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2014年中国人权事业的进展(2015白皮书) 4

2015-06-26    来源:国新办    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

三、民主权利
III. Democratic Rights

2014年,中国通过立法正式确立了国家宪法日,弘扬宪法精神、强化宪法实施,在公民参与、民主立法、协商民主、基层民主、公民监督、言论自由等方面,积极推进公民民主权利实现。
In 2014, China officially designated December 4th as the national Constitution Day through legislation with a view to advancing the rule of law, enforcing the implementation of the Constitution, and promoting citizens’ democratic rights to civic participation, democratic legislation, consultative democracy, community-level democracy, citizen supervision and freedom of speech.

人民行使国家权力的机制更加完善。人民代表大会制度是中国的根本政治制度。2014年,全国人民代表大会常务委员会依法行使监督职权,共听取审议“一府两院”13个工作报告,检查4部法律实施情况,开展3次专题询问、4项专题调研。突出立法重点,加快立法步伐,完善立法机制,提升立法效果,有效推进民主立法工作。2014年,全国人民代表大会常务委员会共审议20件法律草案,修改法律10件,制定法律2件,作出8个法律解释。在立法过程中,注重立法前和立法中的评估,通过网络平台、座谈会、论证会、调查研究、来信来函等多种方式公开征求民众、专家和有关部门的意见。以行政诉讼法修正案草案为例,自2014年8月31日至2014年9月20日,共有1586人就《中华人民共和国行政诉讼法修正案(草案二次审议稿)》提出了2300条意见。完善立法后评估工作机制,推动立法后评估工作逐步实现常态化、规范化,法律的立改废释工作逐步建立良性运行机制。
The mechanisms for people to exercise state power being improved. The people’s congress system is the fundamental political system of China. In 2014, the Standing Committee of the NPC exercised its power of supervision in accordance with the law, heard and deliberated 13 work reports from the government, Supreme People’s Court and Supreme People’s Procuratorate, checked the implementation of four laws, and held three topical inquiries and four topical investigations. It highlighted legislative priorities, accelerated the pace of legislative work, and improved the mechanisms for and effectiveness of legislation to promote democratic legislation. In 2014, the Standing Committee of the NPC deliberated 20 draft laws, revised 10 laws, enacted two laws, and provided eight legal interpretations. It stressed appraisal before and in the process of legislation. Suggestions were solicited from the general public, experts and related departments via the Internet, symposiums, discussions, investigations and letters. Take the draft amendment to the Administrative Procedure Law as an example. From August 31 to September 20, 2014, over 2,300 pieces of advice were offered by 1,586 people on the second review draft. The Standing Committee also improved the post-legislation appraisal mechanism to make appraisal a standardized practice that is done on a regular basis. A sound operation mechanism for the enactment, revision, abolition and interpretation of laws was established step by step.

协商民主广泛多层制度化发展稳步推进。协商民主是中国社会主义民主政治中独特的、独有的、独到的民主形式。中华优秀传统文化为中国当代新型协商民主提供了深厚的政治思想滋养。2014年,国家围绕协调推进全面建成小康社会、全面深化改革、全面依法治国、全面从严治党广泛凝心聚力,拓展协商民主的广度和深度,切实强化民主监督职能,继续加强政党协商,积极开展人大协商,扎实推进政府协商,进一步完善政协协商,认真做好人民团体协商,稳步推进基层协商,推动构建程序合理、环节完整的协商民主体系,扩大了公民有序参与国家和社会治理的渠道,提高了决策的科学化、民主化水平。全国政协十二届二次会议以来,提案办结率达99.8%。
Multilayer consultative democracy steadily developed. Consultative democracy is a form of democracy unique to China’s socialist democratic politics. China’s fine traditional culture provides a profound political and ideological wellspring for this new-type consultative democracy. In 2014, centered on building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way, comprehensively deepening reform, governing the country with the rule of law and running the Party with strict discipline, the country gathered strength, explored with consultative democracy in greater width and depth, strengthened the function of democratic supervision, continued to strengthen consultation among political parties, in the people’s congresses, governments, the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) and people’s organizations, and at the community level. Efforts were made to build a complete consultation democracy system with proper procedures, and expand channels for citizens to participate in state and social governance in an orderly manner, all of which improved the scientific and democratic level of decision making. Since the Second Session of the 12th CPPCC, the conclusion rate of their proposals has reached 99.8 percent.

