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吸烟有害报告50周年

2014-01-20    来源:voanews    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

If there is one person whose work created a ripple effect that is changing the world, it was the ninth surgeon general of the United States. Fifty years ago this month, he issued a report that linked cigarette smoking to lung cancer and heart disease.

如果说有一个人的工作产生了改变世界的涟漪效应的话,这个人就是美国第九任总医官路德•特里。50年前的这个月,他发表了一份报告,把吸烟跟肺癌和心脏病联系起来。

On a cold, rainy day at Arlington National Cemetery, people gathered to remember and honor a man who devoted his life to improving the health of others.

在寒冷的风雨中,人们聚集在阿灵顿国家公墓,纪念把一生心血贡献给改善人类健康的人:路德•特里。

Surgeon General Luther Terry, now buried at the cemetery for military heroes, released a report in 1964 that linked smoking with cancer.

总医官特里安葬在阿灵顿国家公墓,他在1964年发表了一份报告,把吸烟和肺癌联系起来。

"President Kennedy ultimately selects him to be the ninth surgeon general," said Rear Admiral Boris Lushniak.

代理总医官鲍里斯•鲁希尼亚克海军少将说:“肯尼迪总统任命他为第九任总医官。”

Acting Surgeon General, Rear Admiral Boris Lushniak, spoke of Dr. Terry's accomplishments.

鲁希尼亚克少将赞扬特里医生说:

"What took place 50 years ago changed the world. Fifty years ago, [it was a] completely different world when it comes to tobacco use and smoking," he said.

“50年前发生的事件改变了世界。”他说:“50年前,人们对烟草和吸烟的看法完全不同。”

Smoking was accepted everywhere: in airplanes, in bars and restaurants and in work places.

人们可以在任何地方吸烟:飞机上、酒吧和餐厅,甚至办公室里。

"Statistically, almost half the U.S. adult population smoked at that point," said Lushniak.

鲁希尼亚克说:“数据显示,当时几乎一半的美国成年人都吸烟。”

And the other half, including children, breathed in toxic, smoke-filled air. It was part of the culture until Dr. Terry released the report produced by a committee of scientists.

包括儿童在内的另一半人则呼吸着充斥着烟雾的有毒空气,那是文化的一部分,直到特里医生领导的一个科学家小组发表了这份研究报告。

“And the stand was, ‘It is definitive. There is a tie-in between tobacco use, smoking, lung cancer as well as heart disease.' And I think that really rattled the world that the U.S. government, specifically the surgeon general as a representative of the U.S. government, came out with such a strong stance," said Lushniak.

鲁希尼亚克说:“报告的态度是,‘毫无疑问,使用烟草、吸烟跟肺癌和心脏病有关。’这份报告震撼了全世界和美国政府,尤其是如此强烈的表态来自代表美国政府的外科医生。”

U.S. policies gradually changed... eventually mandating smoke-free areas in the work-place and elsewhere.

美国政策逐渐发生了改变,最终在工作场所等地方强制实行无烟区。

Education campaigns warned people of the dangers of tobacco use. In the past 50 years, more than three dozen surgeon generals' reports revealed more negative health effects of tobacco use. They found that even those who don't use cigarettes, but breathe in other's smoke, are exposed to serious health risks and deadly disease.

宣传活动警告人们使用烟草的危害。过去50年来,总医官们发表了36份以上的报告,公布了烟草对健康更加严重的危害。报告发现,即使那些不吸烟的人,吸入别人吐出的烟雾后,也会面临健康风险,甚至患上不治之症。

These policies have helped cut the rate of smoking in the U.S. from 43 percent to 18 percent, according to Dr. Lushniak. But stopping smoking is hard.

鲁希尼亚克医生说,美国的政策把美国人口的吸烟率从43%降低到18%,可是戒烟并不容易。

"Remember, this is not just a habit. This is an addiction. Fifty years from now, I would love to think we won’t have to issue a 100th anniversary report because the problem will have been solved," he said.

他说:“记住,吸烟不仅是习惯,而且是上瘾。但愿再过50年,我们不需要再举行这份报告发表100周年的纪念活动,因为这个问题已经解决了。”

But the job isn't done. Five and a half million people die each year, including half a million Americans, because they used some form of tobacco or breathed someone else's smoke, and the number is expected to rise.

可是目前任务还没有完成,每年仍然有550万人丧生,其中50万是美国人,因为他们不同形式的使用烟草,或者吸进二手烟。据估计,死亡人数还会上升。

From 1964 on, Dr. Terry devoted his live to ending the smoking epidemic.

特里医生从1964年起把全部心血奉献给了制止吸烟的努力。



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