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《2013年中国人权事业的进展》白皮书(4)

2014-06-04    来源:China.org.cn    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

III. Democratic Rights
三、民主权利


The Chinese Constitution stipulates that all power in the People's Republic of China belongs to the people. In China, the people exercise the rights of democratic election, democratic decision-making, democratic management, and democratic oversight through various channels and in various ways in accordance with the Constitution and other laws. In 2013 rural and urban areas in China for the first time adopted the same ratio of deputies to the represented population in the election to the NPC; extensive, multilevel and institutional development of consultative democracy were vigorously advanced; community-level democracy as an important means of directly exercising democratic rights witnessed sound development; efforts were increased to combat corruption and build political integrity; and Chinese citizens participated in democratic management of public affairs in more diversified forms.
中国宪法规定中华人民共和国的一切权力属于人民。在中国,人民依照宪法和法律规定,通过各种途径和方式行使民主选举、民主决策、民主管理、民主监督权利。2013年,首次实行城乡按相同人口比例选举全国人大代表,协商民主广泛多层制度化发展有力推进,作为直接行使民主权利重要方式的基层民主健康发展,惩治腐败、建设廉洁政治的力度加大,公民有序参与公共事务民主管理的形式更加丰富。

In 2013 China implemented the principle that everyone is equal as stipulated in the Electoral Law of the People's Republic of China, and adopted the same ratio of deputies to the represented population in the election of NPC deputies in both rural and urban areas. It abides by the principle of regional equality inasmuch as administrative areas at the same level enjoy equal legal status, all are entitled to a certain number of deputies in the highest organ of state power regardless of their population sizes. Each of the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government is entitled to have the same minimum number of NPC deputies, which was eight for the 12th NPC in 2013. China abides by the principle of ethnic equality, and of the elected 2,987 deputies confirmed by the NPC Standing Committee, 409 are from ethnic minorities, accounting for 13.69 percent of the total and covering all the 55 minority ethnic groups in China. Female deputies to the 12th NPC account for 23.4 percent, 2.07 percentage points up over the 11th NPC in 2008. In the 12th NPC the number of community-level deputies increased, the number of migrant worker deputies doubled, and the number of Party and government official deputies shrank, compared to the 11th NPC. Of the deputies to the 12th NPC, the number of worker and farmer deputies increased by 5.18 percent over the 11th NPC, and the number of Party and government official deputies decreased by 6.93 percent.
2013年,中国落实选举法规定的人人平等原则,正式全面实行城乡按相同人口比例选举全国人大代表。坚持地区平等原则,同级行政区域的法律地位平等,不论人口多少,在国家最高权力机关中均有一定数量的代表,地区基本名额数相同,选举第十二届全国人大代表的地区基本名额数为8名。坚持民族平等原则,在全国人大常委会确认的2,987名有效当选代表中,少数民族代表409名,占代表总数的13.69%,全国55个少数民族都有本民族的代表。第十二届全国人大女代表比例为23.4%,比上届提高2.07个百分点。基层代表数量增加,农民工代表数量倍增,党政领导干部代表数量减少。在第十二届全国人大代表中,来自一线工人农民的代表人数比上届增加5.18%,党政领导干部代表人数比上届减少6.93%。

The NPC vigorously promotes democratic legislation, and enhances the enforceability and operability of the laws. From March 2013 to March 2014 the NPC Standing Committee deliberated on 15 decision drafts of laws and related legal issues, and adopted ten of them; amended 21 laws including the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Consumer Rights and Interests, and promulgated the Tourism Law of the People's Republic of China and the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Safety of Special Equipment. The NPC Standing Committee evaluates law drafts before promulgation, improves the mechanism of soliciting public opinion for draft laws, and specifies that in addition to the first review draft, the full text of the second review draft should also be released to the public to extensively solicit supplementary opinions and proposals in all respects. China improves the feedback mechanism of public opinion adopted, and actively responds to social concerns. The NPC and its Standing Committee listen to the people's opinions during legislation in the forms of forums, online opinion collection, investigation and research, allowing people to listen to legislation deliberations, and discussion by citizens and the media. From March 2013 to January 2014 some 5,728 persons presented 45,121 opinions on draft laws. Take the Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China (Draft Amendment) for example. Its first draft received 11,748 opinions, and the second draft received 2,434 online opinions and 48 letters. After soliciting opinions for released drafts of major laws, the NPC Standing Committee summarizes those opinions and issues such summaries to the public in a timely manner.
人大积极推进民主立法,增强法律的可执行性、可操作性。2013年3月至2014年3月,全国人大常委会审议了15件法律和有关法律问题的决定草案,通过了其中的10件,修改了消费者权益保护法等21部法律,新制定了旅游法、特种设备安全法等法律。全国人大常委会探索法律出台前评估工作,完善公布法律草案征求意见机制,在向社会公布法律草案一次审议稿的基础上,明确法律草案二次审议稿也要向社会全文公布,广泛征求各方面补充意见和建议。健全公众意见采纳情况反馈机制,积极回应社会关切。全国人大及其常委会在立法过程中广泛采取诸如座谈会、网络征求意见、调查研究、列席、公民讨论、媒体讨论等形式广泛听取公民意见。2013年3月至2014年1月间,共有5,728人次对相关法律草案提出45,121条意见。以环境保护法修正案草案为例,草案初审稿向社会公布征求意见时收到11,748条意见,二审稿公布后收到2,434条网上意见和48封来信。每次公布草案征求意见结束后,全国人大常委会均对重要法律草案的意见整理汇总情况及时向社会作出反馈。

