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聊聊《不二情书》引用的诗词:茕茕孑立,形影相吊

2016-05-13    来源:普特综合整理    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

 看完《北京遇上西雅图:不二情书》后,不知道你们有木有这样的感触:之前背的古诗词都全白学了,台词中壮志凌云的一些诗词早已经忘记了出处和意思。

当我们不假思索地跟随着众人疯狂地学习英语、韩语、日语……的时候,是否能偶尔停下脚步,回过头来欣赏一下我们自己的文化呢?是否能偶尔静下心来品味一下汉语带给我们的不一样的感动呢?

今天,我们就来一起盘点一下剧中那些经典的古诗词出处及寓意吧~

“茕茕孑立,形影相吊。”

这句话是大牛写给小虾的信里的一句话,大牛和小虾都是孤独的,两个活在梦里的人,所以他们在信里活成了女大学生和教授,满满的幻想。归根结底,还是两个孤独的灵魂。


【作品解析】

《陈情表》为西晋李密写给晋武帝的奏章。文章叙述祖母抚育自己的大恩,以及自己应该报养祖母的大义;除了感谢朝廷的知遇之恩以外,又倾诉自己不能从命的苦衷,真情流露,委婉畅达。该文被认定为中国文学史上抒情文的代表作之一,有“读诸葛亮《出师表》不流泪不忠,读李密《陈情表》不流泪者不孝”的说法。

晋武帝征召李密为太子洗马,李密不愿应诏,就写了这篇申诉自己不能应诏的苦衷的表文。文章从自己幼年的不幸遭遇写起,说明自己与祖母相依为命的特殊感情,叙述委婉,辞意恳切,语言简洁生动,富有表现力与强烈的感染力。相传晋武帝看了此表后很受感动,特赏赐给李密奴婢二人,并命郡县按时给其祖母供养。

【原文】

臣密言:臣以险衅,夙遭闵凶。生孩六月,慈父见背。行年四岁,舅夺母志。祖母刘,愍臣孤弱,躬亲抚养。臣少多疾病,九岁不行,零丁孤苦,至于成立。既无叔伯,终鲜兄弟。门衰祚薄,晚有儿息。外无期功强近之亲,内无应门五尺之童,茕茕孑立,形影相吊。而刘夙婴疾病,常在床蓐。臣侍汤药,未尝废离。

逮奉圣朝,沐浴清化。前太守臣逵,察臣孝廉。后刺史臣荣,举臣秀才。臣以供养无主,辞不赴命。诏书特下,拜臣郎中,寻蒙国恩,除臣洗马。猥以微贱,当侍东宫,非臣陨首所能上报。臣具以表闻,辞不就职。诏书切峻,责臣逋慢,郡县逼迫,催臣上道。州司临门,急於星火。臣欲奉诏奔驰,则以刘病日笃,欲苟顺私情,则告诉不许。臣之进退,实为狼狈。

伏惟圣朝以孝治天下,凡在故老,犹蒙矜育。况臣孤苦,特为尤甚。且臣少事伪朝,历职郎署,本图宦达,不矜名节。今臣亡国贱俘,至微至陋,过蒙拔擢,宠命优渥,岂敢盘桓,有所希冀?但以刘日薄西山,气息奄奄,人命危浅,朝不虑夕。臣无祖母,无以至今日;祖母无臣,无以终余年。母孙二人,更相为命,是以区区不能废远。臣密今年四十有四,祖母刘今年九十有六,是臣尽节于陛下之日长,报刘之日短也。乌鸟私情,愿乞终养。

臣之辛苦,非独蜀之人士及二州牧伯所见明知,皇天后土,实所共鉴。愿陛下矜愍愚诚,听臣微志。庶刘侥幸,卒保馀年。臣生当陨首,死当结草。臣不胜犬马怖惧之情,谨拜表以闻。


