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聊聊《不二情书》引用的诗词:去国怀乡

2016-05-11    来源:普特综合整理    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

 看完《北京遇上西雅图:不二情书》后,不知道你们有木有这样的感触:之前背的古诗词都全白学了,台词中壮志凌云的一些诗词早已经忘记了出处和意思。

当我们不假思索地跟随着众人疯狂地学习英语、韩语、日语……的时候,是否能偶尔停下脚步,回过头来欣赏一下我们自己的文化呢?是否能偶尔静下心来品味一下汉语带给我们的不一样的感动呢?

今天,我们就来一起盘点一下剧中那些经典的古诗词出处及寓意吧~

登斯楼也,则有去国怀乡,忧谗畏讥,满目萧然,感极而悲者矣。

这是大牛和爷爷谈论爷爷寄给孙子书信时提到的,大牛古语一出,爷爷对他另眼相看。这句诗词也说出了电影想表达的身在异乡,思念故土的情怀。

【作品解析】

《岳阳楼记》是北宋文学家范仲淹应好友巴陵郡太守滕子京之请,于北宋庆历六年(1046年)九月十五日为重修岳阳楼写的。其中的诗句“先天下之忧而忧,后天下之乐而乐”、“不以物喜,不以己悲”是较为出名和引用较多的句子。文章通过对洞庭湖的侧面描写衬托岳阳楼。滕子京是被诬陷擅自动用官钱而被贬的,范仲淹正是借作记之机,含蓄规劝他要“不以物喜,不以己悲”,试图以自己“先天下之忧而忧,后天下之乐而乐”的济世情怀和乐观精神感染老友。这是本文命意之所在,也决定了文章叙议结合的风格。《岳阳楼记》超越了单纯写山水楼观的狭境,将自然界的晦明变化、风雨阴晴和“迁客骚人”的“览物之情”结合起来写,从而将全文的重心放到了纵议政治理想方面,扩大了文章的境界。

【原文】

庆历四年春,滕子京谪守巴陵郡。越明年,政通人和,百废俱兴。乃重修岳阳楼,增其旧制,刻唐贤、今人诗赋于其上,属予作文以记之。

予观夫巴陵胜状,在洞庭一湖。衔远山,吞长江,浩浩汤汤,横无际涯;朝晖夕阴,气象万千;此则岳阳楼之大观也。前人之述备矣。然则北通巫峡,南极潇湘,迁客骚人,多会于此;览物之情,得无异乎?

若夫霪雨霏霏,连月不开;阴风怒号,浊浪排空;日星隐耀,山岳潜形;商旅不行,樯倾楫摧;薄暮冥冥,虎啸猿啼;登斯楼也,则有去国怀乡,忧谗畏讥,满目萧然,感极而悲者矣。

至若春和景明,波澜不惊,上下天光,一碧万顷,沙鸥翔集,锦鳞游泳,岸芷汀兰,郁郁青青。而或长烟一空,皓月千里,浮光跃金,静影沉璧,渔歌互答,此乐何极!登斯楼也,则有心旷神怡,宠辱皆忘,把酒临风,其喜洋洋者矣。

嗟夫!予尝求古仁人之心,或异二者之为。何哉?不以物喜,不以己悲。居庙堂之高,则忧其民;处江湖之远,则忧其君。是进亦忧,退亦忧;然则何时而乐耶?其必曰:“先天下之忧而忧,后天下之乐而乐”欤!噫!微斯人,吾谁与归!

时六年九月十五日。

【白话译文】

庆历四年的春天,滕子京被贬官做巴陵郡守。隔了一年,政治清明通达,人民安居和顺,过去一切废弃的事情,都重新兴起。于是重修岳阳楼,增加过去旧的规模,刻制唐代贤人和现代人的诗赋在楼上,嘱咐我做一篇文章来记述这件事。

在我看来,巴陵郡的盛景,全在洞庭湖上:衔接远山,吞没长江,流水浩浩荡荡,一望无际,早晨的光辉和晚上的美景,有万千的气象,这就是岳阳楼的大景观,前人的叙述已经很详尽了。然而这里北面通到巫峡,南面极尽潇湘一带,被降职的官吏、诗人墨客,多到这里来聚会,观览景物的心情,难道没有不相同的吗?

