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《2013年中国人权事业的进展》白皮书(7)

2014-06-20    来源:China.org.cn    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

VI. Rights of Ethnic Minorities
六、少数民族权利


China has established the principle that all ethnic groups are equal and jointly participate in the management of state affairs on the constitutional, legal and systemic levels. The state respects the cultural differences and lifestyles of ethnic groups, and ensures the equal rights of ethnic minorities in politics, economy, culture, language and folk customs, religious belief and other aspects, with coordinated measures. In 2013 China's ethnic minorities and areas inhibited by ethnic minorities made new achievements and developments in various undertakings, and all ethnic minorities fully enjoyed and effectively exercised their basic rights.
中国从宪法、法律和制度等多个层面确立了各民族一律平等、共同管理国家事务的原则,同时又尊重各民族的差异和特点,从各个方面保障少数民族在政治、经济、文化、语言及风俗习惯、宗教信仰等方面的平等权利。2013年,中国少数民族和民族地区各项事业不断取得新成绩、新发展,各少数民族充分享有并有效行使各项基本权利。

The political rights of ethnic minorities are fully guaranteed. Areas inhibited by ethnic minorities in compact communities exercising regional ethnic autonomy enjoy autonomous rights in a wide range of areas, including legislative power, flexibility in the execution of relevant state laws and regulations, the right to use their own spoken and written languages, personnel management power, financial management power, and the right of independently developing their special culture and education. The advantages of regional ethnic autonomy are best exemplified in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Xinjiang is an ethnic autonomous area mainly inhibited by the Uygur people. It is China's only autonomous region with all three administrative levels of autonomous areas (region, prefecture and county). In other parts of Xinjiang inhabited by ethnic minorities, except the Uygur, in compact communities, there are five autonomous prefectures where the Kazak, Hui, Kirgiz and Mongolian people are concentrated; six autonomous counties where the Kazak, Hui, Mongolian, Tajik and Xibe people live; and 42 townships where various ethnic minorities live. Autonomous organs at all levels in Xinjiang formulate and implement autonomous regulations, local rules and regulations, and legally binding decisions in light of their actual conditions, ensuring the autonomous rights of ethnic autonomous areas.
少数民族的政治权利得到充分保障。各少数民族聚居的地方实行民族区域自治制度,享有广泛的自治权利,包括立法权、对国家有关法律法规的变通执行权、使用民族语言文字的权利、人事管理权、财政管理权和自主发展文化教育权等。民族区域自治的特色和优势在新疆维吾尔自治区表现尤为突出。新疆是以维吾尔族为主体的民族自治地方,是全国唯一的三级(区、州、县)自治地方俱全的自治区。在维吾尔族以外的新疆其他少数民族聚居地区,有哈萨克、回、柯尔克孜、蒙古等4个民族的5个自治州,以及哈萨克、回、蒙古、塔吉克、锡伯等5个民族的6个自治县,还有42个民族乡。新疆维吾尔自治区各级自治机关根据本地实际制定并实施自治法规、地方性法规和具有法律效力的决议,依法保障民族自治地方的自治权利。

All China's 55 ethnic minority groups elect deputies to the NPC and members to the National Committee of the CPPCC. The chairpersons or vice chairpersons of the standing committees of the people's congresses of all 155 areas where regional ethnic autonomy is exercised, as well as the heads of government of autonomous regions, prefectures, counties or banners are citizens of the ethnic group or groups exercising regional autonomy in the areas concerned. In the Tibet Autonomous Region the chairpersons of past standing committees of the people's congress and the heads of the people's government have all been Tibetans. Tibetan deputies and deputies from other minority groups to the NPC have always constituted the absolute majority among deputies of the region at all levels. In Tibet, of the 34,244 directly and indirectly elected deputies to the NPC at all four levels, 31,901 persons, or 93 percent, are from the Tibetan or other minority communities. Also, 82.05 percent of the total number of the Tibet Autonomous Region's officials are Tibetan or from other minority groups, and 80.06 percent of the total number of leading officials of counties and townships are Tibetan or from other minority groups.
全国55个少数民族都有本民族的全国人大代表和全国政协委员。155个民族自治地方的人民代表大会常务委员会中,均有实行区域自治的民族的公民担任主任或者副主任;民族自治地方政府的主席、州长、县长(旗长),均由实行区域自治的民族的公民担任。西藏自治区历届人民代表大会常务委员会主任和人民政府主席均由藏族公民担任。藏族和其他少数民族的人大代表始终在全区各级人大代表中占有绝对多数。在西藏,经过直接和间接选举产生的现任34,244名四级人大代表中,藏族和其他少数民族代表31,901名,占93%以上。在全区干部队伍中,藏族和其他少数民族占82.05%,其中县乡两级领导班子中,藏族和其他少数民族占80.06%。