权力清单制度积极推进。2014年,国务院通过一系列取消和下放行政审批项目的决定,取消和下放246项行政审批事项,提前完成本届政府任内减少三分之一行政审批事项的目标任务。国务院公开了各部门行政审批事项汇总清单,规定各部门将不得在公布的总计1235项清单之外实施行政审批,坚决消除权力设租寻租空间,完善权力运行程序。积极落实《政府信息公开条例》,全面实行政务公开,推广电子政务和网上办事,保障公民及时、准确地获取信息,接受公众监督。
Power list system actively promoted. In 2014, the State Council made a series of decisions concerning administrative approval items to be cancelled or delegated to lower levels, canceling and delegating to lower levels over 246 items for administrative approval. This means the current Administration has honored the promise of deducting the administrative approval items by one third ahead of schedule. The State Council also released a list of items for administrative approval by all departments, stipulating that no department should exercise administrative approval beyond the list of 1,235 items so as to minimize the possibilities of officials seeking personal gain through power and improve the procedure of the exercise of power. We have actively implemented the Regulations on the Disclosure of Government Information, gone all out to make government affairs public, promoted e-government and online services to ensure timely and accurate access by ordinary citizens to information, and put the government under public supervision.

党风廉政建设和反腐败工作不断深入。中国共产党和中国政府坚定不移改进作风,以零容忍态度惩治腐败,治国理政法治化水平进一步提高。2014年,全国纪检监察机关共接受信访举报272万件(次),立案22.6万件,结案21.8万件,给予党纪政纪处分23.2万人,涉嫌犯罪被移送司法机关处理1.2万人;共查处违反中央八项规定精神问题53085起,处理71748人,其中给予党纪政纪处分23646人。加大国际追逃追赃力度,加强双边多边协作,开展“天网”、“猎狐”行动,发表《北京反腐败宣言》,建立反腐败执法合作网络,追逃500多人,追赃30多亿元。2014年,各级纪检监察机关通过正风肃纪、反腐惩贪为国家挽回经济损失105亿元;全国共审计13万多个单位,提交审计报告和信息25万多篇,促进增收节支和挽回损失4000多亿元,移送违法违纪案件线索3800多件,促进经济健康发展、保证社会公平正义、维护群众切身利益。
More efforts being put in improving Party conduct, upholding integrity and combating corruption. The CPC Central Committee and the Chinese government are unswervingly improving their work practices, adopting zero-tolerance toward corruption and further improving the governance by law. In 2014, the discipline inspection and supervision departments nationwide received a total of 2.72 million tip-off and complaint letters, filed 226,000 cases, concluded 218,000 cases, gave Party and administrative discipline sanctions to 232,000 people, and transferred 12,000 people to judicial organs for suspected crimes; investigated and handled 53,085 cases for violating the “Eight Provisions” of the CPC Central Committee, involving 71,748 people, of whom, 23,646 were given Party and administrative discipline sanctions. We beefed up our efforts to pursue offenders who have fled overseas and recover their ill-gotten gains, strengthened bilateral and multilateral cooperation, launched the “Sky Net” and “Fox Hunt” campaigns, released the Beijing Declaration on Fighting Corruption and established the Network of Anti-Corruption Authorities and Law Enforcement Agencies. These steps have helped the government hunt down over 500 escaped convicts and recover over three billion yuan in illegally diverted funds. In 2014, discipline inspection and supervision departments at all levels retrieved 10.5 billion yuan for the country through rectifying Party conduct and combating corruption; a total of 130,000 units nationwide were audited, and over 250,000 audit reports and files were delivered, resulting in an increase in revenue and decrease in expenditure, and over 400 billion yuan of losses recovered. Over 3,800 pieces of evidence of cases involving violation of laws and regulations were found and submitted to the judiciary for further investigation. All these efforts helped to promote the country’s healthy economic growth, ensure social equity and justice and safeguard the immediate interests of the people.

