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生态文明体制改革总体方案(双语)

2015-10-19    来源:新华网    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

生态文明体制改革总体方案(双语)

生态文明体制改革总体方案
Integrated Reform Plan for Promoting Ecological Progress

中共中央、国务院
The Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee and the State Council

为加快建立系统完整的生态文明制度体系,加快推进生态文明建设,增强生态文明体制改革的系统性、整体性、协同性,制定本方案。
This plan has been formulated for putting systematic and complete systems for improving the ecosystem in place more quickly; achieving faster ecological progress; and making the reform for promoting ecological progress more systemic, more holistic, and better coordinated.

一、生态文明体制改革的总体要求
I. A General Description

(一)生态文明体制改革的指导思想。全面贯彻党的十八大和十八届二中、三中、四中全会精神,以邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观为指导,深入贯彻落实习近平总书记系列重要讲话精神,按照党中央、国务院决策部署,坚持节约资源和保护环境基本国策,坚持节约优先、保护优先、自然恢复为主方针,立足我国社会主义初级阶段的基本国情和新的阶段性特征,以建设美丽中国为目标,以正确处理人与自然关系为核心,以解决生态环境领域突出问题为导向,保障国家生态安全,改善环境质量,提高资源利用效率,推动形成人与自然和谐发展的现代化建设新格局。
1. The thinking behind the reform. It is crucial to fully implement the guiding principles from the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the second, third, and fourth plenary sessions of the 18th CPC Central Committee; follow the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of the Three Represents, and the Scientific Outlook on Development; thoroughly put into practice the guiding principles from the major speeches of General Secretary Xi Jinping; act in accordance with the decisions and plans of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council; adhere to the fundamental state policy of conserving resources and protecting the environment; and give high priority to resource conservation, environmental protection, and the restoration of nature. Based on the fundamental context of China being in the primary stage of socialism and in the particular characteristics new to China in the present phase, and in order to build a beautiful China, handle correctly the relationship between humankind and nature, and solve serious ecological and environmental problems, it is essential to safeguard China’s ecological security, improve the environment, ensure that resources are used more efficiently, and step up efforts to promote the formation of a new pattern of modernization in which humankind develops in harmony with nature.

(二)生态文明体制改革的理念
2. The ideas

树立尊重自然、顺应自然、保护自然的理念,生态文明建设不仅影响经济持续健康发展,也关系政治和社会建设,必须放在突出地位,融入经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设各方面和全过程。
Respect, protect, and stay in tune with nature. Ecological conservation is vital not only to sustained, healthy economic development, but also to political and social progress, and must therefore be given a position of prominence and incorporated into every aspect and the whole process of economic, political, cultural, and social development.

树立发展和保护相统一的理念,坚持发展是硬道理的战略思想,发展必须是绿色发展、循环发展、低碳发展,平衡好发展和保护的关系,按照主体功能定位控制开发强度,调整空间结构,给子孙后代留下天蓝、地绿、水净的美好家园,实现发展与保护的内在统一、相互促进。
Integrate development and conservation. It is necessary to remain committed to the strategy of treating development as being of the utmost importance to China. Development is good only when it is green, circular, and low-carbon. There should be the right balance between development and conservation. The intensity of development should be brought under control on the basis of functional zoning and spatial planning should be adjusted to ensure that development and conservation are coordinated and reinforce each other so we leave behind a comfortable place that future generations can call home with blue skies, green lands, and clear waters.

树立绿水青山就是金山银山的理念,清新空气、清洁水源、美丽山川、肥沃土地、生物多样性是人类生存必需的生态环境,坚持发展是第一要务,必须保护森林、草原、河流、湖泊、湿地、海洋等自然生态。
Foster an understanding that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets. Fresh air, clean water sources, beautiful rivers and mountains, fertile land, and biological diversity form an ecological environment that is essential to human survival. As development is a top priority for China, it is imperative to protect forests, grasslands, rivers, lakes, wetlands, seas, and other natural ecosystems.

树立自然价值和自然资本的理念,自然生态是有价值的,保护自然就是增值自然价值和自然资本的过程,就是保护和发展生产力,就应得到合理回报和经济补偿。
Cultivate respect for the value of nature and natural capital. Natural ecosystems have value; the protection of nature is a process of increasing the value of nature and the value of natural capital, and means the protection and development of the productive forces. Protection efforts should, then, be adequately rewarded and come with economic returns.

