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文学作品汉译:Bacon - Of Great Place

2014-09-12    来源:en84    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

文学作品汉译:Bacon - Of Great Place

文学作品汉译:请欣赏培根作品《Of Great Place》

Of Great Place

Francis Bacon

MEN in great place are thrice servants: servants of the sovereign or state; servants of fame; and servants of business. So as they have no freedom; neither in their persons, nor in their actions, nor in their times. It is a strange desire, to seek power and to lose liberty: or to seek power over others, and to lose power over a man's self. The rising unto place is laborious; and by pains, men come to greater pains; and it is sometimes base; and by indignities, men come to dignities. The standing is slippery, and the regress is either a downfall, or at least an eclipse, which is a melancholy thing. Cum non sis qui fueris, non esse cur velis vivere. Nay, retire men cannot when they would, neither will they, when it were reason; but are impatient of privateness, even in age and sickness, which require the shadow; like old townsmen, that will be still sitting at their street door, though thereby they offer age to scom. Certainly great persons had need to borrow other men's opinions, to think themselves happy; for if they judge by their own feeling, they cannot find it; but if they think with themselves, what other men think of them, and that other men would fain be, as they are, then they are happy, as it were, by report; when perhaps they find the contrary within. For they are the first, that find their own griefs, though they be the last, that find their own faults. Certainly men in great fortunes are strangers to themselves, and while they are in the puzzle of business, they have no time to tend their health, either of body or mind. Illi mors gravis incubat, qui notus nimis omnibus, ignotus moritur sibi. In place, there is license to do good, and evil; whereof the latter is a curse: for in evil, the best condition is not to win; the second, not to can. But power to do good, is the true and lawful end of aspiring. For good thoughts (though God accept them) yet, towards men, are little better than good dreams, except they be put in act; and that cannot be, without power and place, as the vantage, and commanding ground. Merit and good works, is the end of man's motion; and conscience of the same is the accomplishment of man's rest. For if a man can be partaker of God's theatre, he shall likewise be partaker of God's rest. Et conversus Deus, ut aspiceret opera quae fecerunt manus suae, vidit quod omnia essent bona nimis; and then the sabbath. In the discharge of thy place, set before thee the best examples; for imitation is a globe of precepts. And after a time, set before thee thine own example; and examine thyself strictly, whether thou didst not best at first. Neglect not also the examples, of those that have carried themselves ill, in the same place; not to set off thyself, by taxing their memory, but to direct thyself, what to avoid. Reform therefore, without bravery, or scandal of former times and persons; but yet set it down to thyself, as well to create good precedents, as to follow them. Reduce things to the first institution, and observe wherein, and how, they have degenerate; but yet ask counsel of both times; of the ancient time, what is best; and of the latter time, what is fittest. Seek to make thy course regular, that men may know beforehand, what they may expect; but be not too positive and peremptory; and express thyself well, when thou digressest from thy rule. Preserve the right of thy place; but stir not questions of jurisdiction; and rather assume thy right, in silence and de facto, than voice it with claims, and challenges. Preserve likewise the rights of inferior places; and think it more honor, to direct in chief, than to be busy in all. Embrace and invite helps, and advices, touching the execution of thy place; and do not drive away such, as bring thee information, as meddlers; but accept of them in good part. The vices of authority are chiefly four: delays, corruption, roughness, and facility. For delays: give easy access; keep times appointed; go through with that which is in hand, and interlace not business, but of necessity. For corruption: do not only bind thine own hands, or thy servants' hands, from taking, but bind the hands of suitors also, from offering. For integrity used doth the one; but integrity professed, and with a manifest detestation of bribery, doth the other. And avoid not only the fault, but the suspicion. Whosoever is found variable, and changeth manifestly without manifest cause, giveth suspicion of corruption. Therefore always, when thou changest thine opinion or course, profess it plainly, and declare it, together with the reasons that move thee to change; and do not think to steal it. A servant or a favorite, if he be inward, and no other apparent cause of esteem, is commonly thought, but a by-way to close corruption. For roughness: it is a needless cause of discontent: severity breedeth fear, but roughness breedeth hate. Even reproofs from authority, ought to be grave, and not taunting. As for facility: it is worse than bribery. For bribes come but now and then; but if importunity, or idle respects, lead a man, he shall never be without. As Solomon saith, To respect persons is not good; for such a man will transgress for a piece of bread. It is most true, that was anciently spoken, A place showeth the man. And it showeth some to the better, and some to the worse. Omnium consensu capax imperii, nisi imperasset, saith Tacitus of Galba; but of Vespasian he saith, Solus imperantium, Vespasianus mutatus in melius; though the one was meant of sufficiency, the other of manners, and affection. It is an assured sign of a worthy and generous spirit, whom honor amends. For honor is, or should be, the place of virtue; and as in nature, things move violently to their place, and calmly in their place, so virtue in ambition is violent, in authority settled and calm. All rising to great place is by a winding star; and if there be factions, it is good to side a man's self, whilst he is in the rising, and to balance himself when he is placed. Use the memory of thy predecessor, fairly and tenderly; for if thou dost not, it is a debt will sure be paid when thou art gone. If thou have colleagues, respect them, and rather call them, when they look not for it, than exclude them, when they have reason to look to be called. Be not too sensible, or too remembering, of thy place in conversation, and private answers to suitors; but let it rather be said, When he sits in place, he is another man.

