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2014年中国人权事业的进展(2015白皮书) 2

2015-06-19    来源:国新办    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

一、发展权利
I. Right to Development

2014年,中国政府积极推进发展理念和制度创新,采取有效措施保障公民获得公平发展的机会,让更多人分享改革发展的“红利”,促进公民的经济、社会和文化权利得到更好保障。
In 2014, the Chinese government promoted development concepts and systems innovation, adopted effective measures to guarantee citizens’ access to fair development, had more people to share the fruit of reform and development, and better protected the people’s economic, social and cultural rights.

人民生活有新的改善。2014年,中国国内生产总值比上年增长7.4%,经济运行处于合理区间。中西部地区经济增速快于东部地区。城镇新增就业1322万人,高于上年。全年粮食产量60710万吨,比上年增加516万吨。南水北调中线一期工程通水,京津冀等地6000万群众喝上了长江水。6600多万农村人口饮水安全得到解决。全国有19个地区提高了最低工资标准。全国居民人均可支配收入20167元,比上年实际增长8.0%,快于经济增长。城镇居民人均可支配收入28844元,比上年实际增长6.8%;农村居民人均可支配收入10489元,比上年实际增长9.2%,连续五年快于城镇居民收入增长。城乡居民收入比13年来首次降至3倍以下。全国居民人均消费支出14491元,比上年实际增长7.5%。其中,城镇居民人均消费支出19968元,比上年实际增长5.8%;农村居民人均消费支出8383元,比上年实际增长10.0%。截至2014年底,全国电话用户总数达15.3亿户,其中移动电话用户达12.8亿户,普及率达到94.5部/百人。4G用户达到9728.4万户,3G用户4.8亿户。互联网宽带接入用户突破2亿户,其中使用4M及以上宽带产品的用户达到1.77亿户,占比达到88.1%。全国互联总带宽达到2500G,国际通信出入口带宽达到9614Gbps,国际通信业务出入口带宽达到3361.9Gbps。国内居民出境11659万人次,其中因私出境11003万人次,比上年增长19.6%。
People’s living standard further improved. China’s GDP in 2014 increased by 7.4 percent over the previous year, and the economy operated within an appropriate range. The economic growth in central and western China was faster than that in the east. As many as 13.22 million new urban jobs were created, more than that in 2013. The total output of grain was 607.1 million tons, an increase of 5.16 million tons over the previous year. The first phase of the central line of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project was completed, providing water from the Yangtze River in the south to 60 million people in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in the north. More than 66 million rural people began to have access to safe drinking water in that year. In 2014, minimum wage standards were raised in 19 regions. The nationwide annual per capita disposable income reached 20,167 yuan, up 8 percent over the previous year and faster than the economic growth rate in 2014. The annual per capita disposable income for urban residents was 28,844 yuan, and that for rural residents reached 10,489 yuan, up 6.8 percent and 9.2 percent over the previous year, respectively, with the increasing rate for rural residents higher than that for urban residents for the fifth consecutive year. The urban-rural income ratio fell below 3:1 for the first time over the previous 13 years. Nationwide, per capita consumption expenditure reached 14,491 yuan, an increase of 7.5 percent over 2013, among which the consumption expenditure of urban residents was 19,968 yuan and that of rural residents was 8,383 yuan, up 5.8 percent and 10 percent, respectively. By the end of 2014, the number of telephone users in China had reached 1.53 billion, among whom that of mobile phone users reached 1.28 billion, with the penetration rate hitting 94.5 per 100 people. The number of 4G users was 97.284 million, and that of 3G users was 480 million. The number of Internet broadband users surpassed 200 million, among whom that of subscribers using broadband over 4M reached 177 million, taking up 88.1 percent of the total. The total broadband in China was 2500G, the broadband of the international communications gateway reached 9614Gbps, and the broadband of the international communications service gateway reached 3361.9Gbps. The number of trips abroad made by Chinese citizens was 116.59 million, among which those for private purposes reached 110.03 million, an increase of 19.6 percent over the previous year.