【白话译文】

臣子李密陈言:我因命运不好,小时候遭遇到了不幸,刚出生六个月,我慈爱的父亲就不幸去世了。经过了四年,舅父逼母亲改嫁。我的祖母刘氏,怜悯我从小丧父,便亲自对我加以抚养。臣小的时候经常生病,九岁时还不会行走。孤独无靠,一直到成人自立。既没有叔叔伯伯,又没什么兄弟,门庭衰微而福分浅薄,很晚才有儿子。在外面没有比较亲近的亲戚,在家里又没有照应门户的童仆。生活孤单没有依靠,每天只有自己的身体和影子相互安慰。但祖母又早被疾病缠绕,常年卧床不起,我侍奉她吃饭喝药,从来就没有停止侍奉而离开她。

到了晋朝建立,我蒙受着清明的政治教化。前任太守逵,考察后推举臣下为孝廉,后任刺史荣又推举臣下为优秀人才。臣下因为供奉赡养祖母的事无人承担,辞谢不接受任命。朝廷又特地下了诏书,任命我为郎中,不久又蒙受国家恩命,任命我为太子洗马。像我这样出身微贱地位卑下的人,担当侍奉太子的职务,这实在不是我杀身捐躯所能报答朝廷的。我将以上苦衷上表报告,加以推辞不去就职。但是诏书急切严峻,责备我逃避命令,有意拖延,态度傲慢。郡县长官催促我立刻上路;州官登门督促,比流星坠落还要急迫。我很想遵从皇上的旨意赴京就职,但祖母刘氏的病却一天比一天重;想要姑且顺从自己的私情,但报告申诉不被允许。我是进退两难,十分狼狈。

我俯伏思量晋朝是用孝道来治理天下的,凡是年老而德高的旧臣,尚且还受到怜悯养育,何况我的孤苦程度更为严重呢。况且我年轻的时候曾经做过蜀汉的官,担任过郎官职务,本来就希望做官显达,并不顾惜名声节操。现在我是一个低贱的亡国俘虏,十分卑微浅陋,受到过分提拔,恩宠优厚,怎敢犹豫不决而有非分的企求呢?只是因为祖母刘氏寿命即将终了,气息微弱,生命垂危,早上不能想到晚上怎样。臣下我如果没有祖母,就没有今天的样子;祖母如果没有我的照料,也无法度过她的余生。我们祖孙二人,互相依靠而维持生命,因此我的内心不愿废止奉养,远离祖母。

臣下我现在的年龄四十四岁了,祖母现在的年龄九十六岁了,臣下我在陛下面前尽忠尽节的日子还长着呢,而在祖母刘氏面前尽孝尽心的日子已经不多了。我怀着乌鸦反哺的私情,乞求能够准许我完成对祖母养老送终的心愿。我的辛酸苦楚,并不仅仅被蜀地的百姓及益州、梁州的长官所亲眼目睹、内心明白,连天地神明也都看得清清楚楚。希望陛下能怜悯我愚昧诚心,请允许我完成臣下一点小小的心愿,使祖母刘氏能够侥幸地保全她的余生。我活着应当杀身报效朝廷,死了也要结草衔环来报答陛下的恩情。臣下我怀着牛马一样不胜恐惧的心情,恭敬地呈上此表来使陛下知道这件事。


Memorial to the Emperor Stating My Case

Li Mi

I, your humble subject Li Mi, have this to say: As ordained by my untoward lot, misfortune befell me in my early childhood. Six months after my birth, my kind father died. When I was four my mother was deprived of her will to remain in widowhood by my maternal uncle. Grandmother Liu, taking pity on my feebleness and helplessness, brought me up all by herself. I used to be afflicted with illnesses and was unable to walk even at the age of nine, living in loneliness and misery until I reached manhood. As I had neither paternal uncles nor brothers to render me help, I was placed in straitened circumstances, with no good luck ever smiling upon me, and it was not until very late that I begot a son. There being no close relatives outside the family, or a boy to answer the door in the home, I spent my days in complete solitude, with my body solaced only by my shadow. As Grandmother had long been laid up with sickness, I had to tend her, serving her decoctions, and never left her uncared for even for a single day.