The socioeconomic rights of ethnic minorities are fully protected. The state continues to increase funds in promoting socioeconomic development in areas inhibited by ethnic minorities, and significant achievements have been made in this regard. In 2013, with more transfer payments diverted to ethnic minority areas, the central government arranged 46.4 billion yuan of transfer payments to ethnic minority areas, up by 10.5 percent as compared with 2012. The state increased poverty-reduction funding by a large margin for the Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Tibet, Ningxia and Xinjiang autonomous regions, and Guizhou, Yunnan and Qinghai provinces, which have large numbers of ethnic minority inhabitants. The central government appropriated 16.605 billion yuan as poverty-reduction fund, or 43.76 percent of the total volume from all sources, growing by 16.8 percent compared to 2012. In 2013 the state took concrete measures to implement three special programs, as stated in the Twelfth Five-year Plan, namely, supporting the development of minority groups with small populations, vitalizing border areas and bring prosperity to their residents, and developing special undertakings for ethnic minorities. The state continued to increase support to ethnic minorities and areas inhabited by minorities, providing 1.45 billion yuan as specialized funds for the development of minority groups with small populations, 2.79 billion yuan as specialized funds for vitalizing border areas and bringing prosperity to their residents, and 400 million yuan as specialized funds for protecting ethnic minority villages with cultural significance. These funds increased by 13.1 percent, 50 percent and 53.8 percent, respectively, as compared to 2012. In 2013 the GDP of the Tibet Autonomous Region reached 80.767 billion yuan, growing by 12.5 percent over the previous year; the per capita net income of farmers and herdsmen was 6,578 yuan, increasing by 15 percent over the previous year and well into the 11th year of double-digit growth; and the per capita disposable income of urban residents reached 20,023 yuan, up by 11.1 percent compared with 2012. In 2013 the GDP of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was 851 billion yuan, growing by 11.1 percent compared to the previous year; and the per capita GDP was 37,847 yuan, an increase of 9.7 percent. In 2013 the per capita net income of rural residents in Xinjiang reached 7,296 yuan, growing by 14.1 percent over the previous year; and the per capita disposable income of urban residents was 19,874 yuan, increasing by 10.9 percent over the previous year. The per capita total income of urban households was 22,388 yuan, up by 10.9 percent compared to the previous year and was 69.5 times more than that of 1978. In 2013 the per capita living space of Tibetan farmers and herdsmen and urban residents was 30.51 sq m and 42.81 sq m, respectively, and significant progress was made in various undertakings for improving the local people' s lives. The housing project for farmers and herdsmen, in particular, was completed after eight years of incremental investment that totaled 27.357 billion yuan. The region's 2.3 million farmers and herdsmen of 460,300 households moved into solid and convenient houses, and a historic improvement was made in the working and living conditions of farmers and herdsmen. More progress was made in the building of supporting facilities in rural areas, including water, power, road, communications, gas, radio and television, and postal services. A total of 94.6 percent and 99.7 percent of Tibet's townships and towns respectively now have access to postal services and the road network, respectively, and 97.4 percent of incorporated villages have access to road transportation. The Motuo Highway opened to traffic in 2013, connecting China's last isolated county to the national road network. Construction of the Sichuan-Tibet highway network project began. The Qinghai-Tibet Railway transported a total of 2.199 million passengers and 4.052 million tons of cargo, and civil aircraft carried 2.73 million passengers.
少数民族经济社会权利得到充分保障。国家对少数民族和民族地区经济社会发展投入力度继续加大,少数民族和民族地区的经济社会发展取得显著成效。2013年,在均衡性转移支付向民族地区倾斜的基础上,中央财政安排民族地区转移支付464亿元,比2012年增长10.5%。国家对内蒙古、广西、西藏、宁夏、新疆五个自治区和贵州、云南、青海三个少数民族人口较多省份的扶贫投入大幅提高,中央财政扶贫资金投入166.05亿元,占全国总投入的43.76%,资金总量比2012年增加了16.8%。2013年,国家深入贯彻落实“十二五”扶持人口较少民族发展、兴边富民行动和少数民族事业三个国家级专项规划,继续加大对少数民族和民族地区的专项扶持力度,安排扶持人口较少民族发展专项资金14.5亿元、兴边富民行动专项资金27.9亿元、少数民族特色村寨保护专项资金4亿元,分别比2012年增长13.1%、50%和53.8%。2013年,西藏自治区生产总值(GDP)达807.67亿元,比上年增长12.5%;农牧民人均纯收入达到6,578元,比上年增长15%,连续11年保持两位数以上的增长;城镇居民人均可支配收入达20,023元,比上年增长11.1%。2013年,新疆维吾尔自治区生产总值(GDP)8,510亿元,比上年增长11.1%;人均地区生产总值37,847元,增长9.7%。2013年,新疆农村居民人均纯收入7,296元,比上年增长14.1%;城镇居民人均可支配收入19,874元,比上年增长10.9%。城镇人均家庭总收入22,388元,比上年增长10.9%,比1978年增长69.5倍。2013年,西藏农牧民人均居住面积为30.51平方米,城镇居民人均居住面积为42.81平方米,各项民生事业显著改善。特别是,连续8年累计投资273.57亿元的农牧民安居工程全面完成,全区46.03万户、230万农牧民住上了安全适用的房屋,农牧民生产生活条件得到历史性改善。水、电、路、讯、气、广播电视、邮政等农村综合配套设施建设加快推进,乡镇通邮率、乡镇通公路率和行政村通公路率分别达到94.6%、99.7%和97.4%。墨脱公路全线通车,结束了全国最后一个县不通公路的历史。川藏联网工程开工建设。青藏铁路客运量219.9万人次、货运量405.2万吨,航空旅客运输273万人次。

