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《2013年中国人权事业的进展》白皮书(5)

2014-06-06    来源:China.org.cn    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

IV. Rights to Freedom of Speech
四、言论自由权利


The Chinese government endeavors to promote and protect the freedom of speech of Chinese nationals. Freedom of speech is a basic civil right stipulated in the Constitution of the People's Republic of China. In China citizens can express their views and will and publish research and creative achievements freely within the range allowed by the Constitution and other laws. With social and economic development, the means of realizing freedom of speech has been diversified day by day, the public's information needs have been better satisfied, the space of freedom of speech has been increasingly expanded, and the people's rights to freedom of speech have steadily developed.
中国政府致力于促进和保护本国人民的言论自由。言论自由是中国宪法规定的一项公民基本权利。在中国,公民可以在宪法和法律允许的范围内自由表达自己的见解和意愿,发表研究、创作成果。随着经济社会的发展,公众实现言论自由的手段日益丰富,获取信息的需求得到更好满足,言论自由空间不断扩大,言论自由权利不断发展。

The channels and means for citizens to realize freedom of speech have been diversified day by day. In 2013 China printed 48.2 billion copies of newspapers, 3.3 billion copies of periodicals and 7.9 billion copies of books; some 229 million households had access to cable TV while 172 million households had access to cable DTV; radio programs covered 97.8 percent of the total population, and television programs covered 98.4 percent. In recent years China's news media have paid more attention to maintaining contact with the public, focusing on reporting real life, and playing their due role of press supervision. The public freely expresses its opinions through the news media, brings forward criticisms and proposals, and discusses state affairs and social concerns.
公民实现言论自由的途径和手段日益丰富。2013年,中国出版各类报纸482亿份,各类期刊33亿册,图书79亿册(张);有线电视用户为2.29亿户,有线数字电视用户为1.72亿户;广播节目综合人口覆盖率为97.8%;电视节目综合人口覆盖率为98.4%。近年来,中国各种新闻传播媒介更加重视联系群众、面向实际生活,发挥舆论监督作用。公众通过新闻传播媒介自由地发表意见,提出批评建议,讨论国家和社会的各种问题。

The Internet has become one of the most important channels for the public to express its opinion. Over the past two decades China has injected huge amounts of funds into Internet infrastructure construction covering the whole country and benefitting all people, and promoted Internet popularization and application. Internet development and popularization in China ranks top among developing countries. In 2013 the state continued to increase policy support for and funds in information infrastructure construction, popularized satellite communication, fiber optical communication, computer networks and other related technologies. The country implemented the "broadband China" strategy, and for the first time regarded broadband network as a strategic public infrastructure for national socioeconomic development in the new era. By the end of 2013 the number of netizens in China reached 618 million and the Internet coverage rate 45.8 percent; domain names totaled 18.44 million, websites 3.2 million and webpages 150 billion; Internet forum/bulletin board system (BBS) users numbered 120 million, blog and personal webpage users 437 million, social networking website users 278 million, network literature users 274 million, network video users 428 million, microblog users 281 million and instant messaging (IM) users 532 million. Cellphone IM users numbered 431 million and cellphone microblog users 196 million. By the end of 2013 there were 5,820 websites in China providing Internet education information services, 703 providing Internet news information services, 783 providing Internet cultural products, 282 providing Internet audio-visual programs, 292 providing Internet publishing services and 2,010 providing Internet BBS services.
互联网成为公民表达意见和发表言论的重要渠道之一。20年来,中国投入大量资金建设互联网基础设施,建起了覆盖全国、惠及全民的互联网基础设施,促进了互联网的普及和应用。中国互联网发展与普及水平居发展中国家前列。2013年,国家继续加大对信息基础设施建设的政策支持和资金投入力度,普及推广卫星通讯、光纤通信、计算机网络等技术。实施“宽带中国”战略,首次将宽带网络作为新时期国家经济社会发展的战略性公共基础设施。截至2013年底,中国网民规模达6.18亿,互联网普及率为45.8%;域名总数为1,844万个,网站总数为320万个,网页数量为1,500亿个;论坛/bbs的用户数量为1.2亿人,博客和个人空间用户数量为4.37亿人,社交网站用户数量为2.78亿人,网络文学用户数为2.74亿人,网络视频用户数量为4.28亿人,微博用户数量为2.81亿人,即时通信用户数量为5.32亿人;手机即时通信用户为4.31亿,手机微博用户达到1.96亿。截至2013年底,中国提供互联网教育信息服务的网站有5,820个,提供互联网新闻信息服务的网站有703个,提供互联网文化产品服务的网站有783个,提供互联网视听节目服务的网站有282个,提供互联网出版服务的网站有292个,提供互联网电子公告信息服务的网站有2,010个。