城乡基本公共服务覆盖面进一步扩大。国务院印发《国家新型城镇化规划(2014-2020年)》。中央财政安排11亿元资金,在2个省、14个市和300个示范县重点推进,加快建立新型职业农民队伍。加强农业职业技能培训鉴定工作,全年培训鉴定约40万人次。组织开展农村实用人才带头人示范培训,全年培养1.2万名学员。开展现代种养技术、动物卫生防疫等专业培训,全年培训7万人。国务院发布《关于进一步推进户籍制度改革的意见》,全面放开建制镇和小城市落户限制,建立城乡统一的户口登记制度,建立居住证制度,建立健全与居住年限等条件相挂钩的基本公共服务提供机制,稳步推进城镇基本公共服务常住人口全覆盖。
Basic public services coverage increase in both urban and rural areas. The State Council issued the National New-Type Urbanization Plan (2014-2020), and the central government appropriated a fund of 1.1 billion yuan to promote the development of new-type professional farmers in two provinces, 14 municipalities and 300 counties. China improved the occupational training and testing of farmers in 2014, with more than 400,000 people trained and tested in that year. China also organized training sessions for leaders in practical rural skills, and 12,000 people participated in the training in 2014. Professional training sessions were also held on modern planting and breeding as well as on animal sanitation and epidemic prevention, with more than 70,000 people receiving the training in that year. By issuing the Opinions on Further Promoting Household Registration System Reform, the State Council lifted all restrictions on settlement in incorporated towns (towns with a population of at least 2,500) and small cities, established a uniform household registration system in urban and rural areas together with a residence permit system, established and improved a basic public service supply mechanism linked with residence period, and steadily promoted the complete coverage of basic public services for permanent urban residents.

教育公平得到更好落实。继续加大教育资源投入,并向中西部和农村义务教育倾斜。2014年,中央一般公共预算教育支出4101.9亿元,增长8.2%。中央财政安排学前资助资金10亿元,义务教育免费教科书资金132.66亿元,义务教育家庭经济困难寄宿生生活费补助资金72.93亿元。全国近1.1亿名农村义务教育阶段学生全部享受免除学杂费和免费教科书政策,小学一年级新生免费获得学生字典,中西部地区1240万名家庭经济困难寄宿生获得生活费补助。自2014年11月开始,农村义务教育学生营养改善计划国家试点地区补助标准由每生每年600元提高到800元。安排营养改善计划资金171.56亿元,约3184万学生受益。1000多万名中职学校学生享受免学费政策,约488万名普通高中学生、315万名中职学生和660万名高校学生享受国家助学金资助。安排中央预算内投资310亿元,全面改善贫困地区义务教育薄弱学校的办学条件,重点实施农村学前教育推进工程、边远艰苦地区农村学校教师周转宿舍建设、民族地区教育基础薄弱县普通高中建设、中西部地区特殊教育学校建设等工程。全国九年义务教育巩固率、高中阶段教育毛入学率分别达到92.6%和86.5%。全国已有28个省(自治区、直辖市)开始解决进城务工人员随迁子女接受义务教育后在流入地参加高考的问题。继续实施高校“支援中西部地区招生协作计划”和“农村贫困地区定向招生专项计划”,两项计划的规模分别扩大至20万人和5万人,分别比上年增加1.5万人和2万人。
Educational fairness better guaranteed. China is continuing to increase its input in educational resources, giving preferential treatment to central and western regions and compulsory education in the countryside. In 2014, the education expenditure from the general public services budget of the central government reached 410.19 billion yuan, up 8.2 percent from 2013. The central government allocated one billion yuan from its budget as supporting funds for pre-school education, 13.266 billion yuan for free textbooks for compulsory education courses, and 7.293 billion yuan as cost of living subsidies for boarders in schools offering compulsory education from families with financial difficulties. Nearly 110 million rural students receiving compulsory education benefited from exemption of all tuition and miscellaneous fees as well as free textbooks, first-grade pupils received dictionaries for free, and 12.4 million boarders from poverty-stricken households in central and western China received cost of living subsidies. Since November, 2014, the nutrition subsidies covered by national pilot projects for rural students receiving compulsory education have been raised from 600 yuan to 800 yuan per person per year. In the same year, the central government allocated 17.156 billion yuan for nutrition improvement, benefiting 31.84 million students. Secondary vocational education was made free for more than 10 million students, and national grants were provided to nearly 4.88 million senior high school students, 3.15 million secondary vocational school students and 6.6 million college students. The central government also appropriated 31 billion yuan to upgrade schools with poor compulsory education conditions in poverty-stricken areas, with the focus on promoting pre-school education in rural areas, building dormitories for rural teachers in remote and border areas, building senior high schools in counties with a weak educational foundation in regions inhabited by ethnic minorities, and building special education schools in central and western China. The percentage of students receiving nine-year compulsory education remaining in school and the gross enrollment ratio of senior high schools were 92.6 percent and 86.5 percent, respectively. Twenty-eight provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government have started to address the problem of whether or not permitting children of rural migrant workers who received their compulsory education in cities to sit the national college entrance examinations in cities where they are now living. Institutions of higher learning continued to implement the country’s Collaborative Admission Plan for Supporting the Central and Western Regions (initiated in 2008) and the Special Admission Plan for Students from Poor Rural Areas (initiated in 2012), expanding the two plans to cover 200,000 and 50,000 people, an increase of 15,000 and 20,000 people, respectively, over the previous year.