With the advent of Your Majesty's holy rein, I have basked in your bright and serene edifying influence. Previously, Magistrate Kui recommended me to the post of Xiaolian, later Prefect Rong charged me with the official duty of Xiucai, but I was obliged to decline all these favours, as no one else could take care of Grandmother. Then Your Majesty's edict was issued expressly, assigning me to the position of Langzhong and before long I was graciously appointed by Your Majesty as a royal attendant. Being so humble in origin, I ought to have gladly waited upon His Highness the Prince, for I can never repay your kindness sufficiently even if I lay down my life. Nevertheless, I represented my case in full and did not go to assume the office. Thus the ensuing edicts were couched in stringent terms, condemning me for my bold procrastination, while the country officials pressed me hard, urging me to leave at once. In addition, the prefecture functionaries came to my home, demanding my hasty departure. Although I wish to act in obedience to your edict without a moment's delay, yet, seeing Grandmother's disease aggravated from day to day, I could not help following my instinctive feelings to stay on, which was, as I was informed, not to be allowed. My situation is indeed very awkward.

But in my humble view, Your Majesty's holy reign is based upon the practice of filial piety, and the veteran or aged people are treated with more compassion and care. As I am so helpless and miserable, I expect to be given special consideration. Besides, I served in my youth the puppet regime at my post in its central government. Originally I courted an exalted official rank, not quite concerned about reputation and integrity. Being a base captive taken from a fallen state, I am extremely insignificant and worthless. Now that I have had the fortune to be favoured with undue advancement, how can I presume to hesitate and expect more? But Grandmother in her fast declining days is breathing her last and is in momentary danger of death. But for Grandmother, I would not have survived, whereas without my help she cannot end her life in peace. We too have been so strongly attached to each other in our common existence that for our sincere mutual affection I simply cannot be separated from her, leaving her in the lurch. Now I am forty four and Grandmother is ninety six. So the days are long in which I shall be able to devote myself to serving Your Majesty, whereas the time is short in which I can repay Grandmother's kindness. This instinctive feeling of mine like that of a young crow feeding its mother to reciprocate her love caused me to beseech you to allow me to look after her to the last. My difficulties are not only evident to the gentry of Shu and the magistrates of the two prefectures, but can also be witnessed by the gods of heaven and earth. I wish that Your Majesty would take pity on my stupid and sincere heart and grant my humble wish, so that Grandmother would have the luck to spin out her remaining life. I vow that I will return your royal grace living or dead.

I cannot help an awestruck feeling as I am writing to Your Majesty this petition.

(谢百魁 译)

【译者简介】

1929年出生,1953年毕业于北京大学,长期从事英国文学研究及文学翻译工作,成果丰硕。谢先生的翻译作品先后在商务印书馆、译林出版社、中国对外翻译公司、江苏人民出版社、云南人民出版社、湖南人民出版社、湖南文艺出版社等出版。主要译著有《患难与忠诚》(查尔斯·里德著,英译汉)、《亲和力》(歌德著,德译汉)、《惊婚记》(瓦尔特·司各特著,英译汉)、《黑奴王子》(雨果著,法译汉),《死囚末日》(雨果著,法译汉)、《魂归故里》(德译汉)、《标记原子》(俄译汉)、《中国历代散文一百篇》(汉译英)、《中国历代短简一百篇》(汉译英,合译)、《中国历代散文选》(汉译英),《中国历代名人书信选》(汉译英,合译)、《英法双译唐诗100首》等。2001年荣获中国译协颁发的“资深翻译家荣誉证书”,2010年荣获云南大学“红云园丁奖·教育功勋奖”。

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