Ethnic minority cultures and cultural undertakings in areas inhabited by ethnic minorities prospered. By 2013 China had 32 publishing houses that publish books in the languages of ethnic minorities, and 13 electronic publishers produce audio-visual products in languages of ethnic minorities. In 2013 222 titles of periodicals, 99 types of newspapers and 9,429 book titles were published in languages of ethnic minorities. In 2013 a total of 73 radio stations in ethnic autonomous areas ran 441 programs, including 100 programs broadcast in ethnic languages; and 90 television stations ran 489 programs, including 100 programs broadcast in ethnic languages. There were also 50,834 cultural institutions of various types, including 653 libraries, 784 cultural centers, 8,153 cultural stations and 385 museums. The traditional cultures of minority groups are protected. The state established an experimental area for the protection of the culture and ecology of ethnic minorities living in southeastern Guizhou Province, effectively promoting the overall conservation of the intangible cultural heritage in ethnic minority areas. The state continues to strengthen the protection and development of traditional medicine of ethnic minorities. The state supports experienced elderly experts of ethnic medicine to set up offices to pass on their medical inheritance, and supports the establishment of inheritance offices for different schools of Tibetan, Mongolian, Zhuang and Hui medicines. A program for the categorization of ethnic medicine literature and the selection and promotion of medical techniques has been initiated, covering 29 ethnic groups in 11 provinces and autonomous regions. A total of 150 titles of important ethnic medicine literature has been sorted out and categorized, and 140 medical treatment techniques have been selected for promotion. By 2013 there were 199 hospitals nationwide that specialize in ethnic medicine.
少数民族文化和民族地区文化繁荣发展。截至2013年,全国建立民族文字图书出版社32家,民族语言文字类音像电子出版单位13家,编辑出版民族文字期刊222种、民族文字报纸99种、民族文字图书9,429种。民族自治地方有广播电台73座,节目441套,民族语言节目100个;电视台90座,节目489套,民族语言节目100个;各类文化机构50,834个,其中图书馆653个,文化馆784个,文化站8,153个,博物馆385个。少数民族传统文化得到保护。国家设立贵州省黔东南民族文化生态保护实验区,有效推进民族地区非物质文化遗产的整体性保护。继续加强对少数民族传统医药的保护和发展。支持民族医药老专家建立传承工作室,扶持建立藏、蒙、壮、回4个民族医学术流派传承工作室。实施民族医药文献整理和适宜技术筛选推广项目,涵盖11个省区,涉及29个民族,并完成了150部重要民族医药文献的整理工作,筛选了140项民族医药特色诊疗技术。截至2013年,全国民族医院达到199所。

