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中国的军事战略(白皮书2015双语)2

2015-06-26    来源:国新办    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

二、军队使命和战略任务
II. Missions and Strategic Tasks of China’s Armed Forces

中国的国家战略目标,就是实现在中国共产党成立一百年时全面建成小康社会、在新中国成立一百年时建成富强民主文明和谐的社会主义现代化国家的奋斗目标,就是实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦。中国梦是强国梦,对军队来说就是强军梦。强军才能卫国,强国必须强军。新的历史时期,中国军队以中国共产党在新形势下的强军目标为总纲,毫不动摇坚持党对军队绝对领导,始终把战斗力作为唯一的根本的标准,大力弘扬光荣传统和优良作风,建设一支听党指挥、能打胜仗、作风优良的人民军队。
China’s national strategic goal is to complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2021 when the CPC celebrates its centenary; and the building of a modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced and harmonious by 2049 when the People’s Republic of China (PRC) marks its centenary. It is a Chinese Dream of achieving the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. The Chinese Dream is to make the country strong. China’s armed forces take their dream of making the military strong as part of the Chinese Dream. Without a strong military, a country can be neither safe nor strong. In the new historical period, aiming at the CPC’s goal of building a strong military in the new situation, China’s armed forces will unswervingly adhere to the principle of the CPC’s absolute leadership, uphold combat effectiveness as the sole and fundamental standard, carry on their glorious traditions, and work to build themselves into a people’s military that follows the CPC’s commands, can fight and win, and boasts a fine style of work.

在新的时代条件下,中国国家安全内涵和外延比历史上任何时候都要丰富,时空领域比历史上任何时候都要宽广,内外因素比历史上任何时候都要复杂,必须坚持总体国家安全观,统筹内部安全和外部安全、国土安全和国民安全、传统安全和非传统安全、生存安全和发展安全、自身安全和共同安全。
In the new circumstances, the national security issues facing China encompass far more subjects, extend over a greater range, and cover a longer time span than at any time in the country’s history. Internally and externally, the factors at play are more complex than ever before. Therefore, it is necessary to uphold a holistic view of national security, balance internal and external security, homeland and citizen security, traditional and non-traditional security, subsistence and development security, and China’s own security and the common security of the world.

实现国家战略目标,贯彻总体国家安全观,对创新发展军事战略、有效履行军队使命任务提出了新的需求。要适应维护国家安全和发展利益的新要求,更加注重运用军事力量和手段营造有利战略态势,为实现和平发展提供坚强有力的安全保障;适应国家安全形势发展的新要求,不断创新战略指导和作战思想,确保能打仗、打胜仗;适应世界新军事革命的新要求,高度关注应对新型安全领域挑战,努力掌握军事竞争战略主动权;适应国家战略利益发展的新要求,积极参与地区和国际安全合作,有效维护海外利益安全;适应国家全面深化改革的新要求,坚持走军民融合式发展道路,积极支援国家经济社会建设,坚决维护社会大局稳定,使军队始终成为党巩固执政地位的中坚力量和建设中国特色社会主义的可靠力量。
To realize China’s national strategic goal and implement the holistic view of national security, new requirements have been raised for innovative development of China’s military strategy and the accomplishment of military missions and tasks. In response to the new requirement of safeguarding national security and development interests, China’s armed forces will work harder to create a favorable strategic posture with more emphasis on the employment of military forces and means, and provide a solid security guarantee for the country’s peaceful development. In response to the new requirement arising from the changing security situation, the armed forces will constantly innovate strategic guidance and operational thoughts so as to ensure the capabilities of fighting and winning. In response to the new requirement arising from the worldwide RMA, the armed forces will pay close attention to the challenges in new security domains, and work hard to seize the strategic initiative in military competition. In response to the new requirement coming from the country’s growing strategic interests, the armed forces will actively participate in both regional and international security cooperation and effectively secure China’s overseas interests. And in response to the new requirement arising from China’s all-round and deepening reform, the armed forces will continue to follow the path of civil-military integration (CMI), actively participate in the country’s economic and social construction, and firmly maintain social stability, so as to remain a staunch force for upholding the CPC’s ruling position and a reliable force for developing socialism with Chinese characteristics.