谈高位

弗朗西斯·培根

居高位者乃三重之仆役:帝王或国家之臣,荣名之奴,事业之婢也。因此不论其人身、行动、时间,皆无自由可言。追逐权力,而失自由,有治人之权,而无律己之力,此种欲望诚可怪也。历尽艰难始登高位,含辛茹苦,唯得更大辛苦,有时事且卑劣,因此须做尽不光荣之事,方能达光荣之位。既登高位,立足难稳,稍一倾侧,即有倒地之虞,至少亦晦暗无光,言之可悲。古人云:“既已非当年之盛,又何必贪生?”殊不知人居高位,欲退不能,能退之际亦不愿退,甚至年老多病,理应隐居,亦不甘寂寞,犹如老迈商人仍长倚店门独坐,徒令人笑其老不死而已。显达之士率需借助他人观感,方信自己幸福,而无切身之感,从人之所见,世之所羡,乃人云亦云,认为幸福,其实心中往往不以为然;盖权贵虽最不勇于认过,却最多愁善感也。凡人一经显贵,待己亦成陌路,因事务纠缠,对本人身心健康,亦无暇顾及矣,诚如古人所言: “悲哉斯人之死也,举世皆知其为人,而独无自知之明!”

居高位,可以行善,亦便于作恶。作恶可咒,救之之道首在去作恶之心,次在除作恶之力;而行善之权,则为求高位者所应得,盖仅有善心,虽为上帝嘉许,而凡人视之,不过一场好梦耳,唯见之于行始有助于世,而行则非有权力高位不可,犹如作战必据险要也。

行动之目的在建功立业,休息之慰藉在自知功业有成。盖人既分享上帝所造之胜景,自亦应分享上帝所订之休息。《圣经》不云乎:“上帝回顾其手创万物,无不美好;”于是而有安息日。

执行职权之初,宜将最好先例置诸座右,有无数箴言,可资借镜。稍后应以己为例,严加审查,是否已不如初。前任失败之例,亦不可忽,非为揭人之短,显已之能,以其可作前车之鉴也。因此凡有兴革,不宜大事夸耀,亦不可耻笑古人,但须反求诸己,不独循陈规,而且创先例也。凡事须追本溯源,以见由盛及衰之道。然施政定策,则古今皆须征询:古者何事最好,今者何事最宜。

施政须力求正规,俾众知所遵循,然不可过严过死;本人如有越轨,必须善为解释。本位之职权不可让,管辖之界限则不必问,应在不动声色中操实权,忌在大庭广众间争名分。下级之权,亦应维护,与其事事干预,不如遥控总领,更见尊荣。凡有就分内之事进言献策者,应予欢迎,并加鼓励;报告实况之人,不得视为好事,加以驱逐,而应善为接待。