扶贫工作扎实推进。实施“精准扶贫”战略。国家将10月17日确定为扶贫日。中央和国家机关、企事业单位定点帮扶592个国家扶贫开发工作重点县,定点扶贫实现了对重点县的全覆盖。中央财政预算安排专项扶贫资金433亿元,比上年增长近10%。实施以工代赈政策,中央财政投入资金57.2亿元,支持建设一批农田水利、乡村道路等中小型公益性基础设施,为参与工程建设的贫困地区群众发放劳务报酬6.8亿元。针对贫困地区群众实施易地扶贫搬迁工程,累计投入中央补助资金55亿元,搬迁贫困人口91.69万人。在14个集中连片特困地区投入车辆购置税收入补助地方资金约1541亿元,支持片区改造建设3.17万公里的高速公路和普通国省道,建设9.6万公里农村公路和一批农村客运站点,解决片区93个乡镇、1.05万个建制村交通问题。推进四川、贵州、云南、陕西、甘肃、青海、新疆等七省区138个“溜索改桥”项目建设。按照年人均收入2300元(2010年不变价)的农村扶贫标准计算,2014年底农村贫困人口为7017万人,比上年减少1232万人。
Poverty alleviation steadily promoted. China has adopted a strategy of taking targeted measures for poverty alleviation, and declared October 17 as “China Poverty Alleviation Day.” Departments of the CPC Central Committee and the central government at various levels, enterprises and public institutions are paired up with and assisting all of the 592 counties that are key targets of the government’s development-oriented poverty-reduction work. The central government appropriated 43.3 billion yuan for poverty reduction in 2014, an increase of nearly 10 percent over the previous year, adopted the policy of giving people work in place of relief subsidies, allocated 5.72 billion yuan to support the building of small and medium-sized infrastructure projects for public welfare, such as water conservancy projects, road construction, etc., and earmarked 680 million yuan as remuneration for people in poverty-stricken areas participating in the construction projects. China also resettled 916,900 impoverished people from poverty-stricken areas at a total cost of 5.5 billion yuan. It allocated 154.1 billion yuan out of the vehicle purchase tax to subsidize 14 contiguous poverty-stricken areas, supporting the building and renovation of 31,700 km of expressways and national or provincial highways, building 96,000 km of rural highways and a batch of rural passenger bus stations, and solving the traffic problems of 93 townships, and 10,500 villages. The central government proceeded with the plan of building 138 bridges to replace ropeways in seven provinces and regions, namely, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai and Xinjiang. By the end of 2014, the impoverished population in rural China had decreased to 70.17 million, based on the criterion that the national poverty line has been set at 2,300 yuan per person per year (calculated at 2010 constant prices). This means that there were 12.32 million fewer poverty-stricken people at the end of 2014 than a year earlier.