树立空间均衡的理念,把握人口、经济、资源环境的平衡点推动发展,人口规模、产业结构、增长速度不能超出当地水土资源承载能力和环境容量。
Seek equilibriums in China’s territorial space. To move forward with development, it is necessary to find the right balance between population, economy, resources, and the environment and ensure that the population, the industrial structure, and the economic growth of a region do not surpass its environmental capacity and the carrying capacity of its water and land resources.

树立山水林田湖是一个生命共同体的理念,按照生态系统的整体性、系统性及其内在规律,统筹考虑自然生态各要素、山上山下、地上地下、陆地海洋以及流域上下游,进行整体保护、系统修复、综合治理,增强生态系统循环能力,维护生态平衡。
See that mountains, waters, forests, and farmlands are a community of life. Based on the integrity and systemic nature of ecosystems and the way they work, it is necessary to take into consideration all the elements of the natural ecosystem – both hills and their surrounding areas, both above and under the ground, both land and sea, both upper and lower river basins -and work to protect them in their entirety, restore them systematically, and take a comprehensive approach to their governance in order to preserve ecological balance by strengthening the ability of ecosystems to circulate.

(三)生态文明体制改革的原则
3. The principles

坚持正确改革方向,健全市场机制,更好发挥政府的主导和监管作用,发挥企业的积极性和自我约束作用,发挥社会组织和公众的参与和监督作用。
Ensuring that the reform moves in the right direction. China’s market mechanisms need to be improved, and the government should make better use of its leadership and regulatory roles. Those in the business sector should bring their own initiative into play and exercise self-restraint. Social organizations and the general public should participate and play a supervising role in ecological conservation.

坚持自然资源资产的公有性质,创新产权制度,落实所有权,区分自然资源资产所有者权利和管理者权力,合理划分中央地方事权和监管职责,保障全体人民分享全民所有自然资源资产收益。
Maintaining the public nature of natural resource assets. New property rights systems should be created for natural resources. Ownership rights should be clarified. There should be a distinction between ownership rights and the authority to manage. Powers and regulatory responsibilities of the central and local governments should be divided more appropriately. Everyone should be entitled to benefit from state-owned natural resource assets.

坚持城乡环境治理体系统一,继续加强城市环境保护和工业污染防治,加大生态环境保护工作对农村地区的覆盖,建立健全农村环境治理体制机制,加大对农村污染防治设施建设和资金投入力度。
Integrating environmental governance for rural and urban areas. Continued efforts should be made to strengthen urban environmental protection and industrial pollution prevention and control. The rural coverage of ecological and environmental protection efforts should be expanded. Effective systems and mechanisms for rural environmental governance should be established. The development of pollution prevention and control facilities should be stepped up in rural areas, and related funding should be increased.

坚持激励和约束并举,既要形成支持绿色发展、循环发展、低碳发展的利益导向机制,又要坚持源头严防、过程严管、损害严惩、责任追究,形成对各类市场主体的有效约束,逐步实现市场化、法治化、制度化。
Attaching equal importance to incentives and restraints. It is imperative to develop interest-related mechanisms for promoting green, circular, and low-carbon development, and at the same time practice strict prevention at the source of pollution, strict regulation over operations, strict compensation for environmental damage, and accountability for those responsible in order to effectively restrain all types of market entities and, step by step, make ecological conservation efforts more market-, law-, and procedure-based.

坚持主动作为和国际合作相结合,加强生态环境保护是我们的自觉行为,同时要深化国际交流和务实合作,充分借鉴国际上的先进技术和体制机制建设有益经验,积极参与全球环境治理,承担并履行好同发展中大国相适应的国际责任。
Combining China’s own independent efforts with international cooperation. Strengthening ecological conservation and environmental protection is something China is doing of its own accord, though at the same time it needs to deepen exchange and practical cooperation with other countries, borrow from their advanced technology and their valuable experience in institution building, take an active part in global environmental governance, and assume and perform its international responsibilities as a large developing country.

坚持鼓励试点先行和整体协调推进相结合,在党中央、国务院统一部署下,先易后难、分步推进,成熟一项推出一项。支持各地区根据本方案确定的基本方向,因地制宜,大胆探索、大胆试验。
Integrating piloting first with overall coordination. It is necessary, in accordance with the unified plans of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, to deal with the easier parts first, move forward step by step, and launch each reform when conditions are ripe to do so. On the basis of the fundamental direction laid out in this plan, encouragement should be given to local governments to explore and experiment boldly in light of their own local conditions.

(四)生态文明体制改革的目标。
4. The objectives.