People of ethnic minority groups in Xinjiang enjoy freedom of religious belief, and their customs and social mores are fully respected. In accordance with the Constitution and the Law on Regional Ethnic Autonomy, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region promulgated the Regulations on the Administration of Religious Affairs of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Interim Regulations on the Administration of Venues for Religious Activities of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Interim Regulations on the Administration of Religious Staff of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Interim Regulations on the Administration of Religious Activities of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and other government regulations, in an effort to protect normal religious activities and safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of religious groups and religious believers. The religious believers from ethnic minority groups in Xinjiang are entitled to conducting normal religious activities according to law in venues for such activities and in their homes, rights with which no one may interfere. Currently there are ten minority groups in Xinjiang that mostly believe in Islam, with a total population of around 13.7 million. There are 24,000 mosques with 290,000 staff members. In Xinjiang there are also 120,000 Buddhist believers, with 53 venues for activities and 326 staff members; about 60,000 Protestant followers and 374 clergymen; 6,000 Catholic followers, with 20 venues for activities and 25 priests; 1,000 Orthodox believers with three venues and two priests; and 300 Daoist believers with one venue for activities. Xinjiang has published and distributed the Koran, Sahih al-Bukhari, Tafsir al-Mizan, Selected Texts of Expostulation (a1-Wa 'z) and other religious classics and books in the Uygur, standard Chinese, Kazak and Kirgiz languages. The central government and governments at all levels of Xinjiang have developed a series of policies and regulations to ensure that the customs of ethnic minorities in food and drinks, clothing, festivals, marriages and funerals are respected and given consideration. Each year governments at all levels in Xinjiang make special arrangements for the production and supply of meat, non-staple food and other necessities for the daily life of ethnic minorities ensuring the production and supply of special foods for these ethnic minorities, and lends special consideration to the ten groups dominated by Islamic believers. In Xinjiang, Moslems of all ethnic groups enjoy days off on the occasions of Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.
新疆各少数民族享有宗教信仰自由的权利,民族风俗习惯受到充分尊重。根据宪法和民族区域自治法,新疆维吾尔自治区制定了《新疆维吾尔自治区宗教事务管理条例》和《新疆维吾尔自治区宗教活动场所管理暂行规则》、《新疆维吾尔自治区宗教职业人员管理暂行规定》、《新疆维吾尔自治区宗教活动管理暂行规定》等政府规章,保护正常的宗教活动,维护宗教团体和信教公民的合法权益。新疆少数民族信众有权在宗教活动场所内以及自己家里依法举行各种正常的宗教活动,不受任何干涉。新疆现有10个少数民族普遍信仰伊斯兰教,人口1,370多万人,有伊斯兰教清真寺约2.4万座,教职人员2.9万多人。此外,新疆还有佛教信众12万人,场所53个,教职人员326人;基督教信众近6万人,教职人员374人;天主教信众约6,000人,场所20个,教职人员25人;东正教信众约1,000人,场所3个,教职人员2人;道教信众300多人,场所1个。新疆已出版发行了维吾尔、汉、哈萨克、柯尔克孜等文字的《古兰经》、《布哈里圣训实录精华》、《古兰经》注释、《卧尔兹选编》等宗教经典、宗教书籍。国家和自治区各级政府还制定一系列政策、法规,尊重和照顾少数民族饮食、衣饰、年节、婚姻、丧葬等方面的习俗。自治区政府每年对少数民族生活必需的肉食和副食品的生产和供应作出专项安排,保证各民族特需食品的生产和供应,并对10个普遍信仰伊斯兰教的民族予以特别照顾。在新疆,每年的肉孜节和古尔邦节,信仰伊斯兰教的各族人民都可以享受节日假期。

