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《2013年中国人权事业的进展》白皮书(2)

2014-05-30    来源:China.org.cn    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

I. Right to Development
一、发展权利


China's economy was stable and improved in 2013, better benefiting the Chinese people. The material and cultural needs of the people have been better satisfied, and the Chinese people's right to development has been better guaranteed.
2013年,中国经济运行稳中向好,发展成果更多地惠及全体人民,广大群众的物质文化需要得到更好的满足,中国人民的发展权利得到更加充分的保障。

The people's living standards are steadily on the rise. In 2013 China maintained a GDP growth rate of 7.7 percent, which was relatively fast. The annual per capita net income for rural residents reached 8,896 yuan, up 9.3 percent in real terms; the annual per capita disposable income for urban residents was 26,955 yuan, an increase of 7 percent in real terms; and the rise in the Consumer Price Index (CPI) remained at the low level of 2.6 percent. China's annual grain output in 2013 reached 601.935 million tons; the number of civil vehicle holding reached 137.41 million; the number of fixed phone lines was 266.99 million, and the number of mobile phone users increased by 116.96 million to 1,229.11 million. The number of domestic tours totaled 3.26 billion, and the number of trips abroad made by Chinese citizens reached 98.19 million, up 10.3 percent and 18 percent, respectively, over the previous year. Among them, the number of trips abroad for private purposes reached 91.97 million, an increase of 19.3 percent.
人民生活水平持续提高。2013年,中国国内生产总值保持了7.7%的较快增长。全年农村居民人均纯收入8,896元,扣除价格因素,实际增长9.3%;城镇居民人均可支配收入26,955元,扣除价格因素,实际增长7.0%;居民消费价格涨幅保持在2.6%的低水平。全国粮食产量达到60,193.5万吨;民用汽车保有量达到13,741万辆;固定电话用户26,699万户,移动电话用户新增11,696万户,达到122,911万户。国内游客32.6亿人次,比上年增长10.3%;国内居民出境9,819万人次,增长18.0%,其中因私出境9,197万人次,增长19.3%。

Employment is expanding through various channels. Despite great employment pressure, China adheres to the employment priority strategy, taking stable growth and ensuring employment as the threshold of a proper economic range, and creating more and better-quality jobs on the basis of development. China attaches great importance to the development of labor-intensive industries, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), private enterprises and service industries that can create more jobs. In 2013 some 13.1 million urban jobs were created, an increase of 440,000 over 2012, and the registered urban unemployment rate stayed at 4.1 percent, which was relatively low. The government also provided skills training. As many as 20.49 million people participated in vocational training with government subsidies in 2013, among whom 12.275 million participated in employment skills training, 2.082 million attended entrepreneurship training, 5.487 million took part in job skills upgrading training and 646,000 received other types of training. The number of laid-off workers receiving training reached 3.98 million. China endeavors to facilitate the transfer to non-agricultural jobs of rural people, organized more than 20,000 special job fairs for migrant workers in 2013, and trained 9.384 million farmers. The government attaches ever-more importance to the employment of young people, especially college graduates. Through employment guidance services, campus recruitment activities, the "Employment Promotion Plan for Unemployed College Graduates" and other measures, China encourages college graduates to find jobs and start businesses in various forms and through various channels.
多渠道扩大就业。在就业压力大的情况下,中国坚持实施就业优先战略,将稳增长、保就业作为经济运行合理区间的下限,在发展的基础上创造更多和更高质量的就业机会。注重发展吸纳就业能力强的劳动密集型产业、中小企业、民营企业、服务业。2013年城镇新增就业1,310万人,比2012年多增44万人。城镇登记失业率保持在4.1%的较低水平。加强技能培训,全国开展政府补贴性职业培训2,049万人次,其中,就业技能培训1227.5万人次,创业培训208.2万人次,岗位技能提升培训548.7万人次,其他培训64.6万人次。城镇登记失业人员培训398万人。帮助农村劳动力稳定转移就业,全年共组织农民工专场招聘2万多场,培训农民工938.4万人次。更加关注以高校毕业生为重点的青年就业,通过加强就业指导服务,开展校园招聘活动,实施“离校未就业高校毕业生就业促进计划”等措施,促进高校毕业生多渠道、多形式就业和创业。

