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2014-07-08    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
A trickle of statements from Chinese leaders in recent months have given hope to some residents of Beijing and other smog-choked Chinese cities that they might regularly breathe clean air within a few years. Prime Minister Li Keqiang in March declared a “war against pollution,” for instance.

But China Daily, an official English-language newspaper, came in with a reality check on Wednesday in the form of an article published under the headline “Beijing Expects Healthy Air by 2030.”

The article went on to say that it would be 16 years before levels of dangerous fine particulate matter in the Chinese capital would drop to an “internationally recognized safe level.” The fine particulate matter is known as PM 2.5 because its diameter is less than 2.5 microns. It can penetrate deep into the lungs and enter the bloodstream.

The 16-year time frame means that anyone born today in Beijing who grows up in the city will spend his or her entire childhood breathing unhealthy air. In recent years, parents in Beijing, a city of more than 21 million, have become increasingly anxious about the air quality and other forms of pollution. Many Chinese who can afford to do so are moving abroad or decamping to cleaner parts of China. Multinational companies are having a much harder time recruiting foreign workers for Beijing jobs. Beijing residents are stocking up on expensive air purifiers, and some international schools have even set up outdoor sports domes made of synthetic fabric (what some parents are calling “pollution domes”).
16 年的时间意味着,如今在北京出生、长大的儿童,在整个童年时期都将呼吸有害空气。最近几年,居住在北京的家长们日益担心空气质量及其他污染。北京人口已经 超过了2100万。很多有条件的中国人都已搬到国外,或逃到国内空气比较清洁的地区。如今,跨国公司要招聘外国人到北京工作比以前难了很多。北京居民采购 昂贵的空气凈化器,一些国际学校甚至还在室外运动场上搭起由混合纤维制成的顶篷(一些家长称之为「污染篷」)。

Recent scientific studies have shown that the type of air pollution in northern China can shave five years off the average life span, lead to permanent lung impairment in children and contribute to slow brain development and personality problems in children whose mothers were exposed to the bad air during pregnancy.

Most of the air pollution in Beijing comes from coal-burning power plants and factories in nearby provinces. Emissions from vehicles, especially those using diesel gasoline, are also major contributors.

“Improving air quality in the city is not going to be an easy task,” Pan Tao, head of the Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection, said at a conference, according to China Daily. “It takes time and effort to turn the ship around.”

The concentration level of PM 2.5 cited by China Daily as “healthy,” and supposedly attainable by 2030, was 35 micrograms per cubic meter. The article said the World Health Organization had stated that PM 2.5 levels should not exceed this.
《中国日报》报道称,PM2.5浓度的「健康」标准为35微克/立方米,北京有望在2030年达标。文章称,世界卫生组织(World Health Organization,简称WHO)已经说明,PM2.5浓度不应该超过这个标准。

Actually, the W.H.O. has said that PM 2.5 should not exceed 25 micrograms per cubic meter over a 24-hour period. By that standard, Beijing still might not have healthy air by 2030. The limit of 35 micrograms per cubic meter, mistakenly cited by China Daily as the W.H.O. standard, is actually just an interim target set by the W.H.O. for heavily polluted countries. For all nations, the W.H.O. recommends achieving the standard of 25 micrograms per cubic meter.
实 际上,WHO说的是PM2.5平均浓度要在24小时内不超过25微克/立方米。按照这个标准,北京的空气质量可能在2030年前无法达标。《中国日报》错 误地引用了WHO设定的35微克/立方米的标准,实际上那是WHO为污染严重的国家设定的过渡目标。WHO建议所有国家达到25微克/立方米的标准。

China Daily cited Mr. Pan as saying an average PM 2.5 concentration of 35 micrograms per cubic meter could be reached by 2030.

The Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau has said the average PM 2.5 concentration last year was 89.5 micrograms per cubic meter, which is more than 3.5 times the W.H.O. recommended exposure limit. On a particularly grim day in January 2013 that is now commonly called the “airpocalypse” by English speakers, parts of Beijing had PM 2.5 concentrations that were 40 times the W.H.O. recommended limit.
北 京市环保局曾表示,去年PM2.5年均浓度为89.5微克/立方米,是WHO建议的接触限度的三倍多。在2013年1月空气格外糟糕的一天——说英语的人 通常称之为「airpocalypse」(空气末日),北京部分地区的PM2.5浓度是WHO建议的接触限度的40倍。

On Tuesday, which happened to be the 93rd birthday of the Chinese Communist Party, the PM 2.5 concentration in Beijing hit 168 micrograms per cubic meter, almost seven times the W.H.O. exposure limit, according to the United States Embassy’s rooftop air monitor. The air was a dismal gray soup the entire day, and the embassy rated it as “very unhealthy” in the evening.

“The current pollution emission is far beyond the environmental capacity in the city, and any adverse climate condition would easily result in smoggy days,” Mr. Pan said, according to China Daily. “The key to current air quality improvement lies in emission reduction.”

An antipollution plan announced last September by the State Council, China’s cabinet, said the crowded and filthy Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area of northern China had to reduce PM 2.5 levels by 25 percent before 2017. But Mr. Pan said that even if Beijing and the nearby areas were to meet that target, the level of particulate matter would still be harmful to people’s health.

In March, the Ministry of Environmental Protection announced that only three of 74 Chinese cities whose air is monitored by the central government met minimum standards for air quality last year. The State Council said in February that it would offer a total of 10 billion renminbi, or $1.65 billion, to cities and regions that made “significant progress” this year in air pollution control.

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