The cultural legacies of Tibet are effectively protected, and the local religion and traditional customs and social mores are respected. Currently Tibet has 4,277 sites of cultural relics. The Potala Palace, Norbulingka Summer Palace and Jokhang Temple have been included in the UNESCO World Heritage List; Lhasa, Shigatse and Gyantse have been entered on the national list of historical and cultural cities; and the Tibet Museum is a first-rank national museum. Seventy-six items on China's national intangible cultural heritage list are located in Tibet, 323 at the autonomous regional level, 76 at the city level and 814 at the county level. There are 68 recognized successors to their own intangible heritages in Tibet at the national level and 227 at the autonomous regional level, and 117 Tibetan Opera troupes. The epic Gesar and Tibetan Opera were included on the list of Masterpieces of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2009. The state actively protects and develops Tibetan medicine. Currently Tibet has 19 medical institutions that specialize in traditional Tibetan medicine, more than 50 county-level hospitals have a Tibetan medicine department, and the service network of Tibetan medicine has basically covered the whole region. The state respects the customs and social mores of the Tibetan people, and ensures that the ethnic communities of Tibet lead their lives in accordance with their traditional customs and engage in social activities in ways they prefer. The state respects the freedom of religious belief of all the people in Tibet, and ensures that they can practice their religions, conduct ceremonial activities, participate in major religious and folk festivals and engage in other normal activities of their own free will. Currently there are 1,787 venues for religious activities of various types in Tibet, with 46,000 resident monks and nuns, and 358 living Buddhas. Traditional religious activities, such as scripture study and debate, rank promotion, initiation, abhiseca (empowerment) and training, are conducted in an orderly manner, and traditional activities are held at major religious festivals. The living Buddha reincarnation system is a unique practice for the continuation of the living Buddha of Tibetan Buddhism, which is respected by the state. Since the Democratic Reform in Tibet in 1959, over 60 reincarnated living Buddhas have been certified and recognized by the state in accordance with historical conventions and following religious rituals. Many religious believers have sutra halls or small shrines set up in their homes, and they have the liberty to engage in religious activities such as turning prayer wheels, going on pilgrimages, and having monks and nuns perform religious rites. The Tibet Autonomous Region and all of its seven prefectures and cities have Buddhist associations, and the Tibet branch of the China Buddhist Association has a Buddhist academy and a sutra printing house, and publishes Tibetan Buddhism, a journal in the Tibetan language. Religious cultural items, such as murals, sculptures, statues, Thangka paintings, scriptures, ritual items and shrines in Buddhist temples, are protected and renovated when this is needed. Large quantities of religious literature and classics are rescued, sorted out and published. The traditional sutra printing houses of different temples are maintained and developed. Currently there are 60 major sutra printing houses, such as the ones at Muru Nyingba Monastery and the Potala Palace. They print a total of 63,000 titles of scriptures annually, and there are 20 private bookstalls selling scriptures in Tibet.
西藏文化遗产得到有效保护,宗教和传统风俗习惯得到尊重。西藏现有各类文物点4,277处,布达拉宫、罗布林卡、大昭寺被列入世界文化遗产名录,拉萨、日喀则、江孜被列为国家级历史文化名城,西藏博物馆被列为国家一级博物馆。西藏现有国家级非物质文化遗产名录76个,自治区级323项,市级76项,县级814项。国家级非遗代表性传承人68名,自治区级227名,民间藏戏队117支。其中,格萨尔、藏戏于2009年入选《人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录》。国家积极保护和发展藏民族医药,西藏现有藏医医疗机构19所,在50多所县医院设有藏医科,藏医服务网络基本覆盖全区。国家尊重和保障西藏各族人民按照自己的传统风俗习惯生活和进行社会活动的权利,尊重和保障他们按照自己的意愿进行正常的宗教信奉、祭祀活动以及参加重大的宗教和民间节日活动的自由。西藏现有各类宗教活动场所1,787座,住寺僧尼4.6万余人,活佛358名。寺庙学经、辩经、晋升学位、受戒、灌顶、修行等传统宗教活动正常进行,每逢重大宗教节日都循例举行各种活动。活佛转世作为藏传佛教特有的传承方式得到国家的尊重。民主改革以来,已有60余名新转世活佛按照历史定制与宗教仪轨得到批准认定。信教群众家中普遍设有经堂或佛龛,转经、朝佛、请寺庙僧尼做法事等宗教活动正常进行。西藏自治区及其7个地市均设有佛教协会,中国佛教协会西藏分会办有佛学院、印经院和藏文会刊《西藏佛教》。寺院的壁画、雕刻、塑像、唐卡、经卷、法器、佛龛等宗教文化载体,得到保护和修缮。大量宗教文献典籍得到抢救、整理、出版。各寺庙的传统印经院得到继承和发展,现有木如寺印经院、布达拉宫印经院等大型传统印经院近60家,年印经卷6.3万种,民间经书销售摊点20家。