农民工合法权益得到切实维护。截至2014年底,全国农民工总量为27395万人,比上年增长1.9%。各级政府着力稳定和扩大农民工就业创业,切实保障农民工合法劳动权益。国家制定《农民工职业技能提升计划》。健全基层就业和社会保障服务设施,安排中央预算内资金共建设269个县级就业和社会保障服务中心、961个乡镇服务站。继续发挥工会组织和职工维权机构在保障劳动者权利方面的重要作用,为求职者提供各类就业服务500万人次以上,帮助100万人签订为期一年以上的劳动合同。国家有关部门联合发布《关于进一步做好建筑业工伤保险工作的意见》,进一步明确和细化了保障建筑业农民工工伤保险权益的政策措施。2014年,各级人力资源和社会保障部门依法查处涉及拖欠工资类案件26.3万件。各级人民法院全年共审结土地承包经营权流转、宅基地纠纷、拖欠农民工工资等案件21.9万件,依法判处拒不支付劳动报酬罪犯753人。最高人民法院发布《关于审理工伤保险行政案件若干问题的规定》,明确了特殊情况下承担工伤保险责任的用人单位,第三人的原因造成工伤的处理方式,并对涉及劳动关系确认的行政审判程序作了规范,细化工伤认定中“工作原因、工作时间和工作场所”等问题。
The legitimate rights and interests of migrant workers effectively protected. By the end of 2014, the total number of migrant workers in China was 273.95 million, an increase of 1.9 percent over 2013. Governments at all levels endeavored to stabilize and increase employment as well as business development for migrant workers, thus effectively guaranteeing their legitimate labor rights and interests. The central government formulated the Plan to Raise the Vocational Skills of Migrant Workers, which improved social security and employment service at the community level for them, and provided funds to build 269 county-level employment and social security service centers, and 961 town and township service stations. It gave full play to the important role of the trade unions and other rights-protection organizations for safeguarding workers’ rights, provided various kinds of employment services to more than five million people, and helped one million people sign labor contracts with a duration of over one year. In 2014, various central government departments and a social group jointly issued the Opinions of the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, State Administration of Work Safety and All -China Federation of Trade Unions on Further Improving Work on Work-related Injury Insurance in the Construction Industry, further defining and detailing the relevant policies and measures. In the same year, human resources and social security departments at all levels investigated and handled 263,000 cases concerning wage arrears. People’s courts at all levels investigated and settled 219,000 cases relating to the transfer of land-use rights, disputes over rural homestead and wage arrears, and convicted 753 persons for refusing to pay others for the labor rendered. The Provisions of the Supreme People’s Court on Several Issues Concerning the Trial of Administrative Cases Concerning Work-Related Injury Insurance was promulgated in the same year to define employers’ responsibility in case of work-related injury insurance, and how to deal with cases of work-related injury caused by third parties. The Provisions also made clear the administrative trial procedures relating to labor relations confirmation, and defined such factors as “work-related, time and place of work” in the identification of work-related injuries.

社会保险覆盖面进一步扩大。国务院发布《关于建立统一的城乡居民基本养老保险制度的意见》,在全国范围内建立统一的城乡居民基本养老保险制度,解决了劳动者特别是农民工参加职工和城乡居民基本养老保险的制度衔接问题。截至2014年底,全国城镇职工基本养老保险人数34124万人,比上年增加1906万人。参加城乡居民基本养老保险人数50107万人,比上年增加357万人。全国城镇基本医疗保险参保59774万人,新型农村合作医疗参保73627万人,城乡基本医疗保险覆盖率超过95%。全国参加失业保险人数17043万人,比上年增加626万人,领取失业保险金人数207万人,全年月人均失业保险金水平为852元。参加工伤保险人数20639万人,比上年增加722万人,其中参加工伤保险的农民工7362万人,比上年增加98万人。参加生育保险人数17039万人,比上年增加647万人。
Social insurance coverage widened. The State Council issued the Opinions on Establishing a Unified Basic Pension Insurance System for Non-working Urban and Rural Residents in 2014, establishing a unified basic pension insurance system nationwide, which solved the problem of laborers, especially migrant workers participating in the basic pension insurance system for urban workers or non-working people. A total of 341.24 million people had participated in the basic pension insurance for urban workers by the end of 2014, and 501.07 million people had participated in the basic pension insurance system for non-working people, increases of 19.06 million and 3.57 million, respectively, compared with 2013. At the same time, some 597.74 million people had participated in the basic medical insurance for non-working urban residents and 736.27 million people had participated in the new rural cooperative medical care system. The coverage of the basic medical insurance system for urban and rural residents exceeded 95 percent. In 2014, a total of 170.43 million people participated in the unemployment insurance scheme, an increase of 6.26 million over 2013, and the number of people receiving unemployment insurance allowances reached 2.07 million, making the average amount of 852 yuan per month. A total of 206.39 million people participated in work-related injury insurance in 2014, an increase of 7.22 million people over the previous year, among whom 73.62 million were migrant workers, an increase of 980,000 people. As many as 170.39 million people participated in maternity insurance, 6.47 million more than in 2013.

