会让面团更细润,做出来的饼皮更轻盈更柔软。还可以全部用通用面粉或面包粉制作,也可以二者混合。不断地尝试,直到达到你想要的质感和味道为止。

The part many novice pizzaiolos find daunting is handling the pizza dough. All too often, the circle springs back like a rubber band and becomes impossible to roll out long before it reaches the diameter called for in the recipe. I recall becoming similarly frustrated myself -- and jettisoning the recalcitrant dough in favor of English muffin halves -- when first trying to make pizza. Little did I realize, all that stiff dough needed was a short time-out in the refrigerator. Kneading and rolling develop the gluten in the flour and cause the crust to recoil rather than enlarge; chilling relaxes the tightly wound gluten. A five-to-10-minute rest results in compliant dough that stretches effortlessly to its requisite size.
令许多披萨制作新手却步的部分是处理披萨面团。面团老是会像橡皮筋一样缩回去,没办法扯开,达到菜谱中所需要的直径。我记得自己第一次尝试做披萨时也曾这样沮丧过――最后我放弃了顽固的面团,做成了英式松饼的样子。我没有意识到,那硬邦邦的面团所需要的只是在冰箱里搁置片刻。揉捏会让面粉产生面筋,导致饼皮回弹而不是延展;冷却会让结构紧密的面筋松弛。五到10分钟的冷却会让面团轻而易举地延展到所需要的大小。

THE INGREDIENTS
原料

1 1/3 cups lukewarm water
1/3杯温水

2 cups whole-wheat flour
2杯全麦面粉

2 teaspoons honey
2茶匙蜂蜜

2 teaspoons fine sea salt
2茶匙精海盐

2 tablespoons olive oil, plus 2 teaspoons to grease bowl
2汤匙橄榄油,外加2茶匙橄榄油用于涂碗

1 envelope active dry yeast
1袋活性干酵母

2 cups bread or all-purpose flour, plus additional for rolling
2杯面包粉或通用面粉,另加少许用于揉面

THE STEPS
制作步骤

1. Add flours, honey, yeast and salt to the bowl of a food processor or electric mixer and process to combine. Add water and 2 tablespoons oil and continue to process until dough forms a ball. If dough is sticky, add more flour, 1 tablespoon at a time. If dough is too dry, add water, 1 tablespoon at a time.
第一步 在食物处理器或电动搅拌机的搅拌碗中加入面粉、蜂蜜、酵母和盐,然后搅拌。加入水和两汤匙油,继续搅拌,直到面团成球状。如果面团比较黏,再加面粉,一次加一汤匙。如果面团太干就加水,一次加一汤匙。

2. Scrape the dough onto a lightly floured surface and knead until you have a smooth, elastic ball, about 5 minutes. (Kneading can also be done using an electric mixer with the bread hook in place.)
第二步 将面团拿出,放到撒有少许面粉的台面上,揉捏面团,直到面团成为光滑有弹性的圆球,大约需要揉捏五分钟。(还可以装上面团钩用电动搅拌器来揉面。)

3. Form dough into a smooth ball and place in a large bowl greased with the remaining 2 teaspoons olive oil. Cover bowl with plastic wrap and set aside until dough doubles in size, about 1 hour. Cut risen dough in half. Knead each half briefly and then shape into a ball. Place the two balls on a lightly floured surface and cover loosely with a clean kitchen towel or plastic wrap. Let rest 1 hour at room temperature or in the refrigerator up to 24 hours. If refrigerated, let dough come to room temperature before continuing.
第三步 鲜膜,静置片刻,直到面团胀大一倍,大约需要一小时。将发起来的面团对半切,分别简单揉一揉,然后捏成球状。将两个面团放在撒有面粉的台面上,用干 的厨房纸巾或保鲜膜盖上。室温放置一小时,或者冰箱里放置最长24小时。若放在冰箱,等面团温度恢复到室温后再继续下一步。

4. Use a rolling pin to roll out and your hands to stretch each ball into a circle 12-14 inches in diameter. If dough becomes too elastic, place it in the refrigerator for about 10 minutes to relax before continuing.
将面团揉成光滑的圆球,在一个大碗里涂上剩下的两茶匙橄榄油,把面团放在碗里,盖上保