Ethnic minorities have the right to use and develop their own spoken and written languages. The state takes concrete measures to ensure the legitimate use of ethnic languages in the administrative and judicial sectors, news and publication, radio, film and television, culture and education, and other areas. Ethnic minority students can use their own languages in the college entrance examination. China National Radio and local radio stations broadcast in 21 ethnic languages on a daily basis, and the coverage of radio and television broadcasts in ethnic languages in border areas has further increased. The state promotes bilingual teaching in ethnic areas. By 2013 bilingual teaching was done in the classroom in more than 10,000 schools around the country, and 29 languages of 21 ethnic minority groups were used together with standard Chinese-Putonghua. China has 15 institutions of higher learning for ethnic minority students, with approximately 240,000 students on campus. The state continues the preferential policy toward ethnic minority students in college admissions by lowering the admission scores for or granting extra scores to them, and by granting priority admissions to these students when they are competing with Han students under the same conditions. Special consideration is also given to students from ethnic minority groups with small populations.
少数民族享有使用和发展本民族语言文字的权利。国家切实保障少数民族语言文字在行政司法、新闻出版、广播影视、文化教育等各领域的合法使用,在普通高等学校招生入学考试中可以使用少数民族语言文字答卷。中央人民广播电台和地方广播电台每天用21种少数民族语言进行播音,边境地区民族语广播电视的覆盖率进一步提高。国家在民族地区推行双语教学。截至2013年,全国共有1万多所学校使用21个民族的29种文字开展双语教学。全国现有民族高等院校15所,在校生约24万人。继续在高校招生中对民族地区给予倾斜,坚持对少数民族学生在高考时适当降分或加分和同等条件优先录取的原则,并对人口较少民族的考生给予一定的特殊照顾。

