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《2013年中国人权事业的进展》白皮书(8)

2014-06-25    来源:China.org.cn    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

VII. Rights of Persons with Disabilities
七、残疾人权利


China has 85 million disabled people. The Chinese government has developed its programs for disabled people in a planned way in accordance with the Law on the Protection of Disabled Persons, Program for Disabled Persons during the 12th Five-year Plan and the Outline of Development-oriented Poverty Reduction for Disabled Persons in Rural Areas (2011-2020). In the meantime, it also commits itself to the duties defined in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, actively implements the third Asian and Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons (2013-2022)-Incheon Strategy, and promotes the coordinated development of disabled people and socioeconomic progress, so that the protection of disabled persons in China has risen to a higher and more standard level.
中国有残疾人约8500万。2013年,中国按照残疾人保障法、《中国残疾人事业“十二五”发展纲要》和《农村残疾人扶贫开发纲要(2011-2020年)》等,依法、有计划地发展残疾人事业。同时,认真履行《残疾人权利公约》,积极落实第三个亚太残疾人十年(2013-2022)“仁川战略”,推动残疾人事业与经济、社会协调发展,残疾人权利保障的规范化水平进一步提升。

Rehabilitation programs for disabled persons are being carried out in an orderly manner. The Chinese government has improved the work mechanism for disabled persons' rehabilitation, aiming to make sure that every disabled person has access to rehabilitation services. It encourages disability-rehabilitation entities and medical institutions to strengthen their ties so as to establish a three-tier rehabilitation medical system within which the two assume different responsibilities and cooperate closely with mutually complementary abilities. China has enacted the Standards of Screening for Disabilities Among 0-6 Year-old Children (Trial), and, according to which, the rehabilitation of disabled children is moved ahead by establishing an institution of early disability screening, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation. At the same time, community rehabilitation is further developed. Rehabilitation services are provided to disabled people inside their communities and homes, with 2,862 community demonstration stations being supported. The role of parent-training schools is emphasized in China. In 2013, 1,131 disability rehabilitation entities conducted the training of the parents of disabled children. The Chinese government launched the "Project of Fostering Hundreds of World Top-notch Rehabilitation Experts, Thousands of Domestic Leading Rehabilitation Specialists and Ten Thousands of Young Rehabilitation Talents," training some 256,000 management and professional personnel at various levels and of various kinds nationwide in 2013, including 25,000 rehabilitation management staff, 55,000 rehabilitation specialists and 177,000 community rehabilitation coordinators.
残疾人康复工作有序开展。按照残疾人“人人享有康复服务”的原则,完善残疾人康复工作机制。推动残疾人康复机构与医疗机构加强合作,构建分工协作、功能互补的三级康复医疗体系。制定《0-6岁儿童残疾筛查工作规范(试行)》,将残疾儿童康复端口前移,建立0-6岁儿童残疾早期筛查、早期诊断、早期治疗、早期康复的工作机制。深化社区康复,推动康复进社区、服务到家庭,重点支持2862个社区康复示范站建设。注重家长学校建设,2013年已开展家长学校工作的残疾人康复机构达1,131个。实施康复人才培养“百千万工程”。2013年全国共培训各级各类管理和专业技术人员25.6万人,其中康复管理人员2.5万人,康复业务人员5.5万人,社区康复协调员17.7万人。

A series of key rehabilitation projects is being carried out. By 2013 there were 901 city districts and 2,014 counties or county-level cities in China that provided community rehabilitation services. In the same year an additional 1.69 million disabled people enjoyed such services, and 7.468 million disabled people were rehabilitated to various degrees, among whom 746,000 received cataract surgery, 32,000 children with hearing impairments received hearing restoration or language training, and 153,000 children with intellectual disabilities, brain paralysis or autistic disorders received training guidance in rehabilitation institutions and their communities and families. The Chinese government helped 6,721 physically handicapped children from poor families and 418 disabled persons suffering from leprosy to receive surgery, and provided comprehensive rehabilitation services to 5.84 million patients with mental impairments, and provided remedial aid to 469,000 mentally impaired patients in poverty. A total of 1.283 million assistance devices were offered to people with disabilities, among which 329,000 were provided for free by the National Public Welfare Lottery Foundation.
实施一批重点康复工程。截至2013年,开展社区康复服务的市辖区累计达到901个,县(市)累计达到2,014个。2013年,新增169万残疾人接受社区康复服务,746.8万残疾人得到不同程度康复。其中,完成白内障复明手术74.6万例,为3.2万名聋儿提供听力语言康复训练,为15.3万名智力残疾儿童、脑瘫儿童和孤独症儿童提供机构、社区和家庭指导训练。组织实施贫困肢体残疾儿童矫治手术6,721例,麻风畸残矫治手术418例。584万精神病患者接受综合防治康复服务,46.9万名贫困精神病患者获得医疗救助。为残疾人提供辅助器具128.3万件,其中,国家彩票公益金项目为贫困残疾人免费提供32.9万件。