The basic rights of workers are guaranteed. In 2013 a total of 27 provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the central government) raised their minimum wage standards, averaging a 17 percent annual hike. The average monthly income of rural workers employed away from their homes was 2,609 yuan, an increase of 319 yuan over 2012. Community-level trade unions and organizations for safeguarding workers' rights continue to maintain a relatively rapid pace of development. By the end of 2013 the formation rate of labor dispute mediation organizations in townships and subdistricts had reached 60 percent, an increase of 10 percent year on year; the formation rate of labor dispute arbitration committees had reached 91.6 percent; and the rate of labor dispute arbitration courts nationwide was 72.7 percent, up 20 percent year on year. The number of community-level trade unions increased to 2.77 million, up 4 percent over 2012; a total of 1.298 million effective collective contracts were signed throughout the country, involving 3.64 million enterprises and 160 million employees, up 6 percent, 18 percent and 9 percent over 2012, respectively. Assistance to impoverished workers was strengthened, benefiting 7.739 million people in 2013.
劳动者权利得到切实保障。2013年,全国有27个省(区、市)提高了最低工资标准,平均提高幅度为17%。外出农民工月平均收入2,609元,比2012年增加319元。全国基层工会组织和职工维权机构继续保持较快发展。截至2013年,各地乡镇街道劳动争议调解组织组建率达60%,同比增加10个百分点;劳动人事争议仲裁委员会组建率达91.6%;全国劳动人事争议仲裁院建院率为72.7%,同比增加约20个百分点。截至2013年,全国共有基层工会组织277万个,比2012年增长4%;全国签订有效集体合同129.8万份,比2012年增长6%,覆盖364万家企业1.6亿职工,分别比2012年增长18%和9%。加大帮扶困难职工工作力度,773.9万人次困难职工得到帮助。

The government-subsidized housing projects continue to make progress. In 2013 the central government appropriated 200.3 billion yuan to help facilitate the building of government-subsidized housing and the rebuilding of dilapidated areas in all regions, and the improvement of supporting infrastructure. In the same year, construction of 6.6 million government-subsidized housing units and housing units in dilapidated areas started, and 5.4 million were basically finished. By the end of the year China had provided housing for another 36 million urban families. Cities at prefectural level and above had all worked out the conditions, procedures and waiting rules for government-subsidized housing applications by migrant workers, and the government-subsidized housing system had expanded to cover not only households with permanent urban residency but all the resident population in urban areas. China continued to promote the renovation of rural housing, renovating 2.66 million dilapidated rural houses in 2013.
保障性安居工程建设不断推进。2013年,中央财政下达2,003亿元补助资金,支持各地加快保障性住房建设和棚户区改造,完善配套基础设施建设。全年新开工建设保障性住房和棚户区改造住房660万套,基本建成540万套。截至2013年,全国累计解决了3,600多万户城镇家庭的住房困难。地级以上城市均制定了外来务工人员申请住房保障的条件、程序和轮候规则,住房保障制度由仅覆盖城镇户籍家庭扩展到覆盖全部常住人口。继续推进农村危房改造,全年改造农村危房266万户。

Poverty reduction in rural areas is making steady headway. In 2013 the State Council issued Opinions on Promoting Rural Poverty Alleviation though Innovation Mechanisms. The central government appropriated 39.4 billion yuan on poverty reduction, an increase of 6.2 billion yuan over the previous year. In 2013 some 16.5 million rural residents got rid of poverty. The per capita net income for rural residents in the counties which are key targets of the government's poverty-reduction work reached 5,389 yuan, an increase of 787 yuan over 2012, or up 13.8 percent in real terms, a growth rate higher than that of the average level in China.
农村扶贫开发扎实推进。2013年,国务院发布了《关于创新机制扎实推进农村扶贫开发工作的意见》。中央财政投入专项扶贫资金394亿元,比上年增加了62亿元。2013年全国农村共有1,650万人脱贫。国家扶贫开发工作重点县农村居民人均纯收入5,389元,比上年增加787元,扣除价格因素,实际增长13.8%,增幅继续高于全国平均水平。

