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《2013年中国人权事业的进展》白皮书(9)

2014-06-27    来源:China.org.cn    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

VIII. Right to a Clean and Healthy Environment
八、环境权利


Aiming to solve the environmental and ecological problems caused by the country's rapid economic growth, the Chinese government continued to promote ecological progress in 2013, constantly improving environmental protection systems and enhancing environmental management and ecosystem preservation. Focusing on solving the major environmental problems that seriously endanger people's health, it investigated and punished harshly illegal pollution and environmental crimes, so as to safeguard people's right to a healthy and clean environment.
2013年,中国针对高速发展带来的环境和生态问题,继续大力推进生态文明建设,不断建立健全环境保护制度体系,增强环境治理和生态保护力度,以解决损害群众健康的突出环境问题为重点,严肃查处惩戒污染环境的违法和犯罪行为,保障人民享有良好环境的权利。

The planning and mechanisms for protecting the environment and ecosystems is being furthered improved. China formulated and implemented a series of policy documents and plans for environmental protection, including the Prevention and Control of Environmental Risks of Chemical Products, during the 12th Five-year Plan Period (2011-2015), Action Plan for Preventing and Controlling Air Pollution, Detailed Rules for the Implementation of the Action Plan for Preventing and Controlling Air Pollution in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and the Surrounding Areas, Plan for Monitoring and Early-warning of Heavily Polluted Weather in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and the Surrounding Areas, Work Plan for Preventing and Controlling Groundwater Pollution in the North China Plain, Opinions on Strengthening Environmental Protection and Management in Key National Ecological Function Zones, Methods for Assessing the Implementation of the Strictest Management System of Water Resources and Opinions on Accelerating Progress in Water Ecological Systems. With 135 newly issued items in 2013, China had a total of 1,499 items of national criteria for environmental protection currently in effect.
生态环境保护的规划和机制进一步完善。国家制定和实施《化学品环境风险防控“十二五”规划》、《大气污染防治行动计划》、《京津冀及周边地区落实大气污染防治行动计划实施细则》、《京津冀及周边地区重污染天气监测预警方案》、《华北平原地下水污染防治工作方案》、《关于加强国家重点生态功能区环境保护和管理的意见》、《实行最严格水资源管理制度考核办法》、《关于加快推进水生态文明建设工作的意见》等一系列环境保护文件。发布国家环保标准135项,使现行有效国家环保标准达1,499项。

The Ministry of Environmental Protection of China has signed target responsibility agreements for preventing and combating air pollution with 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government). The Chinese government has promoted the building of PM2.5 monitoring stations in key and model cities for environmental protection. It completed the assessment of environmental impacts of the western China development strategy in 2013, and launched the assessment of environmental impacts of the central China development strategies. Limitations on air pollutants were imposed for the thermal power, steel, petrochemical, cement, non-ferrous metal and chemical engineering industries as well as coal-fired boiler projects in key control areas. The Ministry of Environmental Protection and China Insurance Regulatory Commission jointly developed the Guidelines for the Pilot Projects of Compulsory Environmental Pollution Liability Insurance, stipulating that enterprises connected with heavy metals, enterprises that had been insured according to local regulations and other high-environmental-risk enterprises must take out environmental pollution liability insurance. The second stage of experiments in environmental function zoning was launched in ten provinces (autonomous regions), and the experiment for ecological red-line demarcation technology was launched in Inner Mongolia, Jiangxi, Guangxi and Hubei. The state set up an inter-ministry coordination mechanism for preventing and controlling air pollution and a cooperative mechanism for preventing and controlling air pollution in Yangtze River Delta areas and Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and the surrounding areas. The liability and assessment system for water resources management was put into effect. Inspection teams for the implementation of the strictest management system of water resources was set up in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government), with the local government head assuming responsibility. The targets of the "three red lines" (for water resources exploitation, water efficiency and pollution in water-related zones) were further divided and assigned. China began devising the Plan of Water Resources Protection, finished the measurement of assimilative capacities of major rivers and lakes, and proposed a phased schedule for emission limitations.
国家环境保护部与31个省(区、市)签订了大气污染防治目标责任书。推进环保重点城市和环保模范城市PM2.5监测点建设。2013年完成西部大开发战略环境影响评估,启动中部地区发展战略环境影响评估。对重点控制区火电、钢铁、石化、水泥、有色、化工等六大行业以及燃煤锅炉项目执行大气污染物特别排放限值。环保部、保监会联合制定了《关于开展环境污染强制责任保险试点工作的指导意见》,规定涉重金属企业、按地方有关规定已被纳入投保范围的企业、其他高环境风险企业3类企业必须强制投保社会环境污染强制责任险。启动第二批10个省(区)环境功能区划编制试点,在内蒙古、江西、广西和湖北4省(区)开展生态红线划定技术试点。建立全国大气污染防治部际协调机制、长三角区域和京津冀及周边地区大气污染防治协作机制。水资源管理责任与考核制度进一步推进和落实。建立最严格水资源管理制度考核组,31个省(区、市)建立行政首长负责制,“三条红线”考核指标分解工作基本完成。启动《水资源保护规划》编制,完成重要江河湖泊水功能区纳污能力核定,提出了分阶段限排方案。