The system of safeguarding and promoting disabled persons' access to education and employment is being improved, with the emphasis on the enrolment of disabled children who were registered as having not attended school. China has drawn up the Promotion Plan for Special Education (2014-2016), expanded the coverage of compulsory education, developed preschool education for disabled children in different ways according to different local conditions, accelerated the progress of disabled teenagers' senior high school-level education, centering on vocational education, and improved higher-learning education for disabled people. The Chinese government increased financial input, enhanced the quality and quantity of teachers, and further improved curriculum for disabled people. It continued to implement the Plan for Building Special Schools (Phase II), providing 800 million yuan of specialized funds to support the building of 27 normal colleges for special education and middle and higher-learning schools for disabled people. The central government provided another 55 million yuan of special subsidies to strengthen the special school building in ten central and western provinces. A national special disability lottery program was held, raising funds for 10,000 disabled children from poverty-stricken families to have access to preschool education and for 23 special middle or higher-learning schools to improve their teaching facilities and practical training centers. There were 7,538 disabled students enrolled by ordinary institutions of higher-learning in 2013. The government drew up the Opinions on Promoting the Employment of Disabled Persons in Proportion to Total Employment, increasing the skill training opportunities and job posts for disabled people. Over the year, 369,000 disabled people were employed and 480,000 received training in urban areas; in rural areas 856,000 received training in practical skills. The government encouraged and supported welfare enterprises so as to promote the employment of disabled persons and ensure their equal status in society. By 2013, there were 18,000 welfare enterprises in China, employing a total of 542,000 disabled people.
健全残疾人教育保障机制,促进残疾人就业。完善残疾人教育体系,重点解决实名未入学残疾儿童的就学问题,制定《特殊教育提升计划(2014-2016年)》,扩大义务教育普及,因地制宜发展残疾儿童学前教育,加快发展以职业教育为主的残疾人高中阶段教育,推进残疾人高等教育,加大财政投入力度,加强教师队伍建设,深化课程教学改革。继续实施《特殊教育学校建设规划(二期)》,全年投入中央专项资金8亿元,支持27所特殊教育师范院校和残疾人中、高等学校建设。投入中央特教专项补助经费5,500万元,重点支持中西部地区10个省的薄弱特殊教育学校建设。实施残疾人事业专项彩票公益金助学项目,为1万余人次家庭经济困难残疾儿童享受普惠性学前教育提供资助,为全国23所中高等特教院校改善办学条件,并加强残疾学生实训基地建设。全国有7,538名残疾人被普通高等院校录取。制定《关于促进残疾人按比例就业的意见》,加大残疾人职业技能培训和岗位开发力度。全年城镇新增残疾人就业36.9万人,实名培训48万人;农村85.6万残疾人接受实用技术培训。鼓励和扶持福利企业发展,促进残疾人就业和平等融入社会。截至2013年,全国共有福利企业1.8万个,集中安置54.2万名残疾人就业。

The social security system for disabled persons is being further improved. The Chinese government has enlarged the range of disabled people's social welfare and raised their benefit level. By 2013 over 6.28 million disabled persons in both urban and rural areas received the minimum subsistence allowance, 4.014 million disabled persons in urban areas and 16.383 million in rural areas participated in the respective endowment insurance systems, and 944,000 disabled people were looked after by social services. The governments explored ways to provide poverty-stricken disabled people with living subsidies and severely disabled people with care subsidies. Some 15 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) established the system of granting living subsidies to poverty-stricken disabled people, and eight provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) established the system of granting care subsidies to severely disabled people, benefiting over 6 million disabled people.
残疾人社会保障水平进一步提升。扩大残疾人社会福利范围,适当提高社会福利水平。截至2013年,全国已有628万城乡残疾人纳入最低生活保障范围,参加城乡居民养老保险的残疾人分别达到401.4万和1,638.3万,94.4万名残疾人接受托养服务。探索建立贫困残疾人生活补助和重度残疾人护理补贴制度。15个省(区、市)建立了贫困残疾人生活补贴制度,8个省(区、市)建立了重度残疾人护理补贴制度,享受补贴的残疾人超过600万人。