医疗保障体系更加完善。政府不断提高对城乡居民医保的补助水平,2014年新型农村合作医疗和城镇居民基本医疗保险的财政补助标准提高到每人每年320元,个人缴费水平提高到90元。各地不同程度地开展了城乡居民大病保险工作,大病患者报销比例在基本医保报销的基础上提高了10个百分点以上。中央财政投资224亿元加强医疗卫生服务体系建设,用于全国152所疾控机构、257所妇幼保健机构、24个其他专业公共卫生防治机构建设,以及360所县级医院、2645所乡镇卫生院、53所社区卫生服务中心、4.4万所村卫生室、1.8万套乡镇卫生院周转宿舍建设等。基本公共卫生服务政府补助标准从2013年人均30元提高到2014年的35元,用于11类43项服务内容,进一步扩大了服务内容和人群受益范围。中央财政安排154亿元,实施6大类重大公共卫生服务项目,对艾滋病、结核病等重大疾病预防控制、妇女儿童健康保健、食品风险监测、健康素养促进、人员培训等工作给予补助。中央财政安排91亿元,用于推进基本药物制度在基层医疗卫生机构和村卫生室实施。中央财政安排医改资金118亿元,用于推进公立医院改革、开展住院医师规范化培训等工作。
Medical security system further improved. The central government has gradually raised the annual government subsidy for the basic medical insurance for rural and non-working urban residents. In 2014, government subsidies for the new rural cooperative medical care system and medical insurance for non-working urban residents reached 320 yuan per person per year, with the individual contribution rising to 90 yuan. Serious illness insurance for urban and rural non-working residents is now available throughout the country, and the reimbursement rate for patients with serious illnesses is 10 percentage points higher than that for the basic medical insurance. The central government appropriated 22.4 billion yuan in 2014 to improve the medical health service system, including the building of 152 disease prevention and control institutions, 257 maternal and children health-care institutions, 24 other professional public health and disease prevention and control institutions, 360 county-level hospitals, 2,645 town and township hospitals, 53 community health service centers, 44,000 village clinics and 18,000 dormitories in town and township hospitals. The government subsidy for the basic public health services rose from 30 yuan per person in 2013 to 35 yuan in 2014, covering 43 items of services in 11 categories, providing more services and benefiting more people. The central government appropriated 15.4 billion yuan as supporting funds for six major public health service projects, including the prevention and control of HIV, tuberculosis and other serious diseases, healthcare for women and children, supervision of food risks, raising public’s awareness about health, and personnel training. The central government poured 9.1 billion yuan into implementing the basic pharmaceuticals system at grassroots medical and health institutions, and village clinics. Another 11.8 billion yuan was allocated to promote reform of state-owned hospitals and standardized training of physicians.

