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毛衣起球怎么办 勿要用手指揪拽毛球

2014-03-03    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

Hoping to add some polished knitwear to her wardrobe, Denise Anker spent several hundred dollars last fall on two Vince brand sweaters.
为了给自己衣橱里添置一些平滑光洁的针织衫,德妮丝・安克尔(Denise Anker)在去年秋天花了好几百美元买了两件Vince品牌的毛衣。

One, made entirely of cashmere, has held up well and Ms. Anker wears it regularly. The other, a wool-cashmere blend charcoal-gray cardigan -- and at $395 the more expensive of the two -- has shown troubling signs of a vexing winter wardrobe problem: pilling.
其中一件是纯羊绒质地的,一直保养得很好,安克尔也经常穿它。另一件则为羊毛、羊绒混织的炭灰色开襟衫,售价395美元(折合人民币2,392元),在这两件中也更贵──但它已显露出令人不安的种种迹象:起球──这是冬季衣橱中一个让人恼火的问题。

'After two wearings, it became a ragged mess,' says Ms. Anker, a 55-year-old resident of Big Oak Flat, Calif. Now she wears it only for casual occasions. It's the 'I want to roll around on the floor with my dogs' sweater, she says.
现年55岁、住在加利福尼亚州大橡树平地(Big Oak Flat, Calif.)的安克尔说:“穿了两年之后,它就变得破烂不堪、一团糟了。”现在,安克尔只在休闲场合才穿穿它。她还说,这件衣服成了那种“我想和我的狗在地上打滚儿”时穿的毛衣。

The pesky yarn clumps known as pills can form on garments of all materials and prices, from a high-end cashmere sweater to a bargain-priced acrylic blend. Pilling tends to get worse with more wear, which is why it always seems to occur on your favorite wool turtleneck and not the ones at the back of the closet.
从高档羊绒毛衣到廉价亚克力混纺品,所有材质和各档价位的衣服都会生出令人讨厌的纱团儿──也被称作起球。衣服穿的次数越多,起球就会越厉害,这也就是为什么你最钟爱的羊毛套头衫总是起球,而被扔在衣橱后面的衣服却不会变成这样的原因。

Pills form when yarn fibers in a garment break or become loose, or when the ends are exposed, and then tangle together. Sweaters commonly get pills because of their visible yarn, but nearly any knit or woven garment has the potential, says Sean Cormier, assistant professor at the Fashion Institute of Technology in New York, who spent almost two decades in quality assurance at the former Liz Claiborne Inc.
纽约时装技术学院(Fashion Institute of Technology in New York)的助理教授肖恩・科米尔(Sean Cormier)说,当一件衣服的纱纤维断了或变得松脱时,或当纤维头端露出于织物的表面时,它们就会互相缠结在一起。毛衣常常会起球,则是因为它们的纱线显露可见,但几乎任何一种针织或机织衣物都有起球的可能性。科米尔还曾在之前的丽诗加邦公司(Liz Claiborne Inc.)质量保证部门工作过近二十多年。

The unfortunate truth is that it's very difficult when looking at a garment in a store to predict whether it will pill. Pilling is what's known as a 'latent defect,' a problem that appears only after the product is in use. 'You don't see it until you wear it,' Mr. Cormier says.
不幸的事实是,当你在商店里打量一件衣服时,很难预测以后它会不会起球。起球一向以“潜在缺陷”而广为人知,这种问题只有当产品在使用时才会显现。科米尔说:“直到你把衣服穿在身上的时候,你才会看到这些毛球。”

Because friction begins or accelerates pilling, garment areas that are prone to rubbing, such as the side of the torso and the inside of the forearms, are likely to pill first, says Cathryn Lee, category manager of apparel care, at the Woolmark Co., which represents Australian wool growers. Men and women who carry shoulder bags will notice pilling on the shoulders. Seat belts may cause pilling across the chest.
羊毛标志公司(Woolmark Co.)是诸多澳大利亚羊毛生产商的代表,该公司服装护理部品类经理凯瑟琳・李(Cathryn Lee)说,这是因为摩擦会导致衣物起球或加速这一过程,衣服上那些容易受到揉擦的部位,比如说上身旁侧及前臂内侧,都可能会最先起球。那些使用肩包的男性和女性还会注意到衣物的双肩上正在起球。而座椅安全带则可能会导致衣物胸前部位起球。

The material used in a particular garment may provide hints as to whether it will pill. Merino wool tends to be strong and when used in a tightly wound sweater would be less likely to pill than fuzzy, fine-gauge cashmere, says Gwen Whiting, co-founder of the Laundress, a New York fabric-care company. But nearly every garment, regardless of make or brand, is a candidate.
一件衣物以后会不会起球,它所使用的材质可能会提供一些线索。纽约织品衣物护理公司Laundress的联合创始人格温・怀廷(Gwen Whiting)说,美利奴羊毛(Merino wool)一般比较结实,当用这种材质来编织一件紧实的毛衣时,与毛茸茸的细针织羊绒衫相比,前者就不太会起球。但几乎每一件衣物,不管它是什么材质、来自哪个品牌,都有可能会起球。