The learning and use of the Tibetan language is protected by law. Both the Tibetan language and standard Chinese are used in the decisions and regulations passed at the people's congresses at all levels in the Tibet Autonomous Region, as well as in the official documents and public notices issued by people's governments at all levels and their subordinate departments. In judicial litigation the Tibetan language is used during trials when there are Tibetan parties involved, and the legal instruments are written in Tibetan in such cases. Both Tibetan and standard Chinese appear in the official seals, credentials, forms, envelopes, letter paper, writing paper, insignias of different entities, and are used in the signs and plaques of government organs, factories and mines, schools, train stations, airports, stores, hotels, restaurants, theaters, tourism spots, stadiums and libraries, and on street nameplates and road signs. Tibet has 14 journals and ten newspapers published in the Tibetan language. The Tibet People's Radio Station runs 42 programs broadcast in Tibetan (including the Kangba dialect), broadcasting 21 hours of news programs in the Tibetan language and 18 hours of radio programs in the Kangba dialect on a daily basis. The Tibet Television Station Satellite Television broadcasts around the clock in Tibetan. In 2013 the Tibet Autonomous Region published 780 titles of books written in Tibetan, printing a total of 4.31 million copies. For many Tibetan-language users, reading, listening to and watching domestic and international news and getting other information through the Internet, mobile phones and other platforms compatible to the Tibetan language have become part of their daily life.
藏语文学习使用受到法律保护。西藏自治区各级人民代表大会通过的决议、法规,各级人民政府及所属部门发布的正式文件和公告都使用藏、汉两种文字。在司法诉讼程序中,对藏族诉讼参与人都使用藏语文审理案件,法律文书也使用藏文。各单位的公章、证件、表格、信封、信笺、稿纸、标识以及机关、厂矿、学校、车站、机场、商店、宾馆、餐馆、剧场、旅游景点、体育场馆、图书馆等的标牌和街道、交通路标等,均使用藏、汉两种文字。西藏共有14种藏文杂志、10种藏文报纸。西藏人民广播电台开办有42个藏语(包括康巴语)节目、栏目,藏语新闻综合频率每天播音达21小时,康巴语广播频率每天播音18小时,西藏电视台藏语卫视24小时播出节目。2013年,西藏自治区出版藏文书籍780种,印数达431万册。通过互联网和手机等藏语文平台,浏览阅读、收听、收看国内外新闻和各类资讯,成为众多藏语文用户日常生活的一部分。

In Xinjiang, there are 13 ethnic groups who have lived there for generations, and they use ten different spoken and written languages. During the performance of official business, organs of the autonomous region and the autonomous prefectures and counties use both standard Chinese and the local ethnic languages. The languages of the ethnic minorities are also widely used in the press, publication, radio, film and television. The Xinjiang Daily is published in the Uygur, standard Chinese, Kazak and Mongolian languages; the Xinjiang Television Station broadcasts in the Uygur, standard Chinese, Kazak and Mongolian languages; and the Xinjiang People's Publishing House publishes in the Uygur, standard Chinese, Kazak, Mongolian, Kirgiz and Xibe languages. More than 70 percent of the books and audio-visual products published by publishing houses in Xinjiang are in local ethnic languages. In 2013 subtitles in ethnic languages were added to 100 films and 5,975 episodes of TV series, and four TV dramas were made with ethnic minority themes.
新疆有13个世居民族,共使用10种语言和文字。自治区及各自治州、自治县机关执行公务时,同时使用自治民族和汉语两种语言文字。新闻、出版、广播、电影、电视等都广泛使用少数民族语言文字。《新疆日报》用维吾尔、汉、哈萨克、蒙古四种文字发行。新疆电视台用维吾尔、汉、哈萨克、蒙古四种语言播放节目。新疆人民出版社用维吾尔、汉、哈萨克、蒙古、柯尔克孜、锡伯六种文字出版各类图书。新疆各出版社出版的图书与音像制品中使用少数民族语文的占到70%以上。2013年译制少数民族语故事片100部,译制影视剧5,975集,拍摄少数民族题材影视剧4部。
 



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