社会救助水平进一步提高。《社会救助暂行办法》颁布实施,依法解决城乡困难群众各类生活困难,保障全体公民在获取社会救助方面的权利公平、机会公平、待遇公平。截至2014年底,全国共有城市低保对象1880万人,农村低保对象5209万人、五保供养对象529.5万人。全国城市低保平均标准提高为411元/人/月,月人均补助275元,分别比上年同期增长10.1%、9.1%;全国农村低保平均标准提高为2777元/人/年,月人均补助125元,分别比上年同期增长14.1%、12.5%。中央财政安排5亿元,推动各省(自治区、直辖市)、市(地)建立疾病应急救助基金,用于解决在中国境内急重危伤病、需要急救但身份不明确或无负担能力患者急救费用补助问题。全国实施医疗救助1.02亿人次,支出医疗救助资金254亿元,住院救助、门诊救助、资助参保参合水平分别达到1723元、144元、80元。自2014年10月1日起,国家对残疾军人等优抚对象的抚恤金和生活补助标准提高了20%。
Social assistance further improved. China issued the Interim Measures for Social Assistance, and solved the livelihood difficulties of poverty-stricken urban and rural people in accordance with the law, and ensured equal rights, opportunities and treatment for all citizens who sought social assistance. By the end of 2014, there were altogether 18.8 million urban recipients and 52.09 million rural recipients of subsistence allowances, and 5.295 million people enjoying the “five guarantees” (food, clothing, medical care, housing and burial expenses). The average minimum cost of living and subsidy for urban recipients was 411 yuan per person per month and 275 yuan per person per month, up 10.1 percent and 9.1 percent, respectively, over the previous year. For rural recipients these figures were 2,777 yuan per person per year and 125 yuan per person per month, up 14.1 percent and 12.5 percent, respectively, over 2013. The central government allocated 500 million yuan to encourage all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government as well as cities and prefectures to establish emergency assistance funds for emergency treatment for seriously ill or injured people whose identities are unknown or who are unable to pay the fees. In 2014, 25.4 billion yuan was spent on providing medical aid to 102 million people nationwide. The in-patient aid, out-patient aid and aid for participating in urban medical insurance and the new rural cooperative medical care system respectively reached 1,723 yuan, 144 yuan and 80 yuan per person. From October 1, 2014, pensions and funds to ensure the minimum living standard for disabled soldiers and other people with special needs both increased by 20 percent.

保障性住房建设加速推进。继续落实《国务院关于加快棚户区改造工作的意见》,将棚户区改造和保障性安居工程配套基础设施建设作为中央预算内投资的重点。2014年,棚户区改造和保障性安居工程配套基础设施建设的中央预算内投资达到787亿元。中央财政投入农村危房改造补助资金230亿元,支持完成改造任务266万户。各级政府将保障性安居工程作为必须向人民兑现的“硬承诺”、“硬任务”,全年城镇保障性安居工程新开工740万套,基本建成511万套,超额完成年初既定的新开工700万套以上、基本建成480万套目标任务。2008年至2014年,中央财政投入城镇保障性安居工程补助资金8000多亿元,全国城镇保障性安居工程合计开工4500多万套,其中,各类棚户区改造2080万套。到2014年底,累计解决了4000多万户城镇家庭的住房困难。
Construction of government-subsidized housing accelerated. China continued to implement the Opinions of the State Council on Accelerating the Rebuilding of Shanty Towns to give priority to central government’s financial input in the rebuilding of shanty towns, and the building of infrastructure supportive to government-subsidized housing projects within the central budget. In 2014, funds provided in this regard within the central budget reached 78.7 billion yuan. At the same time, the central government provided 23 billion yuan as part of the funds in the renovation of dilapidated rural houses, and finished renovating the housing of 2.66 million families. Government-subsidized housing is regarded by governments at all levels as a promise they have to fulfill to the people. Throughout the year of 2014, construction began on 7.4 million government-subsidized apartments, and 5.11 million were basically completed, exceeding the goals of the construction of 7 million apartments and completing 4.8 million apartments set at the beginning of the year. From 2008 to 2014 China provided more than 800 billion yuan from the central budget in urban government-subsidized housing. During this period, construction began on 45 million government-subsidized apartments, of which 20.8 million were to be located in shanty towns. By the end of 2014, China had solved housing difficulties for more than 40 million urban households.