Funds used for environmental protection is being increased. The Chinese government provided some 338.3 billion yuan in 2013 for conserving energy and protecting the environment, seeing a 14.2 percent year-on-year growth. The Plan of Capability Development in Environmental Monitoring during the 12th Five-year Plan Period was drawn up and implemented. The central government put 1.6 billion yuan into a pilot project for protecting the environment and ecosystems of lakes with good water quality. The State Council reviewed and passed the Overall Plan for Protecting the Environment and Ecosystems of Lakes with Good Water Quality (2013-2020). The transfer payment for key ecological function zones reached 42.3 billion yuan, covering 492 counties. The central government also spent 2.5 billion yuan on combating heavy metal pollution, the first portion of five billion yuan used to support air pollution control in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi, Shandong and Inner Mongolia, and six billion yuan used to improve the comprehensive environment in rural areas.
生态环境保护投入进一步加大。2013年全国财政节能环保投入3,383亿元,同比增长14.2%。制定实施《国家环境监管能力建设“十二五”规划》。开展水质较好湖泊生态环境保护试点,中央投入资金16亿元。国务院审议通过了《水质较好湖泊生态环境保护总体规划(2013年-2020年)》。国家重点生态功能区转移支付资金达423亿元,范围扩大到492个县。中央财政投入25亿元用于重金属污染治理,首批投入50亿元大气污染防治专项资金支持北京、天津、河北、山西、山东、内蒙古等六省(区、市)治理大气污染,投入60亿元专项资金支持农村环境综合整治。

Environmental protection measures are being furthered enhanced. In 2013 China set up 21 national nature reserves. Some 16 provinces (autonomous regions), including Hainan, Heilongjiang and Anhui, launched the Ecosystem-friendly Province (autonomous region) Project and over 1,000 cities (counties) launched the Ecosystem-friendly City (county) Project, with a total of 55 national-level ecosystem-friendly cities (counties) and 2,986 national-level ecosystem-friendly townships being set up. In addition, 46 cities (districts) launched the Water Ecosystem-friendly City Project. China's urban green areas reached 2,367,842 ha, covering 39.59 percent of the total urban land, with the per capita green area in public parks being 12.26 sq m. When 496 monitoring stations in 74 cities gave real-time updates of monitoring data of six pollutants, including fine particles (PM2.5 particles), a second batch of 116 cities were also building pollutant-monitoring stations and began providing real-time updates. The state deepened the prevention and control of water pollution in key basin areas. In order to strengthen water resources protection in basin areas, it launched the projects to enhance water resources monitoring capacity, established 14,000 national monitoring stations in water-consuming units, water function zones and provincial borders, and achieved online water-quality monitoring in 175 key drinking water source areas, so as to put water quality of over 70 percent of water volumes used with permission, 80 percent of key water function zones and all major inter-provincial and boundary rivers under surveillance. The state formulated the Management Measures of Water Function Zones, enhancing classified and categorized supervision and management. Among 577 water-quality monitoring sections in China's seven major river systems, 66.7 percent of water sections were graded in categories I-III, and 10.8 percent were graded as inferior category V, an increase of 2.6 percentage points and a decrease of 1.5 percentage points, respectively, compared with 2012.
环境保护措施进一步加强。2013年,全国新建国家级自然保护区21处,已有海南、黑龙江、安徽等16个省(区)开展生态省(区)建设,1,000多个市(县)开展生态市(县)建设,建成国家级生态市(县)55个、国家级生态乡镇2,986个。在全国46个城市(区)启动水生态文明城市建设。全国城市园林绿地面积达到2,367,842公顷,绿化覆盖率达39.59%,人均公园绿地面积达12.26平方米。在第一批74个城市496个监测点位实时发布细颗粒物(PM2.5)等六项污染物监测数据的同时,完成第二批116个城市开展细颗粒物(PM2.5)等污染物监测点位的建设任务,并开始实时发布监测数据。深化重点流域水污染防治。加强流域水资源保护,启动国家水资源监控能力建设项目,建设取用水户、水功能区、省界断面共1.4万个国控监测点,对全国175个重要饮用水水源地实现在线监测,使全国70%以上的许可取用水量、80%以上的重要水功能区、重要省际河流省界断面水质情况得到有效监测。制定《水功能区管理办法》,强化分级分类监管。七大水系的577个水质监测断面中,Ⅰ-Ⅲ类水质断面占66.7%,劣Ⅴ类占10.8%,分别比2012年上升2.6个百分点,下降1.5个百分点。