Pizza Margherita
第四步 用擀面杖将面团擀平,用手将两个面团拉成直径12到14英寸的圆饼。如果面团弹性太大,将其在冰箱放置约10分钟后再继续处理。

Total Time: 20-25 minutes Makes: one 12-14-inch pizza
玛格丽塔披萨(Pizza Margherita) 用时总计20到25分钟,成品为12至14英寸的披萨

Preheat oven to 500 degrees and place rack as low as possible in oven. Lightly oil a 14-16-inch pizza pan or very large baking sheet and lay uncooked crust on top, rolling in edges to form a rim if desired. // In a 10-inch skillet, heat 1 tablespoon extra-virgin olive oil over medium-high heat, add 2 large cloves garlic, minced, and cook, stirring, 1 minute. Add 1 ½ cups canned whole peeled tomatoes, crushing them as they go into the pan, then packed ¼ cup torn basil leaves. Boil, stirring frequently, until a thick sauce forms, 5-7 minutes. // Spread a layer of sauce over rolled-out crust, top with packed ¼ cup torn basil leaves and 4 ounces fresh mozzarella, thinly sliced. (You may have leftover sauce.) Drizzle with 3 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil. Sprinkle with ½ teaspoon oregano and season with salt and freshly ground black pepper. If you like, top with 3 tablespoons freshly grated Parmesan and/or red pepper flakes to taste. // Bake 10 minutes. Use a pizza peel or a large spatula and an oven mitt to transfer pizza from pan directly onto oven rack. Bake 2 minutes more, or until cheese is melted and crust is golden and done to your liking.
将烤箱预热到500华氏度(260摄氏度),将烤架放在烤箱最底层。将一个14至16英寸的披萨盘或一个大号烤盘涂上少许油,将生饼皮放在盘子上,如果喜欢的话可以把边缘卷起来做褶边。// 10英寸的平底锅中倒入一汤匙特级初榨橄榄油,中火加热,加入两大瓣蒜切成的蒜末,炒制一分钟。加入一杯半罐装去皮整番茄,在锅中压碎,然后加入1/4杯撕碎的罗勒叶。煮开,不停地搅拌,直到变成浓浓的番茄酱,需要五至七分钟。//在摊好的饼皮上铺上一层番茄酱,上面撒上1/4杯撕碎的罗勒叶和四盎司鲜马苏里拉奶酪薄片。(番茄酱可能用不完。)淋入三汤匙特级初榨橄榄油。撒上半茶匙牛至叶,加盐和现磨黑胡椒调味。如果喜欢的话,可以按照口味撒上三汤匙现磨的帕尔玛干酪和/或红辣椒片。//烤制10分钟。用披萨铲或大锅铲和防热手套将披萨从烤盘转移到烤架上,再烘烤两分钟,或者根据自己喜好烤至奶酪融化,饼皮呈金黄色。

Variations
其他口味

1. Onion, Garlic and Rosemary: Combine 2 large red onions sliced into very thin rings, 4 very thinly sliced garlic cloves, ½ cup olive oil, ¼ teaspoon salt, ½ teaspoon red pepper flakes and 3 tablespoons finely minced fresh rosemary leaves, and let marinate at least
1 hour. Top pizza and bake.
1. 洋葱、大蒜和迷迭香披萨:两大颗红洋葱切成薄薄的圈,四颗大蒜切成薄片,将洋葱圈、蒜片、半杯橄榄油、1/4茶匙盐、半茶匙红辣椒片和三汤匙新鲜迷迭香叶碎末混合在一起,腌制至少一小时。铺在披萨上,放入烤箱烤制。

2. Vegetarian: Brush dough with olive oil or pesto, then top with slightly overlapping thin slices of eggplant, onion, tomato, mushrooms and mozzarella. Brush lightly with more oil or pesto. Season with salt and freshly ground black pepper. Bake.
2. 素披萨:将面团刷上橄榄油或香蒜酱,上面铺上切成薄片的茄子、洋葱、西红柿、蘑菇和马苏里拉奶酪。再刷上少许橄榄油或香蒜酱。加盐和现磨黑胡椒调味,放入烤箱烤制。