China further clears and expands rights relief channels, actively responds to public interest appeals, and respects and protects public opinion. The government endeavors to resolve the prominent problems concerning petition letters and visits, stresses preventing and reducing petition problems at the source, promotes open and transparent petition presentation and solution, encourages leading officials to directly receive and visit petitioners, and improves the mechanism of joint reception of petitioners by government departments concerned. China spares no effort to promote "petition in the sunshine," advances the building of an online petition information platform, and promotes the full exposure of petition handling and results, striving to achieve effective inquiry, tracking, oversight and evaluation of petition information. China makes open all online petitions accepted for examination, and the Internet has gradually become a window for the government to learn about public opinion.
进一步畅通拓宽权利救济渠道,积极回应群众利益诉求,尊重并保障民意。国家着力解决信访突出问题,强调从源头上预防和减少信访问题发生,健全公开透明的诉求表达和办理方式,突出领导干部接访下访重点,完善联合接访运行方式。全力打造“阳光信访”,推进网上信访信息综合平台建设,推动信访事项办理过程和结果全面公开,努力实现信访事项可查询、可跟踪、可督办、可评价。全面放开网上投诉受理内容,互联网逐步成为政府了解社情民意的新窗口。

Building political integrity is the premise of the effective operation of a democratic system. In 2013 the CPC and the Chinese government further intensified their efforts to combat corruption, putting power, government operations and personnel management under institutional checks to ensure that the people oversee the exercise of power and that power is exercised in a transparent manner. Institutional reform of the State Council was fully launched; the central government decentralized and canceled 416 items of administrative approvals in 2013. In view of multiple corruption problems in certain fields, the CPC Central Committee issued the Work Plan for Establishing and Improving the System of Preventing and Punishing Corruption (2013-2017). In 2013 discipline inspection and procuratorial organs at all levels received 1,950,374 complaints of related offences through petition visits and letters, including 1,220,191 accusatory and prosecutable cases; filed 172,532 cases, concluded 173,186 cases, and punished 182,038 violators. In 2013 procuratorial organs at all levels filed and investigated 37,551 cases of official crimes involving 51,306 suspects, up 9.4percent and 8.4percent respectively on a year-on-year basis. China increased its efforts to handle major cases, filed and investigated 2,581 cases of embezzlement, bribery and appropriation of public funds, each involving over 1 million yuan, and 2,871 state functionaries at and above the county/division level, including 253 officials at the prefecture/bureau level and eight at the provincial/ministerial level. The courts at all levels fully performed their duty of combating corruption through criminal trials, intensified efforts to punish embezzlement and bribery crimes, wound up 29,000 cases of embezzlement, bribery, dereliction of duty and infringement of rights by state functionaries, and convicted 31,000 persons.
建设廉洁政治是民主制度有效运行的前提。2013年,中国共产党和中国政府进一步加大反腐败工作力度,坚持用制度管权管事管人,让人民监督权力,让权力在阳光下运行。国务院机构改革全面启动,中央政府全年下放取消审批事项416项。针对一些领域腐败问题多发的现象,中共中央印发《建立健全惩治和预防腐败体系2013-2017年工作规划》。2013年,全国各级纪检监察机关共接受信访举报1,950,374件(次),其中检举控告类1,220,191件(次);立案172,532件,结案173,186件,处分182,038人。全国各级检察机关全年共立案侦查各类职务犯罪案件37,551件51,306人,同比分别上升9.4%和8.4%。突出查办大案要案,立案侦查贪污、贿赂、挪用公款100万元以上的案件2,581件,涉嫌犯罪的县处级以上国家工作人员2,871人,其中厅局级253人、省部级8人。各级法院充分发挥刑事审判在惩治腐败中的职能作用,加大对贪污贿赂等犯罪的打击力度,审结包括国家工作人员贪污贿赂、渎职侵权犯罪案件2.9万件,判处罪犯3.1万人。