The development-oriented poverty alleviation for disabled persons is being strengthened. The Chinese government included poverty alleviation and development of disabled persons in relevant programs, and made disabled people a priority when carrying out poverty alleviation policies and measures. Poverty-stricken disabled people were included in the overall poverty monitoring, and a statistics system for development-oriented poverty alleviation for disabled people in contiguous poverty-stricken areas was set up. The assistance to and poverty alleviation for disabled people in agricultural sector was strengthened in a bid to increase their incomes. Local governments also supported disabled people by providing agricultural technology services or helping them found special cooperatives, strengthened the skill training in agricultural production and business management for disabled people in rural areas, assisted rural families with one or more disabled members to buy and use agricultural machines, and accelerated the improvement of conditions for the supply of gas to them for daily use by giving preferences and increasing subsidies. The renovation of dilapidated houses of poor families with one or more disabled members was given high priority, and the proportion of renovated houses of poor families with one or more disabled members in the total of renovated houses in the year was higher than the proportion of existing dilapidated houses of poor families with one or more disabled members in all dilapidated houses. According to the Project Plan for Screening Illnesses Among Newborn Babies in Poverty-stricken Areas in 2013, local governments conducted screening for phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism and hearing loss among 490,000 newborn babies in rural areas, and provided the sick babies with rehabilitation aids in 14 national contiguous poverty-stricken areas involving 200 counties in 21 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government). In 2013 some 1.206 million disabled people in rural areas got rid of poverty and 122,000 rural families with one or more disabled members renovated their houses.
残疾人扶贫开发力度加大。把残疾人的扶贫开发纳入相关规划,在落实扶贫政策和实施扶贫措施中同等条件下优先支持残疾人,加大支持力度。将贫困残疾人纳入贫困监测整体工作,建立集中连片特困地区残疾人扶贫开发工作统计汇总制度。加强农业行业助残扶贫工作,促进农村残疾人增收。对残疾人农业生产技术服务、创办农民专业合作社给予支持,加强农村残疾人农业生产与经营管理技能的培训,支持农村残疾人家庭购置和使用农机,加快改善农村残疾人家庭生活燃气环境,提高优惠补贴。优先支持农村贫困残疾人家庭危房改造,完成贫困残疾人家庭危房改造数量占年度总任务的比例,高于农村贫困残疾人家庭存量危房占存量危房总数的比例。实施《2013年贫困地区新生儿疾病筛查项目方案》,在21个省(区、市)14个国家集中连片特殊困难地区的200个县,对农村户籍的49万例新生儿开展苯丙酮尿症、先天性甲状腺功能减低症和听力障碍患儿筛查工作,并实施康复救助。2013年,农村共有120.6万残疾人脱贫,为12.2万户农村残疾人家庭实施了危房改造。

Access for disabled people is being improved. China has enacted the Regulations for Building a Barrier-free Environment, making efforts to remove environmental barriers in both urban and rural areas. In 2013 the Chinese government helped improve access for 136,000 families with one or more disabled members, and granted 657,000 disabled people fuel subsidies for motorized wheelchairs. In order to make disabled people's travelling more convenient, the China Civil Aviation Administration amended the Regulations of Air Transport for Disabled Persons (Trial), and the China Railway Corporation arranged special seats for disabled persons in every train, providing 48,000 special tickets for disabled persons and making 1,268 carriages barrier-free. Various cities and counties started to build a barrier-free environment. Some of the websites of 117 ministries and commissions as well as provincial governments claimed that they had become barrier-free in accordance with the Technical Norms for Designing Barrier-free Accessible Websites. China accelerated the R&D for assistance devices and began researching and laying down technical criteria for devices for the blind and screen readers. The Chinese government launched the "2013 Beautiful China Actions for Barrier-free Access to Government Information," improving the websites of various government departments, and began to build a barrier-free information system in the cities.
加快推进无障碍建设与改造。贯彻实施《无障碍环境建设条例》,城乡无障碍环境建设深入开展。2013年,共为13.6万户贫困残疾人家庭进行无障碍改造,为65.7万残疾人发放了残疾人机动轮椅车燃油补贴。落实方便残疾人出行规定,中国民航局研究修订《残疾人航空运输办法(试行)》,中国铁路总公司在所有列车均设置残疾人专座。全年安排4.8万张残疾人火车专票,改造生产1268节无障碍车厢。各市、县全面开展无障碍环境建设。按照《网站设计无障碍技术要求》,对117家部委和省政府等网站开展无障碍专项评估,部分网站已按照标准开展了网站无障碍建设。推进信息无障碍辅助器具研发,开展盲用辅助系统、读屏软件等无障碍相关标准的研究制定。启动“美丽中国——2013中国政务信息无障碍公益行动”,对政府各部门政务网站进行无障碍改造,开展城市信息无障碍体系建设。



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