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《2013年中国人权事业的进展》白皮书(3)

2014-06-03    来源:China.org.cn    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

II. Right to Social Security
二、社会保障权利


China's social security has been continuously improving in recent years, as we speed up the process of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects. China's social security developed rapidly in 2013, as it expanded constantly both in coverage and scope. Although not very developed, China has put in place a rudimentary social security system, which is the world's largest and suitable to China' s current social conditions.
随着全面建成小康社会的加快推进,近年来中国的社会保障水平不断提高。2013年,中国社会保障事业快速发展,保障内容持续增加,保障范围不断扩大,在经济发展水平还不是很高的情况下,初步建立了世界上规模最大的符合现阶段中国社会实际的社会保障体系。

In 2012 full coverage was achieved by the new social endowment insurance system for rural residents and social endowment insurance for non-working urban residents. By the end of 2013 a total of 497.5 million rural and non-working urban residents had participated in social endowment insurance, an increase of 13.81 million compared with 2012. A total of 322.18 million people had participated in the basic endowment insurance for urban workers by the end of 2013, an increase of 17.91 million compared with 2012. In 2013 the monthly per capita basic pension for enterprise retirees, which had been continuously raised for years, reached almost 1,900 yuan, 10 percent of the average monthly pension of 2012. The new adjustment also provided preferential treatment for retired senior enterprise technicians, and retirees whose pensions were relatively low. In February 2014 the State Council issued Opinions on Establishing a Unified Basic Pension Insurance System for Rural and Non-working Urban Residents, which integrates the new social endowment insurance system for rural residents with the social endowment insurance system for non-working urban residents, and build a unified basic pension insurance system for both rural and non-working urban residents nationwide.
2012年,实现全国新型农村社会养老保险和城镇居民社会养老保险制度全覆盖。截至2013年,全国城乡居民参保人数达到49,750万人,比2012年增加1,381万人;全国城镇职工基本养老保险参保人数为32,218万人,比2012年增加1,791万人。2013年,企业退休人员月人均基本养老金水平继续调整,调整水平按2012年企业退休人员月人均基本养老金的10%左右确定,达到近1900元,并对具有高级职称的企业退休科技人员、基本养老金相对偏低的人员等进行适当倾斜。2014年2月,国务院发布《关于建立统一的城乡居民基本养老保险制度的意见》,将新型农村社会养老保险和城镇居民社会养老保险两项制度合并实施,在全国范围内建立统一的城乡居民基本养老保险制度。

China has established and improved its medical insurance system to protect both rural and urban residents' right to medical treatment. So far, China has established a basic national medical insurance system, and kept raising its standard. More than 1.3 billion people, or over 90 percent of the total population have participated in medical insurance for non-working urban workers, basic medical insurance for urban residents or the new rural cooperative medical care system. By the end of 2013 some 299.06 million people had participated in the basic medical insurance for non-working urban residents. Government subsidies for basic medical insurance for non-working urban residents have been rising year by year-from 40 yuan per person in 2007 to 280 yuan in 2013. The reimbursement rate for hospitalization expenses covered by relevant policies has been raised to around 70 percent, and the maximum payment has been raised to six times local residents' per capita disposable income. The new rural cooperative medical care system has expanded rapidly to cover the entire rural population. By the end of 2013 a total of 802 million people had participated in the new rural cooperative medical care system, compared with 730 million in 2007, with its coverage rate rising from 85.7 percent to 99 percent. Government subsidies for the new rural cooperative medical care system and per capita funding have grown year by year. In 2013 per capita financing for the new rural cooperative medical care increased to about 340 yuan, of which 280 yuan was subsidies from government at various levels; the reimbursement rate for hospitalization expenses covered by relevant policies has stayed at 75 percent, and the maximum payment and the reimbursement rate for outpatient expenses have been further increased. In the same year the new rural cooperative medical care system benefited a total of 1.32 billion people, up 14.9 percent year on year, and 1.37 million patients benefited from serious illness insurance under the new rural cooperative medical care system, with a reimbursement rate of 70 percent.
建立和完善医疗保险制度,保障城乡居民医疗权利。目前,中国已基本建立全民医疗保险体系,且保障水平在不断提升。参加城镇职工医疗保险、城镇居民医疗保险和新型农村合作医疗的人数超过13亿,参保率达到90%以上。截至2013年,参加城镇居民基本医疗保险人数达到 29,906万人。政府对城镇居民医疗保险的补助标准逐年提高,从2007年的人均40元提高到2013年的280元,政策范围内住院费用报销比例提高到70%左右,基层最高支付限额达到当地居民年人均可支配收入的6倍左右。新型农村合作医疗制度自建立以来,迅速覆盖了全体农民。2007年参加新农合的人数为7.3亿,参合率为85.7%;截至2013年,人数达到8.02亿,参合率上升至99%。政府对新农合的财政补助逐年增加,人均筹资水平不断提高。2013年,新农合的人均筹资水平提高到340元左右,其中各级财政补助标准提高到280元,政策范围内住院费用报销比例保持在75%左右,最高支付限额和门诊医药费用报销比例进一步提高。2013年,参合农民共计受益13.2亿人次,同比增长14.9%;新农合大病保障受益人次达137万,实际报销比例达到70%左右。