中国军队有效履行新的历史时期军队使命,坚决维护中国共产党的领导和中国特色社会主义制度,坚决维护国家主权、安全、发展利益,坚决维护国家发展的重要战略机遇期,坚决维护地区与世界和平,为全面建成小康社会、实现中华民族伟大复兴提供坚强保障。
China’s armed forces will effectively perform their missions in the new historical period, resolutely uphold the leadership of the CPC and the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, safeguard China’s sovereignty, security and development interests, safeguard the important period of strategic opportunities for China’s development, maintain regional and world peace, and strive to provide a strong guarantee for completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects and achieving the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

中国军队主要担负以下战略任务:应对各种突发事件和军事威胁,有效维护国家领土、领空、领海主权和安全;坚决捍卫祖国统一;维护新型领域安全和利益;维护海外利益安全;保持战略威慑,组织核反击行动;参加地区和国际安全合作,维护地区和世界和平;加强反渗透、反分裂、反恐怖斗争,维护国家政治安全和社会稳定;担负抢险救灾、维护权益、安保警戒和支援国家经济社会建设等任务。

China’s armed forces mainly shoulder the following strategic tasks:

– To deal with a wide range of emergencies and military threats, and effectively safeguard the sovereignty and security of China’s territorial land, air and sea;

– To resolutely safeguard the unification of the motherland;

– To safeguard China’s security and interests in new domains;

– To safeguard the security of China’s overseas interests;

– To maintain strategic deterrence and carry out nuclear counterattack;

– To participate in regional and international security cooperation and maintain regional and world peace;

–To strengthen efforts in operations against infiltration, separatism and terrorism so as to maintain China’s political security and social stability; and

– To perform such tasks as emergency rescue and disaster relief, rights and interests protection, guard duties, and support for national economic and social development.

三、积极防御战略方针
III. Strategic Guideline of Active Defense

积极防御战略思想是中国共产党军事战略思想的基本点。在长期革命战争实践中,人民军队形成了一整套积极防御战略思想,坚持战略上防御与战役战斗上进攻的统一,坚持防御、自卫、后发制人的原则,坚持“人不犯我,我不犯人;人若犯我,我必犯人”。
The strategic concept of active defense is the essence of the CPC’s military strategic thought. From the long-term practice of revolutionary wars, the people’s armed forces have developed a complete set of strategic concepts of active defense, which boils down to: adherence to the unity of strategic defense and operational and tactical offense; adherence to the principles of defense, self-defense and post-emptive strike; and adherence to the stance that “We will not attack unless we are attacked, but we will surely counterattack if attacked.”

新中国成立后,中央军委确立积极防御军事战略方针,并根据国家安全形势发展变化对积极防御军事战略方针的内容进行了多次调整。1993年,制定新时期军事战略方针,以打赢现代技术特别是高技术条件下局部战争为军事斗争准备基点。2004年,充实完善新时期军事战略方针,把军事斗争准备基点进一步调整为打赢信息化条件下的局部战争。
Shortly after the founding of the PRC in 1949, the Central Military Commission (CMC) established the military strategic guideline of active defense, and later, in line with the developments and changes in the national security situation, had made a number of major revisions of it. In 1993 the military strategic guideline of the new era was formulated, which took winning local wars in conditions of modern technology, particularly high technology, as the basic point in making preparation for military struggle (PMS). In 2004, the guideline was further substantiated, and the basic point for PMS was modified to winning local wars under conditions of informationization.

中国社会主义性质和国家根本利益,走和平发展道路的客观要求,决定中国必须毫不动摇坚持积极防御战略思想,同时不断丰富和发展这一思想的内涵。根据国家安全和发展战略,适应新的历史时期形势任务要求,坚持实行积极防御军事战略方针,与时俱进加强军事战略指导,进一步拓宽战略视野、更新战略思维、前移指导重心,整体运筹备战与止战、维权与维稳、威慑与实战、战争行动与和平时期军事力量运用,注重深远经略,塑造有利态势,综合管控危机,坚决遏制和打赢战争。
China’s socialist nature, fundamental national interests and the objective requirement of taking the path of peaceful development all demand that China unswervingly adhere to and enrich the strategic concept of active defense. Guided by national security and development strategies, and required by the situation and their tasks in the new historical period, China’s armed forces will continue to implement the military strategic guideline of active defense and enhance military strategic guidance as the times so require. They will further broaden strategic vision, update strategic thinking and make strategic guidance more forward-looking. A holistic approach will be taken to balance war preparation and war prevention, rights protection and stability maintenance, deterrence and warfighting, and operations in wartime and employment of military forces in peacetime. They will lay stress on farsighted planning and management to create a favorable posture, comprehensively manage crises, and resolutely deter and win wars.

实行新形势下积极防御军事战略方针,调整军事斗争准备基点。根据战争形态演变和国家安全形势,将军事斗争准备基点放在打赢信息化局部战争上,突出海上军事斗争和军事斗争准备,有效控制重大危机,妥善应对连锁反应,坚决捍卫国家领土主权、统一和安全。
To implement the military strategic guideline of active defense in the new situation, China’s armed forces will adjust the basic point for PMS. In line with the evolving form of war and national security situation, the basic point for PMS will be placed on winning informationized local wars, highlighting maritime military struggle and maritime PMS. The armed forces will work to effectively control major crises, properly handle possible chain reactions, and firmly safeguard the country’s territorial sovereignty, integrity and security.