With natural raw materials like cashmere, the length of the fiber is particularly important. Longer fibers can be wound into tighter yarn, making it less likely the ends will come loose, says Karl Spilhaus, president of the Cashmere and Camel Hair Manufacturers Institute.
羊绒与驼绒生产商协会(Cashmere and Camel Hair Manufacturers Institute)会长卡尔・斯皮赫斯(Karl Spilhaus)说,像羊绒这样的天然原材质,纤维的长度就格外重要。长一些的纤维能纺成更紧实的纱线,令其头端更不易松脱。

'Pilling is going to happen with any woven garment but there is a direct link to the length of the yarn thread used,' Thomas Ott, senior vice president for men's apparel at Saks Fifth Avenue, says. 'The longer the thread, the longer it takes to pill.'
萨克斯第五大道精品百货店(Saks Fifth Avenue)男装部高级副总裁托马斯・奥特(Thomas Ott)说:“任何机织服装都会起球,但这与所用纱线的长度有着直接的关系。纱线越长,衣物也能穿更久才起球。”

Today's extremely price-competitive climate is pushing many manufacturers toward shorter, less expensive fibers, Mr. Spilhaus says.
斯皮赫斯说,如今,价格竞争极其激烈,这种风气正促使许多生产商转而使用更短、没那么贵的纤维。

The finish of a garment also affects the likelihood of pilling. A cashmere sweater used to require several home washings before it 'bloomed' -- the industry term for the soft, full feeling of a broken-in sweater.
衣物的最后加工步骤也会影响起球的可能性。过去,一件羊绒毛衣需要买回家洗几次以后才会变得“容光焕发”──行业术语,指一件毛衣上身久了之后变得柔软贴身的感觉。

Retailers and shoppers are looking for sweaters with a 'hand feel' of extreme, immediate softness. Mr. Spilhaus says manufacturers wash garments repeatedly to get the exterior that soft. The washing, along with shorter fibers, brings the ends to the surface more quickly, making pills more likely to happen sooner.
零售商与购物者都在找寻那些“手感”极其柔软、上身之后立马就软贴贴的毛衣。斯皮赫斯说,为了让衣物外观变得那样柔软,生产商们都在反复清洗衣物。如此这般的清洗,再加上使用越来越短的纤维,这些因素致使纤维头端更快地露出于织物表面,也使衣物更易快速起球。

Retailers, regardless of price point, say they take steps to prevent pilling. Uniqlo, which sells moderately priced sportswear, says it uses a pill-reducing treatment on its worsted merino-wool sweaters. Luxury knitwear maker Brunello Cucinelli sends employees along with importers to meet with Mongolian shepherds when selecting cashmere for its annual production.
撇开价格点不谈,零售商说,他们正在采取措施、以防衣物起球。出售中档价位运动装的优衣库(Uniqlo)称,它在自家精纺的美利奴羊毛毛衣上就用了一种去毛球法。而一到了为每年生产商品采集羊绒时,奢华针织品制造商布鲁奈罗・库奇内利 (Brunello Cucinelli)就会将员工与进口商一道派去会见蒙古牧羊人。

Some retailers require suppliers to test sweaters for pilling, says FIT's Mr. Cormier. Certain stores require use of the Martindale Pilling Tester, a large, two-tiered oscillating machine that rubs two swatches of the same material against each another in circular and linear motions. Another option, often used for sturdier fabrics such as upholstery, is the Random Tumble Pilling Tester, a blender-like machine with prongs that rapidly spin three swatches in a cork-lined cylinder.
纽约时装技术学院的科米尔说,一些零售商要求供应商对毛衣进行检测,看看是否起球。某些商店要求使用马丁代尔耐磨仪(Martindale Pilling Tester),这是一种巨大的、两层振摆式机器,它让同一材质的两片样板布以环形和线性运动方式进行相互摩擦。另一个选择是随机翻滚式毛球测试仪(Random Tumble Pilling Tester),这是一种带有尖叉、类似搅拌机的仪器,常用来检测厚实的面料,如家居装饰织物。该机器能让三块样板布在一个带软木塞盖儿的圆筒内快速旋转。

After testing, the samples are held at a 45-degree angle and compared under specified lighting with pilling images, and they are graded on a scale of 1 (total pilling) to 5 (no pilling whatsoever). Most retailers require a 4, which Mr. Cormier describes as 'some pill balls beginning to form.'
检测以后,人们会将这些样品以45度角的姿势举起并在特定的光线下对这些起球的图像进行比较,而且还要给它们评分:从一分(完全起球)到五分(无论怎样都不会起球)。大多数零售商要求衣物须获得四分,科米尔将这种情况称为“有一些毛球开始形成。”