In China, socialist consultative democracy is an important form of ensuring the people's democratic rights. Socialist consultative democracy values final decision-making results as well as extensive public participation in decision-making, stresses respect for the opinion of the majority as well as ensuring that the minority can fully express their opinion and protect their own rights, thereby expanding the scope of democracy so as to realize the people's democracy to the maximum extent. In 2013 China accelerated the building of a consultative democratic system with reasonable procedures and complete links, expanded the consultation channels of state power organs, Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) organizations, political parties and groups, community-level and non-governmental organizations, and conducted extensive consultations on issues relating to legislation, administration, democracy, political participation and social problems. Taking these specific consultation forms as the base, China conducted extensive consultations on major issues in social and economic development and specific problems concerning the immediate interests of the people, so as to reach and enhance agreement. As an important channel of consultative democracy, the CPPCC vigorously promotes consultative democracy, innovates consultation forms categorized by specialized topics, connecting all social circles, relying on special committees and by means of panel discussions; actively conducts consultations on particular topics, between representatives from relevant sectors of society, between parties with common concern, and with relevant departments in the handling of proposals. It promotes diversified consultation activities, invites responsible persons of related departments to listen to opinions and proposals directly, so as to transform such opinions and proposals into tangible results. The CPPCC makes specific plans for consultation topics, forms and activity organizations every year. In 2013, it carried on and innovated the biweekly "consultation symposium" mechanism, and conducted consultations on macroeconomy, architectural industrialization, protecting the interests of workers and staff members, deepening the reform of scientific and technological systems, enhancing automobile exhaust control and other topics.
在中国,社会主义协商民主是人民民主权利实现的重要形式。社会主义协商民主不仅关注最终的决策结果,也关注决策过程中的广泛参与,不仅强调对多数人意见的尊重,也强调少数人意见的充分表达和权利的维护,拓宽了民主的广度,从而在最大程度上实现人民民主。2013年,中国加快构建程序合理、环节完整的协商民主体系,不断拓宽国家政权机关、政协组织、党派团体、基层组织、社会组织的协商渠道,深入开展立法协商、行政协商、民主协商、参政协商、社会协商。以这些具体协商形式为平台,就经济社会发展重大问题和涉及群众切身利益的实际问题在全社会进行广泛协商,增进和达成共识。作为协商民主的重要渠道,中国人民政治协商会议积极推进协商民主建设,创新以专题为内容、以界别为纽带、以专委会为依托、以座谈为方法的协商形式,积极开展专题协商、界别协商、对口协商、提案办理协商,推动协商活动的多样化,约请有关部门负责人直接听取意见,推动建言献策成果的转化。人民政协每年在协商议题、协商形式、活动组织等方面作出明确安排;继承和创新“双周协商座谈会”制度,分别就宏观经济形势、建筑产业化、维护职工群众切身利益、深化科技体制改革、加强汽车尾气治理等议题举办双周协商座谈会。

Community-level democracy is being advanced in an orderly manner, and protection of electoral rights and community-level autonomy have been further strengthened. In 2013 the Procedures of the People's Republic of China on the Election of Villagers' Committees was promulgated and implemented, which further specifies the procedures and requirements of villagers' committee elections. Secret ballot and open vote-counting are fully practiced; secret ballot booths have been set up; and campaign speeches and village governance speeches are being extensively promoted. Now, 98percent of villages in China have formulated village regulations, villagers' agreements and rules for self-governance by villagers; villager's participation in decision-making and management of their own affairs has been improved by a large margin. By the end of 2013 cities and towns throughout China had held seven rounds of general elections for community residents' committees. Proprietors' management committees and other non-government and volunteer organizations are now playing a greater role in community democratic self-governance.
基层民主依法有序推进,公民选举、基层自治等权利的保障得到进一步强化。2013年,《中华人民共和国村民委员会选举规程》发布实施,进一步明确和细化了村委会换届选举的各项程序和要求。无记名投票、公开计票全面实行,秘密写票处普遍设置,竞职演讲、治村演说广泛推行。全国98%的村制订了村规民约和村民自治章程,群众参与村务决策管理的水平大幅提升。截至2013年,全国城镇普遍进行了7轮以上的社区居民委员会换届选举。社区中业主管理委员会等社会组织和志愿者组织在社区自我民主管理中发挥越来越大的作用。



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