公民基本文化权益得到更好保障。国家加快建立健全覆盖全社会的公共文化服务体系,加强文化市场法治建设,将总共11项文化市场主体准入的前置审批项目,一次性全部改为后置审批;加大文化事业资金投入,实施公共数字文化建设和公共图书馆、美术馆、文化馆(站)免费开放项目等重大文化惠民工程。2014年,中央财政安排农村公共文化建设资金143.8亿元,有效提升基层公共文化服务能力,促进公共文化服务均等化提高。截至2014年底,全国共有艺术表演团体2008个,博物馆2760个,文化馆3311个;全国共有公共图书馆3110个,总流通52250万人次;全国共有档案馆4246个,已开放各类档案12835万卷(件)。全国已有2115个博物馆及43510个公共图书馆、美术馆、文化馆(站)实现免费开放。全国有线电视用户3.21亿户,有线数字电视用户1.87亿户;广播节目综合人口覆盖率为98.0%,电视节目综合人口覆盖率为98.6%;广播电视村村通工程覆盖20户以上通电自然村,向户户通升级,直播卫星户户通已达1600多万户。全年生产电视剧429部15983集,电视动画片138496分钟;生产故事影片618部,科技、纪录、动画和特种影片140部,电影票房达到296亿元,比上年增长36%,其中票房过亿元的国产片36部;农村电影放映工程实现平均每个行政村一月放映一场电影的目标,由室外向室内、流动向固定放映转变,可订购影片数量超过3000部。农家书屋工程覆盖全部行政村,初步建立出版物合理定期更新长效机制,数字书屋建设加快推进。中央专项彩票公益金支持建设乡村学校少年宫3600所,比上年增加80%。“十二五”期间累计投入中央专项彩票公益金33.85亿元,示范带动各地兴建25000多所乡村学校少年宫。根据第六次全国体育场地普查结果,全国共有体育场地169.5万个,场地面积19.9亿平方米。全国文化旅游景区(点)年参观人数约14亿人次,带动旅游收入约2500亿元,固定就业人员超过100万。
Basic cultural rights better protected. China has speeded up the building of a public cultural services system that covers the entire society, and enhanced the rule of law in the culture market. It has changed 11 items from pre-access approval to post-access approval for investment in this market. At the same time the state has increased its input in cultural programs, carried out the digital cultural programs, and built libraries, art galleries, cultural centers and similar projects that are open to the public for free. In 2014, the central budget allocated 14.38 billion yuan for rural public cultural improvements, effectively improved the public cultural services at the grassroots level, and promoted equal access to public cultural services. By the end of 2014, China had 2,008 art performance organizations, 2,760 museums and 3,311 cultural centers. In addition, China had 3,110 public libraries, which received a total of 522.5 million visits in that year, and 4,246 archives with a total of 128.35 million open archival records. Some 2,115 museums and 43,510 public libraries, art galleries and cultural centers instituted free admission. China had 321 million cable TV users (households) and 187 million cable digital TV users. About 98 percent of China’s population had access to radio broadcasts, and the figure was 98.6 percent for access to television programs. China has made radio and television services available for every village with more than 20 households, and is working to expand the coverage to every household. The project of providing direct broadcasting satellite services to every household has covered more than 16 million households so far. In 2014, China produced 429 TV series totaling 15,983 episodes, TV cartoon programs totaling 138,496 minutes. It produced 618 feature films, and 140 other films, including popular science films, documentaries, animated cartoons and special-purpose films. The total cinema box office receipts reached 29.6 billion yuan, an increase of 36 percent over the previous year. Thirty-six domestic films each surpassed 100 million yuan in box office receipts. Meanwhile, China carried out a rural film program, projecting at least one film per month in every administrative village. Outdoor mobile film projection is now giving way to projection at permanent indoor venues, and the number of films to be ordered for purchase exceeds 3,000. The rural library project covers all administrative villages, and a long-term mechanism for regular publication updates is taking shape. The building of digital libraries is also accelerating. In 2014, the central government made use of special lottery funds for the building of 3,600 children’s cultural centers for rural schools, up by 80 percent over the previous year. During the period of the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015) the central government provided 3.385 billion yuan of special lottery funds to build and encouraged local governments to build more than 25,000 children's cultural centers for rural schools. According to the sixth national sports venue census at the end of 2013, China had more than 1.695 million sports venues, with a total area of 1.99 billion sq m. In 2014 China's cultural attractions and scenic spots received a total of 1.4 billion visitors, generating an income of 250 billion yuan and providing employment for more than one million people.

(国新办)



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