Aiming to prevent and control air pollution, projects of emission-reduction by means of updating facilities are being greatly boosted. The large-scale smog in China's central and eastern areas since 2013 has caused great concern of the public. The State Council issued the Action Plan for Preventing and Controlling Air Pollution in September 2013, imposing 35 concrete measures, including reducing the emission of air contaminants, upgrading the industrial structure, speeding up enterprises' technical transformation, optimizing the energy mix, and applying strict criteria for energy conservation and environmental protection. China established a joint prevention and control system for regional pollution, promptly reacted to severe pollution days, mobilized the whole of society to participate in the actions of maintaining clean air, promoted air pollution control and reduced smog. In 2013 the desulfurization facilities of the active thermal power generating units with a capacity of 34 million kw were retrofitted to increase capacity, and the ratio of generating units with desulfurization facilities came to account for 90 percent of all generating units in China's coal-fired thermal power stations. A capacity of 205 million kw were retrofitted with generating units with NOx reduction facilities in the year, reaching 50 percent of China's total thermal installed capacity. The gas bypass of desulfurization facilities of thermal power generating units with a capacity of 203 million kw was cancelled, with the capacity of desulfurization generating units without gas bypasses accounting for 46 percent of the total thermal power installed capacity. Cement clinker plants with a capacity of 570 million tons were retrofitted with NOx reduction facilities, accounting for 50 percent of the total capacity. The emissions of four major pollutants-organic pollutants (measured by chemical oxygen demand), ammonia nitrogen, sulfur dioxide and NOx-decreased by 2.93 percent, 3.14 percent, 3.48 percent and 4.72 percent, respectively, compared with 2012, with the emission of NOx dropping below the 2010 reduction benchmark for the first time. The daily sewage treatment capacity in towns (including both incorporated towns and industrial parks) increased by 11.94 million tons in 2013, and 84.8 percent of the garbage in cities at all levels was made harmless after treatment.
以大气污染防治为重点,大力推进工程减排。2013年以来,中国中东部地区多次出现大范围雾霾天气,引起全社会广泛关注。2013年9月,国务院发布《大气污染防治行动计划》,提出减少污染物排放、推进产业结构优化升级、加快企业技术改造、调整能源结构、严格节能环保准入等35项具体措施,建立区域污染联防联控机制,妥善应对重污染天气,动员全社会力量参与大气保护行动,大力开展大气污染防治工作,治理雾霾。2013年,全国3400万千瓦现役火电机组脱硫设施实施增容改造,燃煤电厂脱硫机组比例超过90%;新增脱硝机组2.05亿千瓦,脱硝机组比例占全国火电总装机容量的50%;2.03亿千瓦现役火电机组拆除脱硫设施的烟气旁路,无烟气旁路运行的脱硫机组占全国火电总装机容量的46%;5.7亿吨水泥熟料产能新建脱硝设施,已实施脱硝的水泥熟料产能占全国总产能的50%。2013年,化学需氧量、氨氮、二氧化硫、氮氧化物四项主要污染物分别同比下降2.93%、3.14%、3.48%、4.72%,其中氮氧化物排放量首次降至2010年减排基数以下。2013年全国新增城镇(含建制镇、工业园区)污水日处理能力1,194万吨,全国设市城市生活垃圾无害化处理率达到84.8%。