Effective information acquisition is the premise for realizing freedom of speech. In China, people can obtain information through multiple channels. Open and procedure-based exercise of power, transparent legislation, government operations and judicature and other mechanisms have been further improved, which have continuously improved the effective provision of information about government work. The NPC and its Standing Committee solicit public opinion on major draft laws; local people's congresses allow people to listen to legislation deliberations, and provide timely authoritative interpretations of adopted laws through media, including their own official websites, so as to ensure that people of all walks of life accurately understand the legislation background and purpose, and the principles and contents of the laws. The State Council focuses on advancing information disclosure in administrative approval, financial budget and final accounts, government-subsidized housing, food and drug security, land expropriation and house demolition, and other fields. The press spokesperson system has been further improved. In 2013 the Information Office of the State Council organized more than 50 press conferences centered on the Party's and the state's major conferences, decisions and work. Meanwhile, departments under the State Council and information offices under local governments held over 2,100 press conferences and briefings. More and more chief responsible persons of departments under the State Council and local governments have appeared at press conferences to actively respond to social concerns and release related information in a timely fashion.
有效保障信息获取是言论自由实现的前提。在中国,公众可以通过多种渠道获取需要的信息。权力运行的公开化、规范化,立法公开、政务公开和司法公开等制度的进一步完善,使政务信息有效供给状况持续改善。全国人大及其常委会就重要法律草案公开征求意见,地方人大实行立法旁听,并通过人大官方网站等媒体,对通过的法律及时作出权威解读,使各方面准确理解立法的背景、目的和法律的原则、内容。国务院重点推进行政审批、财政预决算、保障性住房、食品药品安全、征地拆迁等领域的信息公开。新闻发言人制度进一步规范化。2013年,国务院新闻办公室围绕党和国家重要会议、重大决策和重点工作,组织新闻发布会50多场;各部门各地区召开新闻发布会、吹风会2,100多场。越来越多的地方和部门主要负责人走上新闻发布前台,积极回应社会关注,及时准确发布有关信息。

The Supreme People's Court issued the Several Opinions on Advancing the Building of Three Major Platforms of Judicial Openness and the Regulations for the People's Courts to Make Public the Judgment Documents on the Internet, so as to fully promote openness in trial procedures, judicial papers and adjudication enforcement, and to enhance public understanding of judicial decisions. The China Court's Live Trial website has been set up, on which people's courts at all levels have so far live-broadcast 45,000 court trials. The Jinan Intermediate People's Court live-telecast Bo Xilai's court trial through a microblog, which received extensive and positive attention. Internet information service websites of all kinds have greatly improved their service capability to ensure effective information acquisition by the public.
最高人民法院发布《关于推进司法公开三大平台建设的若干意见》和《关于人民法院在互联网公布裁判文书的规定》,全面推进审判流程公开、裁判文书公开、执行信息公开三大平台建设,增进公众对司法裁判的知情了解。中国法院庭审直播网建成,各级法院全年直播案件庭审4.5万次。济南市中级人民法院通过微博全程直播薄熙来案庭审情况,受到广泛、积极关注。各类互联网信息服务网站为公众有效获取信息提供服务的水平大大提高。

Chinese people enjoy extensive freedom of speech. Research and discussion in academic fields cover politics, society, culture and other aspects. Within the range allowed by the Constitution and other laws, the public can discuss political issues freely. Important government policies are widely discussed before and after being adopted, and opinions from all quarters can be fully expressed. The popularization and improvement of the Internet have dramatically expanded the space of freedom of speech. The public can express opinions through Internet forums, Netnews, blog/personal webpages, social networking websites, network literature, network videos, microblogs, IM and other Internet platforms. Netizens post an immense number of opinions all the time. According to statistics, Chinese netizens post and forward 250 million microblog messages and over 20 billion WeChat and other IM messages every day. According to the statistics about the texts posted by seven websites including Sina microblog and Tencent microblog, of the 20 top issues that received netizens' attention in 2013, the first 12 received over two million messages each, and the top one over 45 million messages. Netizens' attention, opinions and statements cover a wide range, including legal cases, the people's livelihood, individual rights and interests protection, patient-hospital disputes, and combating corruption.
中国社会存在广泛的言论自由。学术领域的探索和讨论,涵盖政治、社会、文化等各个方面。在宪法和法律的范围内,公众都可以对各种政治问题进行自由的讨论。政府的重要政策都会在事前和事后得到广泛讨论,各方面立场的意见都能充分表达。互联网的普及和完善,极大地扩展了言论自由空间。公众可以通过网络论坛、网络新闻、博客/个人空间、社交网站、网络文学、网络视频、微博、即时通信等多种互联网平台发表言论。每时每刻都有海量言论被网民发表出来。据统计,中国网民每天发布和转发微博信息达2.5亿条,每天发送微信等即时通信工具信息超过200亿条。根据对新浪微博和腾讯微信等7家网站所发帖文的统计,在2013年网民关注的20大热点事件中,前12位的帖文都超过了200万条,其中排第一位的帖文数量超过4500万条。网民言论关注的范围十分广泛,涵盖了司法案件、民生问题、个人权益保护、医患纠纷、反腐败等各方面。

Effective realization of freedom of speech ensures that the public oversee the government. People can present social problems through news media, the Internet and other channels, forward criticisms and proposals to governments at all levels and supervise the behavior of civil servants. Many local government websites in China have a municipal mayor's mailbox or county head's mailbox to receive letters from the public. The central discipline inspection and procuratorial organs, Supreme People's Court and Supreme People's Procuratorate have set up offence-reporting websites for the public. The public's proposals for and criticisms of government work receive high attention of governments at all levels, and have become important references for them to improve their work and decision-making.
言论自由的有效实现为公众监督政府提供了保证。人们可以通过新闻媒体、互联网等各种渠道反映社会问题,对各级政府的工作提出批评和建议,对公务人员的行为进行监督。中国地方政府网站普遍设立了市长信箱、县长信箱等,接受民众的来信。中央纪检监察机构和最高人民法院、最高人民检察院等开设了举报网站,便于公众反映问题。公众对政府工作提出的建议和批评,受到各级政府的高度关注,成为政府改进工作和决策的重要参考。



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