当那久雨霏霏落下,一连几个月不断。阴冷的风狂吹怒叫,污浊的水浪横在空中;日月星辰隐没了光辉,山岳潜藏起形迹;商人旅客不能外出,船上的桅杆倾倒、橹桨损坏;傍晚时天色一片昏暗,耳听的老虎啸叫,猿声悲啼。这时登上岳阳楼,则有远离都城,怀念故乡,忧虑别人诽谤,害怕众人嘲讽的种种思绪,满目凄凉,感慨到了极点,心中无限悲伤起来了。

至于那春风清和,春景明媚,湖中波平浪静,上下天光明亮,晚清湖面一片碧绿。沙鸥飞翔云集,锦色的鱼儿在水中游泳,岸上的芷草、汀洲的兰花,显得郁郁青青。有时长烟横在空中,明月照耀千里,湖面波光闪耀,像金子一样发光,有时月亮在平静湖水中的影子像一轮沉入水中的玉璧,湖上渔人对歌,你问我答,这样快乐的情景,怎么会有穷尽呢?此时登上岳阳楼,则心旷神怡,心情舒畅,人生的荣华富贵,失意受辱都忘掉了。对着美景把酒痛饮,觉得其乐无穷,喜气洋洋了。

哎呀!我曾探求过古时仁人的心境,或者和这些人的行为两样的,为什么呢?他们不因为外物和个人的得失而欢喜或悲伤。在朝庭上做高官,则忧虑人民;处在江湖远方,就担心君王。他进也忧虑,退也忧愁,那么什么时候才快乐呢?古仁人必定说:“先于天下人的忧去忧,晚于天下人的乐去乐吧!”唉!不是这种人,我与谁一道归去呢?

写于庆历六年九月十五日。


Yueyang Pavilion

In the spring of the fourth year of the reign of Qingli, Teng Zijing was banished from the capital to be governor of Baling Prefecture. After he had governed the district for a year, the administration became efficient, the people became united, and all things that had fallen into disrepair were given a new lease on life. Then he restored Yueyang Pavilion, adding new splendor to the original structure and having inscribed on it poems by famous men of the Tang Dynasty as well as the present time. And he asked me to write an essay to commemorate this. Now I have found that the finest sights of Baling are concentrated in the region of Lake Dongting. Dongting, nibbling at the distant hills and gulping down the Yangtze River, strikes all beholders as vast and infinite, presenting a scene of boundless variety; and this is the superb view from Yueyang Pavilion. All this has been described in full by writers of earlier ages. However, since the lake is linked with Wu Gorge in the north and extends to the Xiao and Xiang rivers in the south, many exiles and wandering poets gather here and their reactions to these sights vary greatly. During a period of incessant rain, when a spell of bad weather continues for more than a month, when louring winds bellow angrily, tumultuous waves hurl themselves against the sky, sun and stars hide their light, hills and mountains disappear, merchants have to halt in the travels, masts collapse and oars splinter, the day darkens and the roars of tigers and howls of monkeys are heard, if men come to this pavilion with a longing for home in their hearts or nursing a feeling of bitterness because of taunts and slander, they may find the sight depressing and fall prey to agitation or despair. But during mild and bright spring weather, then the waves are unruffled and the azure translucence above and below stretches before your eyes for myriads of li, when the water-birds fly down to congregate on the sands and fish with scales like glimmering silk disport themselves in the water, when the iris and orchids on the banks grow luxuriant and green; or when dusk falls over this vast expanse and bright moon casts its light a thousand li, when the rolling waves glitter like gold and silent shadows in the water glimmer like jade, and the fishermen sing to each other for sheer joy, then men coming up to this pavilion may feel complete freedom of heart and ease of spirit, forgetting every worldly gain or setback, to hold their winecups in the breeze in absolute elation, delighted with life. But again when I consider the men of old who possessed true humanity, they seem to have responded quite differently. The reason, perhaps, may be this: natural beauty was not enough to make them happy, nor their own situation enough to make them sad. When such men are high in the government or at court, their first concern is for the people; when they retire to distant streams and lakes, their first concern is for their sovereign. Thus they worry both when in office and when in retirement. When, then, can they enjoy themselves in life? No doubt they are concerned before anyone else and enjoy themselves only after everyone else finds enjoyment. Surely these are the men in whose footsteps I should follow!(杨宪益、戴乃迭 译)



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