到2020年,构建起由自然资源资产产权制度、国土空间开发保护制度、空间规划体系、资源总量管理和全面节约制度、资源有偿使用和生态补偿制度、环境治理体系、环境治理和生态保护市场体系、生态文明绩效评价考核和责任追究制度等八项制度构成的产权清晰、多元参与、激励约束并重、系统完整的生态文明制度体系,推进生态文明领域国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,努力走向社会主义生态文明新时代。
This reform is designed to establish a systematic and complete institutional framework composed of eight systems for promoting ecological progress with clearly defined property rights, diversified participation, and equal focus on incentives and restraints by 2020. It is also designed to modernize China’s governance system and capacity for governance in the field of ecological progress and usher in a new era for socialist ecological progress. These eight systems include a system of property rights for natural resource assets, a system for the development and protection of territorial space, a spatial planning system, a system for regulating total consumption and comprehensive conservation of resources, a system for payment-based resource consumption and compensating conservation and protection efforts, the environmental governance system, the market system for environmental governance and ecological preservation, and the system for evaluating officials’ ecological conservation performance and for holding those responsible for ecological damage to account.

构建归属清晰、权责明确、监管有效的自然资源资产产权制度,着力解决自然资源所有者不到位、所有权边界模糊等问题。
A system of property rights for natural resource assets will be established, according to which ownership is clearly defined, powers and responsibilities are explicit, and regulation is effective, in order to ensure there are owners for natural resources and ownership is clear.

构建以空间规划为基础、以用途管制为主要手段的国土空间开发保护制度,着力解决因无序开发、过度开发、分散开发导致的优质耕地和生态空间占用过多、生态破坏、环境污染等问题。
A system will be built on the basis of spatial planning for the development and protection of territorial space, drawing on regulation of its uses as the main approach, with a view to stopping the over-use of quality cropland and ecological space, ecological damage, and environmental pollution caused by disorderly, excessive, and scattered development.

构建以空间治理和空间结构优化为主要内容,全国统一、相互衔接、分级管理的空间规划体系,着力解决空间性规划重叠冲突、部门职责交叉重复、地方规划朝令夕改等问题。
A spatial planning system will be designed, with the main purpose of strengthening the spatial governance and improving its structure, which is nationally unified and better connected between different departments of government, and according to which management is divided between governments at multiple levels, in an effort to eliminate overlapping and conflicting spatial plans, the overlap and duplication of responsibilities between departments, and the issue of local authorities frequently changing their plans.

构建覆盖全面、科学规范、管理严格的资源总量管理和全面节约制度,着力解决资源使用浪费严重、利用效率不高等问题。
An effective, standardized, and strictly managed system that achieves complete coverage will be established for regulating total consumption and comprehensive conservation of resources, in order to address inefficiency and serious waste in resource consumption.

构建反映市场供求和资源稀缺程度、体现自然价值和代际补偿的资源有偿使用和生态补偿制度,着力解决自然资源及其产品价格偏低、生产开发成本低于社会成本、保护生态得不到合理回报等问题。
A system for payment-based resource consumption and compensating conservation and protection efforts will be established. The system will reflect market supply and demand, resource scarcity, the value of nature, and the need for intergenerational compensation, in order to address the problems of excessively low prices for natural resources and their products, the cost of production and development being lower than the social cost, and inadequate incentives for ecological conservation efforts.

构建以改善环境质量为导向,监管统一、执法严明、多方参与的环境治理体系,着力解决污染防治能力弱、监管职能交叉、权责不一致、违法成本过低等问题。
An environmental governance system which is oriented toward improving the environment, and which incorporates unified regulation, strict law enforcement, and multi-party participation will be developed in an effort to deal with weak capacity for pollution prevention and control, overlapping regulatory functions between government departments, powers not being in accord with responsibilities, and the cost of law violations being too low.

构建更多运用经济杠杆进行环境治理和生态保护的市场体系,着力解决市场主体和市场体系发育滞后、社会参与度不高等问题。
A market system which allows economic levers to play a greater role in environmental governance and ecological conservation will be developed, with a view to addressing the slow development of market entities and market systems and low rates of public participation in ecological conservation.

构建充分反映资源消耗、环境损害和生态效益的生态文明绩效评价考核和责任追究制度,着力解决发展绩效评价不全面、责任落实不到位、损害责任追究缺失等问题。
An evaluation and accountability system will be developed to assess the performance of officials in ecological conservation and hold to account those responsible for ecological damage. This system will be designed to be fully reflective of resource consumption, environmental damage, and ecological benefits, and is to be built so as to correct the shortcomings in performance evaluations, narrow the gaps in responsibility systems, and improve poor accountability for ecological damage.



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