掌权之弊有四,曰:拖,贪,暴,圆。

拖者拖延也,为免此弊,应开门纳客,接见及时,办案快速,非不得已不可数事混杂。

贪者贪污也,为除此弊,既要束住本人及仆从之手不接,亦须束住来客之手不送,为此不仅应廉洁自持,且须以廉洁示人,尤须明白弃绝贿行。罪行固须免,嫌疑更应防。性情不定之人有明显之改变,而无明显之原因,最易涉贪污之嫌。因此,意见与行动苟有更改,必须清楚说明,当众宣告,同时解释所以变化之理由,决不可暗中为之。如有仆从捻友为主人亲信,其受器重也别无正当理由,则世人往往疑为秘密贪污之捷径。

粗暴引起不满,其实完全可免。严厉仅产生畏惧,粗暴则造成仇恨。即使上官申斥,亦宜出之以严肃,而不应恶语伤人。

至于圆通,其害过于贿行,因贿行仅偶尔发生,如有求必应,看人行事,则积刁难返矣。所罗门曾云:“对权贵另眼看待实非善事,盖此等人能为一两米而作恶也。”

旨哉古人之言:“一登高位,面目毕露。”或更见有德,或更显无行。罗马史家戴西特斯论罗马大帝盖巴曰:“如未登基,则人皆以为明主也”;其论维斯帕西安则曰:“成王霸之业而更有德,皇帝中无第二人矣。”以上一则指治国之才,一则指道德情操。尊荣而不易其操,反增其德,斯为忠诚仁厚之确征。夫尊荣者,道德之高位也:自然界中,万物不得其所,皆狂奔突撞,既达其位,则沉静自安;道德亦然,有志未酬则狂,当权问政则静。一切腾达,无不须循小梯盘旋而上。如朝有朋党,则在上升之际,不妨与一派结交;既登之后,则须稳立其中,不偏不倚。对于前任政绩,宜持论平允,多加体谅,否则,本人卸职后亦须情还欠债,无所逃也。如有同僚,应恭敬相处,宁可移樽就教,出人意外,不可人有所待,反而拒之。与人闲谈,或有客私访,不可过于矜持,或时刻不忘尊贵,宁可听人如是说:“当其坐堂议政时,判若两人矣。”

(王佐良 译)