Specialized environmental-protection inspections are being conducted, and environmental crimes are being cracked down on. Some 1.83 million law-enforcement personnel were sent to inspect 710,000 enterprises in 2013, investigating and dealing with 6,499 cases of environmental violation and illegal activities, and handling 1,523 cases within a set time limit under the supervision of higher authorities. The central government paused project environmental approvals of 16 cities in the provinces that had failed the 2012 examination of the implementation of the Plan for Preventing and Controlling of Heavy Metal Pollution during the 12th Five-year Plan Period. More than 300,000 tons of chromium slag was treated in the year, almost equal the total discharged volume, and 17 batches of solid waste were prevented from illegal entry. The revised Civil Procedure Law, which went into force January 1, 2013, established the environment-related public interest litigation system, stipulating that law-designated governmental organs and organizations can legally challenge activities that damage the public interest, such as those polluting the environment and those infringing consumers' lawful rights and interests. According to the Interpretation of Several Issues Concerning the Application of the Law in the Handling of Criminal Cases of Environmental Pollution jointly issued by the Supreme People's Court and the Supreme People's Procuratorate in June 2013, environmental crimes will be harshly punished, and the environmental regulatory authorities' misprisions in environmental monitoring will be liable to extra punishment. In 2013 public security organs all over China filed 779 environmental cases and roped in 1,265 criminal suspects; people's procuratorates at all levels charged 20,969 suspects with major contamination accidents, illegally mining or illegally felling trees, investigated 1,290 officials for work-related crimes in projects concerning environmental monitoring, pollution control and ecosystems restoration, and required related government departments to fulfil their statutory duty of supervision according to law by means of prosecutorial advice and urging them to bring to light illegal conduct; people's courts at all levels accepted and heard 134 environmental cases, with 104 concluded, and applied criminal sanctions to 139 persons. Moreover, the Supreme People's Court announced such typical cases of environmental-pollution crimes as the Zijin Mining Group's pollution spill at the Zijinshan Gold and Copper Mine, pollution accidents of Chengjiang Jinye Industry and Trade Co., Ltd. in Yunnan, a pollution accident of Yunguang Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. in Chongqing, and the dumping of hazardous substances by Hu Wenbiao and Ding Yuesheng.
开展环保专项检查,打击环境污染犯罪。2013年,全国共出动执法人员183万余人(次),检查企业71万余家(次),查处环境违法问题6,499件,挂牌督办1,523件。对2012年度重金属规划实施情况考核不合格省份16个地市实行环评限批。新处置铬渣30余万吨,基本实现铬渣当年产生当年利用处置完毕。阻止17批次固体废物非法入境。2013年1月1日实施的修订后的民事诉讼法确立了环境公益诉讼制度,明确规定对环境污染、侵害众多消费者合法权益等损害社会公共利益的行为,法律规定的机关和有关组织可以向人民法院提起诉讼。2013年6月,最高人民法院、最高人民检察院发布《关于办理环境污染刑事案件适用法律若干问题的解释》,从严打击环境污染犯罪,并对环境监管部门的“监管失职罪”规定了追加处罚措施。2013年,全国公安机关共立案侦查环境污染案件779起,抓获犯罪嫌疑人1,265名。全国各级检察院起诉重大环境污染事故、非法采矿、盗伐滥伐林木等犯罪嫌疑人20,969人,在环境监管、污染治理、生态修复工程建设等领域查办职务犯罪1,290人,并通过督促起诉、检察建议等方式推动相关部门依法履行对环境资源的监管职责。全国各级人民法院共受理环境污染犯罪案件134件,审结104件,依法追究刑事责任139人。最高人民法院还通报了紫金矿业集团紫金山金铜矿重大环境污染事故案、云南阳宗海重大环境污染事故案、重庆云光化工有限公司污染环境案以及胡文标、丁月生投放危险物质污染环境犯罪等典型案件。



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