社会主义核心价值观建设深入推进。中国人权事业发展离不开社会主义核心价值观建设。社会主义核心价值观建设与提高全民尊重和保障人权意识相辅相成。中共十八大以来,在全社会大力倡导富强、民主、文明、和谐,倡导自由、平等、公正、法治,倡导爱国、敬业、诚信、友善,积极培育和践行社会主义核心价值观。社会主义核心价值观是中国人民的共同理想和精神支柱,已成为当代中国精神世界的“价值公约数”。2014年,国家继续大力开展人权教育,深入推进社会主义核心价值观建设,开展学雷锋志愿服务、孝敬教育、诚信教育、勤俭节约教育,培育传承优良家风、校训、企业精神和乡贤文化、节日文化,制作刊播“图说我们的价值观”公益广告;深化文明城市、文明村镇、文明单位创建,推进文明旅游;通过网上《好人365》专栏等系列活动,推出一批体现时代精神的先进典型。全年共推荐好人好事线索4万多件,至2014年底,仅新浪微博阅读量已突破1.7亿,形成了向上向善的强大社会力量。
The construction of core socialist values gathering momentum. China’s human rights will not be able to make progress without the construction of core socialist values. They are supplementary to each other. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, core socialist values, namely, prosperity, democracy, civility, harmony, freedom, equality, justice, the rule of law, patriotism, dedication, integrity and friendship have been advocated, fostered and implemented in all sectors of society. Core socialist values are the common ideals and spiritual pillars of the Chinese people. In 2014, the state renewed its efforts to promote human rights education, and advanced the construction of core socialist values, launching volunteer services and programs inculcating filial piety education, integrity education, thrift education, cultivating and inheriting fine family traditions, school mottoes, entrepreneurship, fine village traditions and festival culture, and publicizing public service advertisements titled “Our Values.” We intensified the building of civilized cities, towns, villages, and units, and exhorted Chinese tourists to behave themselves. We presented role models representing the spirit of our time through the online column “365 moral models.” Recommendations for role models and good deeds totaled over 40,000 throughout that year, and by the end of 2014, the page featuring this topic on weibo.com at the website SINA was read by more than 170 million people, exerting a positive influence on society.

公民言论自由权得到有效保障。2014年,中国出版各类报纸465亿份,各类期刊32亿册,图书84亿册(张),人均图书拥有量6.12册(张)。截至2014年底,中国互联网网民规模达到6.5亿,互联网普及率为47.9%。其中手机即时通信网民5.08亿,比2013年增长7683万,年增长率达17.8%。全国前三大互联网应用——即时通信、搜索引擎和网络新闻,用户规模分别达到5.88亿、5.22亿和5.19亿。网络视频用户规模为4.33亿,微博客用户规模为2.49亿,微信公众账号数超过800万,微信和WeChat的合并月活跃账户数近5亿。公众通过新闻传播媒介自由地发表意见、提出批评建议,讨论国家和社会的各种问题。政府鼓励各类企业依法依规为公众提供丰富多样的互联网信息服务业务,为公众获取和交流信息创造良好环境,日益清朗的网络空间成为民间获取信息和表达意见的重要场所。
Freedom of speech better protected. In 2014, China published 46.5 billion copies of newspapers, 3.2 billion copies of periodicals, and 8.4 billion copies of books, with 6.12 copies of books per person. By the end of 2014, the population of netizens in China was 650 million, and the Internet penetration rate was 47.9 percent. Of all the netizens, 508 million were smart phone users, an increase of 76.83 million over 2013, registering an increase rate of 17.8 percent. The users of the top three Internet applications instant messaging, search engine and netnews were 588 million, 522 million and 519 million, respectively. The number of online video users was 433 million, microblog users 249 million, and WeChat accounts over eight million, with its active domestic and overseas accounts per month close to 500 million. The public can air opinions, and raise criticisms and suggestions freely through the news media, and discuss problems of this country and society. The government encourages enterprises to provide various Internet services to the public in accordance with the law so as to create a good environment for the public to acquire and exchange information. A cleaner cyber space is becoming an ever important place for the public to get information and make their voices heard. Social organizations playing their roles better.

社会组织作用得到更好发挥。社会组织直接登记继续推进,为公民通过建立社会组织以维护合法权益、表达正当诉求、参与公共事务管理、从事社会服务提供了更加有利的条件和制度保障。2014年,全国在民政部门正式登记的社会组织共有60万个,比上年增长11.1%,其中社会团体30.7万个,同比增长7.3%;基金会4044个,同比增长 15.7%;民办非企业单位28.9万个,同比增长15.1%。政府向社会组织购买服务工作深入推进。2014年,中央财政全年共立项448个,立项总资金2亿元,配套资金1.66亿元,支持社会组织服务社会,直接受益群众超过235万,培训社会组织负责人近2万。
Renewed efforts are being made to promote the direct registration of social organizations, providing more favorable conditions and an institutional guarantee for citizens to safeguard their legitimate rights and interests, express their legitimate demands, participate in the management of public affairs and engage in social services through these social organizations. In 2014, the social organizations registered at the Ministry of Civil Affairs totaled 600,000, an increase of 11.1 percent over the previous year; among them, 307,000 were social groups, with year-on-year growth of 7.3 percent; 4,044 were foundations, a year-on-year growth of 15.7 percent; and 289,000 were non-governmental nonprofit units, a year-on-year growth of 15.1 percent. Meanwhile, the government continued to outsource services from social organizations. In 2014, it allocated a budget of 200 million yuan to initiate 448 projects, with supporting funds of 166 million yuan to assist social organizations to serve society, directly benefiting over 2.35 million people and training about 20,000 heads of social organizations.

(国新办)



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