论高位

居高位的人是三重的仆役:君主或国家底仆役;名声底仆役;事业底仆役。所以他们是没有自由的,既没有个人底自由,也没有行动底自由,也没有时间底自由。要寻求权力而去掉自由,或寻求凌驾他人的权力而失却统治自己的权力,这一种欲望是一种可异的欲望。要升到高位上,其经过是很艰难的,但是人们却要吃许多苦以取得更大的痛苦;要升到高位上,其经过有时是卑污的;然而人们却借着卑污的手段达到尊严的地位。在高位上居留是很不稳的,其退步或是复亡,或者至少是声名暗晦,——那是一件很可悲的事。“当你到了今日之我非复昔日之我的时候,就没有再要活下去的理由了”。真的,人们在愿意退休的时候是不能退的,并且在应该退休的时候是不肯退的。反之,人们都不耐退休底生活,甚至于在老病之中,需要隐居的时候亦复如此;就好象有些城里的老头儿一样,总要坐在街门口,虽然这种办法使人家看不起老年。无疑地,居高位的人们得要借他人底意见才能以为自己是幸福的;因为若是他们依着自己底所感来判断,则他们不会发现自己是幸福的。但是假如他们自己想一想别人对他们作何感想,并且想到别的人如何愿意作他们;那末他们就好象是由外面的谈论而快乐了,同时在内心中也许正是相反。因为这些人是首先发现他们自己底忧患的人,虽然他们是最后才看出自己底过失的人。无疑地,居高位的人们对自我是陌生人,并且在事务匆忙之中,他们是没有时间来照管自己底身体或精神上的健康的。“如果一个人在死的时候,别人过于知道他,而自己不知道自己,那么死亡之降临可真是一桩大祸了”。在高位之中有为善与为恶的自由;而后者乃是一种可诅咒的自由:因为谈到作恶最好是不愿意,其次就是不能够。但是能有做好事的权力那才是真正的而且合法的希望之所系。因为好意,虽然上帝接受,然而对于世人,要是不实行出来,则不过如好梦一般而已;而要行好事就非有权有位,有一种居高临下之势不可。功与德乃人类行动之目的,而感觉到自己已经有了这两样才是令人自足的成就。因为,如果一个人能够参预上帝底剧场,那么他也可以参加上帝底安息了。“于是上帝转身看他手造的一切,看见它们都是很好的”,此后就是安息日了。在执行你底职务的时候,在你面前要有最好的模范;因为模仿就等于是一套箴言。以后,过了些时候,可把你自己底模范放在面前,并且严格地自检,是否你从前做得好而现在是退步了。也不要忽视从前那些在同样的位置而不称其职的人底例子;这并非是要用诋毁前人底名声的方法来显出你自己底好处,而是要指导你自己,当以何者为戒的意思。因此,你应当不带着欺凌毁污前代或前人的意味而改革以往的不善,而同时也要给自己立规矩,不但要仿效,并且还要创立好的先例。你须要把事物追究到最早的起源,并且考察它们因何并且如何变为退化的,但是仍要向古今两个时代都去求教;向古时要问何者是最良好的;向现时要问何者是最适当的。你须要努力把你底行事之道做得很有规律,前后一致,如此他人可以知道他们可以预期什么;但是也不要过于一定或确凿;并且在你违背那常规的时候要把自己所以如此的缘由解释得清清楚楚。保持你自己底地位应享的权利,但是不要引起法律上关于此点的争论:宁可静静地在事实上享这种权利,而不要用要索和强争的手段去公开吵闹。同样,保持下属底权利;并且以居首指挥为荣,而不要以参预一切为荣。在执行职务上欢迎并邀请帮助和忠告,不要把带消息给你的人认为是好管闲事者而逐之使去;反之,要好好地接待他们。高位底过恶主要的有四种;迟延、贪污、粗暴与易欺。关于迟延,应使人易于得见,守约定之时间,当前之事应即作完,并勿以不必要之事搀杂其间。关于贪污,不仅要约束自己底手和仆役底手,毋使接纳贿赂,并当约束有所请求的人们底手,毋使呈献贿赂。因为一个人自己实行的节操是约束自己和仆役的,而宣扬出去的节操,再加上公开的对贿赂的厌恨,则是约束他人的。又应避者,不但是纳贿之事实,而且是纳贿之嫌疑。一个人要是被人认为反复无常,或者无明显的原故而公开地变更了,就要招致贪污之嫌疑的。因此,无论何时,当你变更你底主意或行事之道的时候,把这件事公开地承认了,并把这件事和使你变更的理由宣之于众,不要想偷偷摸摸地做了。一个仆人或宠幸,假如他仅仅是与你亲昵而没有显然的可称之处,就要被人认为是暗行贪污的一条门路的。至于粗暴,那是一种不必要的招怨之道。严厉生畏,但是粗暴生恨,即在公事上的谴责也应当庄重而不应当侮辱嘲弄。至于易欺,那是比受贿还坏的。因为贿赂不过是偶尔而来的,但是假如屡请和无理由的顾念可以打动一个人,那末这个人就永不会没有这种情面事了。如所罗门所言:“看情面是不好的;因为这样的人是会为了一块面包而枉法的”。古语说得极是:“地位显出为人”。地位显出有些人底长处,也显出有些人底短处。“假如他从来没有做过皇帝,公意也要说他是适于做皇帝的。”这是泰西塔斯说嘉尔巴的话。关于外斯帕显他却说:“外斯帕显是唯一因为有了权力而人格增进的皇帝”——虽然前一句话是关于统治底能力的,而后一句是关于仪容及感情的。一个人因有权位而人格增进,这是他底人格高尚而宽宏大量底确证。因为权位是,或者应当是,德能之所在;并且,如在自然界一样,事物向它们底位置动的时候,其动甚烈,而在它们底地位中动的时候其动甚和缓,所以德能在努力上达的时候是猛烈的,而在当权的时候是安稳平和的。一切上跻高位的行动都是象登一条迂曲的楼梯一样;若遇有派别的时候,一个人最好是在上升的时候加入某派而在已腾达之时保守中立。对待前人底遗名当公平而爱护,因为假如你不这样做,那么这就不啻是一种债务,将来你去位的时候人家一定要偿还你的。如果你有同僚的话,尊重他们,并且宁可在他们并不想望被召的时候召请他们,而不要在他们有理由希冀被召的时候拒见他们。在谈话和私下答复请求者的时候不要过于自觉或过于记得你底地位;反之,最好让人家说,“他在执行职务的时候是另一个人”。

(水天同 译)



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