实行新形势下积极防御军事战略方针,创新基本作战思想。根据各个方向安全威胁和军队能力建设实际,坚持灵活机动、自主作战的原则,你打你的、我打我的,运用诸军兵种一体化作战力量,实施信息主导、精打要害、联合制胜的体系作战。
To implement the military strategic guideline of active defense in the new situation, China’s armed forces will innovate basic operational doctrines. In response to security threats from different directions and in line with their current capabilities, the armed forces will adhere to the principles of flexibility, mobility and self-dependence so that “you fight your way and I fight my way.” Integrated combat forces will be employed to prevail in system-vs-system operations featuring information dominance, precision strikes and joint operations.

实行新形势下积极防御军事战略方针,优化军事战略布局。根据中国地缘战略环境、面临安全威胁和军队战略任务,构建全局统筹、分区负责,相互策应、互为一体的战略部署和军事布势;应对太空、网络空间等新型安全领域威胁,维护共同安全;加强海外利益攸关区国际安全合作,维护海外利益安全。
To implement the military strategic guideline of active defense in the new situation, China’s armed forces will optimize the military strategic layout. In view of China’s geostrategic environment, the security threats it faces and the strategic tasks they shoulder, the armed forces will make overall planning for strategic deployment and military disposition, in order to clearly divide areas of responsibility for their troops, and enable them to support each other and act as an organic whole. Threats from such new security domains as outer space and cyber space will be dealt with to maintain the common security of the world community. China’s armed forces will strengthen international security cooperation in areas crucially related to China’s overseas interests, to ensure the security of such interests.

实行新形势下积极防御军事战略方针,坚持以下原则:服从服务于国家战略目标,贯彻总体国家安全观,加强军事斗争准备,预防危机、遏制战争、打赢战争;营造有利于国家和平发展的战略态势,坚持防御性国防政策,坚持政治、军事、经济、外交等领域斗争密切配合,积极应对国家可能面临的综合安全威胁;保持维权维稳平衡,统筹维权和维稳两个大局,维护国家领土主权和海洋权益,维护周边安全稳定;努力争取军事斗争战略主动,积极运筹谋划各方向各领域军事斗争,抓住机遇加快推进军队建设、改革和发展;运用灵活机动的战略战术,发挥联合作战整体效能,集中优势力量,综合运用战法手段;立足应对最复杂最困难情况,坚持底线思维,扎实做好各项准备工作,确保妥善应对、措置裕如;充分发挥人民军队特有的政治优势,坚持党对军队的绝对领导,重视战斗精神培育,严格部队组织纪律性,纯洁巩固部队,密切军政军民关系,鼓舞军心士气;发挥人民战争的整体威力,坚持把人民战争作为克敌制胜的重要法宝,拓展人民战争的内容和方式方法,推动战争动员以人力动员为主向以科技动员为主转变;积极拓展军事安全合作空间,深化与大国、周边、发展中国家的军事关系,促进建立地区安全和合作架构。

To implement the military strategic guideline of active defense in the new situation, China’s armed forces will uphold the following principles:

– To be subordinate to and in the service of the national strategic goal, implement the holistic view of national security, strengthen PMS, prevent crises, deter and win wars;

– To foster a strategic posture favorable to China’s peaceful development, adhere to the national defense policy that is defensive in nature, persevere in close coordination of political, military, economic and diplomatic work, and positively cope with comprehensive security threats the country possibly encounters;

– To strike a balance between rights protection and stability maintenance, and make overall planning for both, safeguard national territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests, and maintain security and stability along China’s periphery;

–To endeavor to seize the strategic initiative in military struggle, proactively plan for military struggle in all directions and domains, and grasp the opportunities to accelerate military building, reform and development;

– To employ strategies and tactics featuring flexibility and mobility, give full play to the overall effectiveness of joint operations, concentrate superior forces, and make integrated use of all operational means and methods;

– To make serious preparations to cope with the most complex and difficult scenarios, uphold bottom-line thinking, and do a solid job in all aspects so as to ensure proper responses to such scenarios with ease at any time and in any circumstances;

– To bring into full play the unique political advantages of the people’s armed forces, uphold the CPC’s absolute leadership over the military, accentuate the cultivation of fighting spirit, enforce strict discipline, improve the professionalism and strength of the troops, build closer relations between the government and the military as well as between the people and the military, and boost the morale of officers and men;

– To give full play to the overall power of the concept of people’s war, persist in employing it as an ace weapon to triumph over the enemy, enrich the contents, ways and means of the concept of people’s war, and press forward with the shift of the focus of war mobilization from human resources to science and technology; and

– To actively expand military and security cooperation, deepen military relations with major powers, neighboring countries and other developing countries, and promote the establishment of a regional framework for security and cooperation.

(国新办)



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