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双语:谁说日本经常地震和你无关?

2015-04-20    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

双语:谁说日本经常地震和你无关?

The massive earthquake that struck northeast Japan March 11 has shortened the length of Earth’s day by a fraction and shifted how the planet’s mass is distributed
3月11日袭击日本东北部的巨大地震使地球每日的时长有所缩短,并且还改变了这颗星球的质量分布。

A new analysis of the 9.0-magnitude earthquake in Japan has found that the intense temblor has accelerated Earth's spin, shortening the length of the 24-hour day by 1.8 microseconds, according to geophysicist Richard Gross at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif.
依照美国宇航局喷气推进实验室(该实验室位于加州的帕萨迪纳市)的地球物理学家理查德·格罗斯的看法,一项对日本发生的这次9.0级大地震的新的分析发现,剧烈的地震加快了地球的自转速度,使原本24小时的一天缩短了1.8微秒。

Gross refined his estimates of the Japan quake’s impactwhich previously suggested a 1.6-microsecond shortening of the daybased on new data on how much the fault that triggered the earthquake slipped to redistribute the planet's mass. A microsecond is a millionth of a second.
根据断层触发地震产生位移所造成地球质量分布发生变化的新数据,格罗斯完善了他先前对日本地震影响的估计,他原先认为地球日长缩短了1.6微秒,1微秒就是一百万分之一秒。

"By changing the distribution of the Earth’s mass, the Japanese earthquake should have caused the Earth to rotate a bit faster, shortening the length of the day by about 1.8 microseconds,”Gross told SPACE.com in an e-mail. More refinements are possible as new information on the earthquake comes to light, he added.
格罗斯一封告知空间网站的电子邮件中说,“由于地球质量分布的变化,日本地震将使地球自转速度稍稍加快,每日的时长大约缩短1.8微秒。”他还补充说,在有关地震的更多新信息发布之后,可能还会进行更多的修正。

The scenario is similar to that of a figure skater drawing her arms inward during a spin to turn faster on the ice. The closer the mass shift during an earthquake is to the equator, the more it will speed up the spinning Earth.
这一情景就像是一名花样滑冰运动员在冰上旋转时,为了让自己旋转得更快,她会手臂内曲。在地震中,地球质量移动得离赤道越近,地球的自转就越快。

One Earth day is about 24 hours, or 86,400 seconds, long. Over the course of a year, its length varies by about one millisecond, or 1,000 microseconds, due to seasonal variations in the planet’s mass distribution such as the seasonal shift of the jet stream.
地球上一天大约是24小时,或8.64万秒。在一年中,由于地球质量分布产生的季节性变动,例如高空急流产生的季节变化,地球日长会发生约1毫秒,或者1001〕微秒的差值。


The initial data suggests the March 11  earthquake moved Japan’s main island about 8 feet, according to Kenneth Hudnut of the U.S. Geological Survey The earthquake also shifted Earth’s figure axis  by about 6 112  inches (17 centimeters), Gross added.
据美国地质勘探局的肯尼斯·哈得纳特称,原始数据显示,大地震使日本主岛移动了约8英尺。格罗斯也补充说,这次地震使地轴偏移约6.5英寸(17厘米)。

The Earth’s figure axis is not the same as its north-south axis in space, which it spins around once every day at a speed of about 1,000 mph  (1,604 kph). The figure axis is the axis around which the Earth's mass is balanced and the north- south axis by about 33 feet (10 meters).
地轴不完全等同于空间里的南北轴线。地轴每天围绕南北轴线旋转一次,转速约为每小时1000英里(1604千米)。地轴是地球质量平衡的轴线,偏离南北轴线约33英尺(10米)。

"This shift in the position of the figure axis will cause the Earth to wobble a bit differently as it rotates, but will not cause a shift of the Earth’s axis in spaceonly external forces like the gravitational attraction of the sun, moon, and planets can do that," Gross said.
格罗斯说:“地轴位置的偏移将导致地球在旋转过程中的摇摆有些不同,但不会导致地球轴心在空间中发生移动—只有像太阳、月球和行星所产生的引力这样的外部作用力,才能做到这点。”

The March 11 quake was the largest ever recorded in Japan and is the world’s fifth largest earthquake to strike since 1900, according to the USGS. It struck offshore about 231 miles  (373 kilometers) northeast of Tokyo and 80 miles (130 km) east of the city of Sendai, and created a massive tsunami that has devastated Japan’s northeastern coastal areas.
依据美国地质勘探局所载,3月11日大地震是日本有记录以来最大的地震,也是1900年以来全球第五大强震。地震发生在距东京东北部231英里(373千米)、仙台市以东80英里(130千米)的近海处,地震所引发的巨大海啸摧毁了日本东北部的沿海地区。


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