Once you buy the sweater, what can you do to prevent pilling? One option is to wear it sparingly -- because the more a garment is worn, the more likely it is to pill, says Lorraine Muir, director of textile testing at the Drycleaning & Laundry Institute. The Woolmark Co. suggests letting clothing 'rest' at least 24 hours before wearing again so the fibers recover from stretching during use.
一旦你买了毛衣,要怎样做才能防止起球呢?干洗和水洗协会(Drycleaning & Laundry Institute)纺织品测试主管洛兰・缪尔(Lorraine Muir)说,其中一个选择就是少穿、穿它的时候要爱惜点儿──因为一件衣服你穿得越多,它就越容易起球。羊毛标志公司建议,让衣物在下次被穿之前至少“休息”上24小时,这样的话,纤维才能从穿戴过程的拉伸状态中恢复过来。

Gale Senseny, sales manager of Sweater Stone Inc., makers of a pill-removing device in Issaquah, Wash., has a once-a-year trick to help prevent pilling on the sweaters that fill her wardrobe. She conditions them with lanolin, an oil that comes from sheep and is removed in the fiber-cleansing process. Ms. Senseny breaks down a small bit of lanolin in a dish of hot water and then fills a sink with tepid water. She pours the lanolin in, followed by a just-washed sweater. She rinses the garment and lays it out on a towel to dry.
毛衣石公司(Sweater Stone Inc.)是一家位于华盛顿州伊萨夸市(Issaquah, Wash.)的去除毛球设备生产商,该公司销售经理盖尔・森丝尼(Gale Senseny)每年都会用一个小诀窍来防止自己衣橱里的毛衣起球。她会用羊毛脂来修复保养毛衣,羊毛脂是羊身上分泌出来的一种油脂,在纤维清洗过程中被去除。森丝尼先将一小块羊毛脂放入一盘热水中进行分解,接着用温水将水槽填满。她把羊毛脂水倒进去,再将一件刚刚洗 的毛衣也扔进去。对衣物进行清洗后,她会将毛衣展开平铺在一条毛巾上晾干。

The process helps smooth the scales on the yarn's fiber, making them less rough and less likely to tangle with one another to form a pill. 'It's just like putting conditioner in your hair,' Ms. Senseny says.
这个过程有助于抚平纱线的纤维上鱼鳞状的次节,使它们变得没那么粗糙,也更不易彼此缠绕从而形成毛球。森丝尼说:“这就像把护发素涂抹在你的头发上。”

To remove pills, Ms. Senseny, not surprisingly, uses her company's Sweater Stone. The pumice stone resembles a bar of soap. When glided over a garment it removes the pills, but it won't alter what Ms. Senseny calls the sweater's 'halo' or 'unique surface.' An electronic pill remover, she says, can damage the halo of mohair and cashmere. 'It's like shaving a beard,' she says.
情理之中的是,为了去除毛球,森丝妮还使用了自己公司的毛衣石。这种浮石就像一块肥皂。当其滑过衣物表面时,就会带走毛球,但又不会改变被森丝妮称为毛衣“光晕”或“独特表面”的特质。她称,电动毛球修剪器会毁了马海毛织物和羊绒衫的光泽。她说:“那就跟刮胡子一样。”

There are comb-like tools for removing pills, such as the palm-sized D-Fuzz-It Sweater and Fabric Comb. The Gleener has three different edges -- for big, bulky clumps, for medium-size fuzz balls and for delicate pills. President Kim Cole developed it with new synthetic fibers in mind. 'They are inherently strong, so the pilling is actually strong' and harder to remove, she said.
还有一些梳子形状的去毛球工具,比如说手掌大小的D-Fuzz-It毛衣与纤维梳子(D-Fuzz-It Sweater and Fabric Comb)。而Gleener则有三个不同的刀口──专门针对那些大块厚重的纱团、中等大小的毛球还有微小的毛粒。在研发这款产品时,总裁金姆・科尔(Kim Cole)考虑到了新出的合成纤维类衣物。她说:“它们本来就厚实,所以生出的毛球真的也很强固”,而且更难去除。

The Internet is littered with do-it-yourself ways to remove pills that involve disposable razors or sandpaper. The Laundress's Ms. Whiting doesn't recommend any of these because of the potential for further damage, including snagging, harming the yarn or making a hole.
网络上到处都充斥着自己动手用一次性剃须刀或砂纸去除毛球的方法。Laundress的联合创始人怀廷却不推荐其中的任何一种方法,因为它们可能会进一步损毁衣物,包括使衣服剐破抽丝,伤损纱线或是弄出一个洞。

For anyone tempted to pull pills off with your fingers, Ms. Whiting says don't. 'You are yanking the yarn it is attached to,' she says. 'You could end up making it worse.'
对于那些试着用手指揪拽毛球的人,怀汀建议不要这样做。“你那是在使劲拉扯毛球依附的纱线,”她说:“你可能会把毛衣毁得更厉害。”



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