3. Marinara: Brush dough lightly with tomato sauce, then sprinkle with rinsed and dried capers, halved and pitted black olives, and chopped anchovies. Season with salt and freshly ground black pepper. Bake.
3. 玛利那拉披萨(Marinara):将面团刷上少许番茄酱,然后撒上漂洗干 的干酸豆、对半切去核的黑橄榄,还有剁碎的?鱼。加盐和现磨黑胡椒调味,放入烤箱烤制。

4. Quattro Stagioni: Brush dough lightly with tomato sauce. Top with strips of prosciutto, sliced mushrooms tossed in olive oil, sliced marinated artichokes and halved and pitted black olives. Season with salt and freshly ground black pepper. Bake.
4. 四季披萨(Quattro Stagioni):将面团刷上少许番茄酱。铺上意大利熏火腿条、拌了橄榄油的蘑菇片、腌洋蓟片、和对半切去核的黑橄榄。加盐和现磨黑胡椒调味,放入烤箱烤制。

5. Mixed Peppers and Onions: Lightly sauté 4 bell peppers, sliced-mixed colors if possible-along with 2 sliced onions and 2 cloves sliced garlic in 3 tablespoons olive oil. Season with salt and freshly ground black pepper. Stir in mixed chopped fresh herbs (parsley, basil, oregano, thyme and/or chives) if desired. Spread over pizza dough. Bake. When hot from the oven, garnish with freshly grated Parmesan.
5. 辣椒洋葱杂烩披萨:四个灯笼椒切片,如果可能的话用不同颜色,两只洋葱和两颗大蒜切片,放入三汤匙橄榄油中煎制片刻。加盐和现磨黑胡椒调味。如果喜欢的话可以加入切碎的新鲜香草(欧芹、罗勒、牛至、百里香和/或韭菜)。煎好铺在面团上,放入烤箱烤制。从烤箱出炉时,趁热撒上现磨的帕尔马干酪。

6. Fresh Sausage and Peppers: Follow instructions for Mixed Peppers and Onions, and dot with ¼ pound sweet or hot Italian sausage, crumbled, before baking.
6. 鲜香肠和辣椒披萨:按照辣椒洋葱杂烩披萨的步骤制作,烤制前铺上1/4磅甜味或辣味意大利香肠碎块。

7. Shellfish and Scallions: Cut 6 scallions into 1-inch lengths and sauté in olive oil 1 minute. Add ¾ pound mixed shellfish-shelled shrimp, sliced scallops, clams and mussels steamed open and removed from shells. Stir in 1-2 cloves chopped garlic, season with salt and freshly ground black pepper, and remove from heat. Brush dough with olive oil and add a layer of chopped fresh tomatoes. Top with shellfish mixture and bake. Garnish with chopped fresh basil or parsley.
7. 海鲜青葱披萨:将六棵青葱切成一英寸长的小段,在橄榄油中煎制一分钟。加入3/4磅各类海鲜――去壳的虾、切碎的扇贝、蛤蜊和蒸熟并去壳的贻贝。放入一到二颗大蒜的蒜末,加盐和现磨黑胡椒调味,关火。将面团刷上橄榄油,铺上一层剁碎的新鲜番茄。铺上调好味的海鲜,放入烤箱烤制。最后用剁碎的新鲜罗勒或欧芹点缀。

8. Mushrooms, Pancetta and Garlic: Cut 5 ounces pancetta into ¼-inch lardons and cook over medium heat until soft. Transfer pancetta to paper towels to drain. Add 3 tablespoons olive oil to pan and sauté ¾ pounds sliced mixed mushrooms with 2 cloves sliced garlic, chopped thyme and chopped parsley. Add cooked pancetta and top pizza. Bake. When done, garnish with grated Parmesan or Pecorino.
8. 蘑菇、意式培根(Pancetta)、大蒜披萨:将五盎司的意式培根切成1/4英寸大小的肉丁,中火烹制直至松软。将培根转移到纸巾上控油。平底锅中加入三汤匙橄榄油,加入3/4磅切片的各类蘑菇、两颗切片的大蒜、剁碎的百里香和欧芹。加入烹制好的培根,铺在面团上。放入烤箱烤制,烤好后撒上磨好的帕尔玛干酪或佩克里诺干酪点缀。



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