Education in poverty-stricken areas is better ensured, with bigger efforts being made in this regard. The expenditure from public finance on education in 2013 was 2187.7 billion yuan, up 3 percent over the previous year and mainly focusing on poverty-stricken rural areas. In the same year, the central financial body allocated 19 billion yuan of nutrition subsidies (including 2.218 billion yuan of government awards and subsidies for local pilot projects) and a special fund of nearly 10 billion yuan for building student dining halls. By the end of 2013 some 32.45 million rural students receiving compulsory education were benefiting from the nutrition subsidy policy. A total of 699 counties with contiguous poor areas (including 19 regiment-level entities of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps) in 22 provincial-level administrative areas carried out pilot projects, covering 95,900 schools and benefiting 32 million students; 529 counties in 19 provincial-level administrative areas launched pilot projects, covering 39,800 schools and benefiting 10.02 million students. The central government appropriated 10 billion yuan to upgrade rural schools with poor compulsory education conditions, with the focus on supporting the central and western rural areas, regions inhabited by ethnic minorities and poverty-stricken areas in improving their compulsory education conditions. The government allocated 16.5 billion yuan of funds from the central budget to support and lead the expansion of preschool educational resources in various regions, and to encourage the local governments to establish the preschool education financial assistance system so as to help impoverished children, orphans and disabled children receive preschool education; the government also provided 4.647 billion yuan of national grants to regular senior high schools, benefiting nearly 5 million students from poverty-stricken households; secondary vocational education was made free for all rural students, urban students whose majors are related to agriculture, and urban impoverished students, and the first- and second-grade students whose majors are related to agriculture or who are from impoverished households enjoy national grants. Thirty provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the central government) have released policies allowing the children of rural migrant workers who live in cities to take the local college entrance examinations, and 12 provinces and municipalities have started solving the problem.
基层贫困地区教育保障力度加大。2013年全国公共财政教育支出21,877亿元,增长3%,对农村贫困地区予以重点倾斜。2013年,中央财政安排营养膳食补助资金190亿元(含地方试点奖补资金22.18亿元),食堂建设专项资金近100亿元。截至2013年,共有3,245万农村义务教育学生享受营养补助政策,其中:全国22个省份的699个集中连片特困县(包括新疆兵团19个团场)开展了国家试点,覆盖学校9.59万所,受益学生3,200万人;19个省份的529个县开展了地方试点,覆盖学校3.98万所,受益学生1,002万人。中央下达农村义务教育薄弱学校改造计划资金100亿元,重点支持中西部农村地区、民族地区、贫困地区改善薄弱学校办学条件。中央财政安排资金165亿元,支持和引导地方扩大学前教育资源,鼓励地方建立学前教育资助制度,帮助家庭经济困难儿童、孤儿和残疾儿童接受普惠性学前教育;安排普通高中国家助学金46.47亿元,资助家庭经济困难学生近500万人;所有农村学生、城市涉农专业和家庭经济困难学生均享受中职免学费政策,一、二年级在校涉农专业学生和非涉农专业家庭经济困难学生享受国家助学金。30个省(区、市)向社会公布了进城务工人员随迁子女在当地参加高考的实施方案,12个省市开始解决随迁子女在当地参加高考问题。

Chinese citizens enjoy better and equal cultural services. China has continued to implement the National Construction Plan of Prefectural (City) Level Public Cultural Facilities, and has started the project of building demonstration sites of the national public service system, with 18 billion yuan of funds from the central and local public finance. By the end of 2013, with the cultural information resource-sharing program, China had built one service center at the national level, 33 sub-centers at the provincial level, 2,843 branches at the county level, 29,555 service stations at the township (subdistrict) level, and 602,000 service outlets at the incorporated village (community) level, and the service outlet coverage in some provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the central government) has extended to unincorporated villages; China has built 42,654 public electronic reading rooms, among which 27,706 are in townships, 2,282 are in subdistricts and 12,666 are in communities. In 2013 public libraries in China handed out 28.77 million library cards, 3.93 million more than in the previous year; the number of visits to libraries reached 492.32 million, 57.95 million more than in the previous year. In the same year, cultural institutes across the country organized 1.2884 million activities of various kinds to provide services to 434.31 million people. China has delivered public cultural resources directly to communities by implementing a series of major cultural projects benefiting the people, including providing radio and television services to every household of rural areas, launching the national cultural information resource-sharing program, building libraries for farmers, projecting free films in rural areas, and setting up township cultural stations. In 2013 the country' s total funds for culture, sports and media services provided by the public finances reached 251.956 billion yuan, an increase of 11.1 percent as compared with the previous year. The central government spent 17 billion yuan on the building of the public cultural service system, an increase of 1.6 billion yuan, or 10.55 percent over the previous year. The government uses incremental funds mainly at the community level and in rural areas, and provides preferential policies to former revolutionary base areas, areas inhabited by ethnic minorities, border areas and impoverished regions. Public cultural services have also been made more equitable.
公民享受更加优质、均等的文化服务。继续实施《全国地市级公共文化设施建设规划》,开展创建国家公共服务体系示范区(项目)工作,中央和各地投入创建的财政资金超过180亿元。截至2013年,文化信息资源共享工程已建成1个国家中心,33个省级分中心,2,843个市县支中心,29,555个乡镇(街道)基层服务点,60.2万个行政村(社区)基层服务点,部分省(区、市)村级覆盖范围已延伸到自然村;已建设公共电子阅览室42,654个,其中乡镇27,706个,街道2,282个,社区12,666个。2013年,全国公共图书馆共发放借书证2,877万个,比上年增加393万个;总流通人次49,232万人次,比上年增加5795万人次。2013年,全国群众文化机构共组织开展各类活动128.84万场次,服务人次43,431万人次。国家通过实施广播电视村村通户户通、全国文化信息资源共享、农家书屋、农村电影公益放映、乡镇综合文化站建设等一系列重大文化惠民工程,将公共文化资源直接输送到基层。2013年,全国公共财政文化体育与传媒支出2519.56亿元,比上年增长11.1%。2013年,中央财政用于公共文化服务体系建设的资金达170亿元,比上年增加16亿元,增长10.55%。在资金支出时切实贯彻落实增量经费主要用于基层、用于农村的规定,并向老少边穷地区倾斜。基本公共文化服务均等化取得进展。



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