The urban and rural residents' medical burden resulting from serious illnesses has been greatly mitigated, because of the establishment of the medical care system for major and very serious illnesses and the smooth progress of the pilot projects for serious illness insurance for urban and rural residents. In 2012 six ministries, including the National Development and Reform Commission, jointly issued Guiding Opinions on Launching Serious Illness Insurance for Rural and Non-working Residents. So far, serious illness insurance has been piloted in 28 provincial-level administrative areas, and widely implemented in eight of them. In 2013 some 20 major diseases including lung cancer and gastric cancer were included in the serious illness insurance; children's phenylketonuria and hypospadias were included in the serious illness insurance under the new rural cooperative medical care system, bringing the number of serious diseases covered by the system to 22.
城乡居民大病保险试点进展顺利,重特大疾病保障机制开始建立,减轻了城乡居民大病医疗费用负担。2012年,国家发改委等6部门联合印发《关于开展城乡居民大病保险工作的指导意见》,全国已有28个省份启动实施了大病保险试点工作,8个省份全面推开。2013年,肺癌、胃癌等20种重大疾病全部纳入大病保障范畴。儿童苯丙酮尿症和尿道下裂被纳入新农合大病保障,新农合保障的重大疾病已达22种。

Steady development has been seen in unemployment insurance, work-related injury insurance and maternity insurance, which are playing an increasingly bigger role in helping the insured to maintain their living standards and obtain medical treatment and maternity protection. At the end of 2013 some 164.17 million people were covered by unemployment insurance, an increase of 11.92 million over the end of 2012; 199.17 million people had access to work-related injury insurance, among whom 72.63 million were migrant workers, an increase of 9.07 million and 840,000 people as compared with 2012, respectively. As many as 163.92 million people were covered by maternity insurance, an increase of 9.63 million over 2012. In 2013 some 4.17 million people benefited from unemployment insurance of different durations, and 1.97 million people received unemployment insurance allowances at the end of the year, with an average amount of 759 yuan per month, up 60.3 yuan or 8.5 percent over the previous year.
失业保险、工伤保险和生育保险稳步发展,对于参保人维持稳定的生活水准、获得医疗救治和生育保障等发挥了越来越大的作用。2013年末,全国参加失业保险人数为16,417万人,比上年末增加1,192万人;全国工伤保险参保人数达到19,917万人,比上年增加907万人,其中参加工伤保险的农民工7,263万人,增加84万人。全国生育保险参保人数16,392万人,比上年底增加963万人。2013年有417万人享受了不同期限的失业保险待遇,年末有197万人领取失业保险金,月人均领取失业保险金水平为759元,比上年增加60.3元,增长8.5%。

The subsistence allowance system has been further improved. By the end of 2013 there were altogether 20.613 million urban recipients of the subsistence allowance. The average amount of the allowance was 373 yuan per person per month, the amount actually paid was 252 yuan, and a total of 72.42 billion yuan in allowances was extended in 2013, up 13.8 percent, 1.3 percent and 7.4 percent over 2012, respectively. By the end of 2013 there were 53.821 million rural recipients, making up 6.1 percent of the rural population; the average amount of the allowance was 2,434 yuan per person per year, the amount actually paid was 111 yuan per person per month, and a total of 84.19 billion yuan of allowances was extended, up 18.7 percent, 2.9 percent and 17.3 percent over 2012, respectively. Altogether 5.382 million rural people enjoyed the "five guarantees" (food, clothing, medical care, housing and burial expenses) across the country, with those living in nursing homes receiving an average of 4,685 yuan per person per year, those living on their own an average of 3,499 yuan per person per year, totaling 16.16 billion yuan of the "five guarantee" funds spent in the year, up 15.4 percent, 16.3 percent and 11.5 percent, respectively, over 2012.
最低生活保障制度进一步完善。截至2013年,全国城市低保对象2,061.3万人,平均保障标准为373元/人·月,月人均获得补助252元,2013年累计支出保障资金724.2亿元,分别比2012年增长13.8%、1.3%和7.4%。截至2013年,全国农村低保对象5,382.1万人,占农业人口的6.1%;平均保障标准为2,434元/人·年,月人均获得补助111元,2013年累计支出保障资金841.9亿元,分别比2012年增长18.7%、2.9%和17.3%。截至2013年,全国农村五保供养对象538.2万人,平均供养标准为集中供养4,685元/人·年、分散供养3,499元/人·年,2013年累计支出五保供养资金161.6亿元,分别2012年增长15.4%、16.3%、11.5%。

It is the last safety net of social security rights to provide social assistance to and meet the basic subsistence needs of people in poverty, caused by natural disasters, loss of labor capacity, or due to other reasons. By the end of 2013 some 26 provincial-level administrative areas had formulated or improved their own temporary assistance policies. In 2013 some 39.37 million households received temporary assistance. An increasing number of people are benefiting from medical aid, and the target groups are gradually expanding from urban and rural recipients of subsistence allowances and people enjoying the "five guarantees" to groups with special difficulties including low-income patients with serious illnesses, people with severe disabilities and senior citizens from low-income households. A total of 25.76 billion yuan in medical aid funds was extended in 2013, benefiting 26.39 million people.
对因遭受自然灾害、失去劳动能力或因其他原因陷入生活困境的社会成员实施社会救助,维持其最低生活水准,是社会保障权利的最后一道防护线和安全网。截至2013年,全国26个省份制定完善了临时救助政策。2013年,全国共实施临时救助3,937万户次。医疗救助惠及群体进一步扩大,救助对象从城乡低保对象、五保对象逐步向低收入重病患者、重度残疾人和低收入家庭老年人等特殊困难群体拓展。2013年累计支出医疗救助资金257.6亿元,救助2,639万人次。



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