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2014年中国人权事业的进展(2015白皮书) 5

2015-06-29    来源:国新办    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

四、公正审判权
IV. Right to Impartial Trial

2014年,各级司法机关强化司法公正、公开,积极推进多项司法改革举措,进一步促进公正审判权有效实现,司法领域人权保障迈上新台阶。
In 2014, China’s judicial bodies at all levels enhanced judicial justice and openness, adopted multiple judicial reform measures and ensured impartiality in the trial of cases, thereby safeguarding human rights in the field of justice at a higher level.

司法公正得到切实维护。公安机关、检察机关和审判机关继续落实有关法律规定,分别从侦查、检察和审判等刑事诉讼各环节,进一步健全冤假错案的防范机制、发现机制和纠正机制。2014年,各级人民法院依法惩治犯罪,维护人民群众人身、财产安全,审结一审刑事案件102.3万件,判处罪犯118.4万人;严格落实罪刑法定、疑罪从无、证据裁判等原则,对518名公诉案件被告人和260名自诉案件被告人依法宣告无罪,切实保障无罪的人不受刑事追究。最高人民法院印发《关于办理死刑复核案件听取辩护律师意见的办法》,保障律师查询立案信息、查阅案卷材料等权利,律师可直接向最高人民法院法官当面陈述辩护意见。各级检察机关对侦查机关不应当立案而立案的,督促撤案17673件;对滥用强制措施、违法取证、刑讯逼供等侦查活动违法情形,提出纠正意见54949件次;对不构成犯罪和证据不足的,决定不批捕116553人、不起诉23269人。各级人民法院按照审判监督程序再审改判刑事案件1317件。多起重大刑事冤假错案根据疑罪从无原则得到纠正。福建省高级人民法院依法审理念斌投放危险物质案,以“事实不清、证据不足”宣告念斌无罪。内蒙古自治区高级人民法院依法再审呼格吉勒图故意杀人、流氓罪一案,改判呼格吉勒图无罪。
Judicial justice maintained. Public security, procuratorial and judicial bodies continued to implement relevant laws and regulations to improve the mechanisms of preventing, identifying and redressing cases involving unjust, false and wrongful charges throughout all criminal procedures from investigation to prosecution to trials. In 2014, the people’s courts at all levels punished criminals in accordance with the law, protected the lives and property of the people, concluded 1.023 million cases of first instance, and convicted 1.184 million people. Based on the principles of “statutory crime and penalty,” “no punishment in doubtful cases” and “evidentiary adjudication,” the courts acquitted 518 defendants in cases of public prosecution and 260 in cases of private prosecution, thereby maintaining the freedom of innocent people. The Supreme People’s Court issued the Measures of the Supreme People’s Court for Listening to Opinions of Defense Lawyers in the Handling of Death Penalty Review Cases. It ensured lawyers’ rights to search case-filing information and consult case files, and empowered lawyers to present defense arguments directly to judges of the Supreme People’s Court. Procuratorial bodies at all levels got the investigation bodies to cancel 17,673 cases that should not have been filed; provided 54,949 opinions to correct illegal investigation activities such as misuse of compulsory measures, illegally obtaining evidence and extorting confessions by torture; got 116,553 arrests and 23,269 prosecutions annulled since the conducts in question did not constitute crimes or lacked sufficient evidence. Following the trial supervision procedures, the people’s courts altered the judgments of 1,317 criminal cases after retrial. A number of major criminal cases involving unjust, false, or wrongful charges were redressed in accordance with the principle of “no punishment in doubtful cases.” The Higher People’s Court of Fujian Province heard the poisoning case involving Nian Bin, and acquitted the suspect on the ground of “lacking sufficient evidence.” The Higher People’s Court of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region retried the case of Hugjiltu who was originally charged with intentional homicide and indecent assault, and absolved him of guilt.

司法透明度进一步提高。最高人民法院积极实施《关于推进司法公开三大平台建设的若干意见》。建立审判流程信息平台,方便当事人查询案件进展情况。建设裁判文书公开平台。2014年1月1日,《最高人民法院关于人民法院在互联网公布裁判文书的规定》正式实施。全年共上网公布裁判文书629.4万份,其中最高人民法院公布7993份。建设执行信息公开平台。完善失信被执行人名单制度,全年共公开发布失信被执行人信息110万例,采取限制高消费等信用惩戒措施150万次。2014年10月1日,《人民检察院案件信息公开工作规定(试行)》开始实施。全面建成全国检察机关统一的案件信息公开系统,正式运行案件程序性信息查询、法律文书公开、重要案件信息发布和辩护与代理预约申请等四大平台。
Judicial openness increased. The Supreme People’s Court implemented the Several Opinions on Advancing the Establishment of the Three Major Platforms of Judicial Openness. A trial procedure information platform has been established so that litigants can inquire about the progress of their cases, and a judgment disclosure platform has been created. On January 1, 2014, the Provisions of the Supreme People’s Court on the Publicizing of Written Judgments of the People’s Courts on the Internet was officially implemented. In 2014, a total of 6.294 million judgments were publicized on the Internet, of which 7,993 were published by the Supreme People’s Court. An execution information disclosure platform has been built. China has improved the system of publicizing the name and other information of people who fail to obey the rulings of the people’s court. In 2014, China published information about 1.1 million such persons, and enforced punitive measures 1.5 million times, including restricting them from high consumption. On October 1, 2014, the Provisions on Case Information Disclosure by the People’s Procuratorates (Trial) was implemented. China has completed the construction of a nationwide system of case information disclosure by procuratorial bodies, putting into operation the four platforms of case procedural information inquiry, legal documentation disclosure, information disclosure of major cases, and application by appointment for defense and representation.

非法证据排除制度得到严格贯彻。公安机关、检察机关和审判机关进一步完善非法证据排除的实施机制。对于侦查机关采用刑讯逼供等非法方法收集的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人供述和采用暴力、威胁等非法方法收集的证人证言、被害人陈述,对于以违反法定程序收集、可能严重影响司法公正且不能补正或者作出合理解释的物证、书证,依法予以排除。2014年,各级检察机关因排除非法证据决定不批捕406人、不起诉198人。河北省顺平县检察院在审查办理王某某涉嫌故意杀人案时,针对多处疑点,坚决排除非法证据,作出不批捕决定,提出补充侦查意见,公安机关最终抓获真凶。
The system of excluding illegally obtained evidence implemented. Public security, procuratorial and judicial bodies have further improved the implementation mechanism of excluding illegally obtained evidence. They would refuse evidence obtained by these means: confessions of criminal suspects or defendants that are extorted by torture or other illegal means, witnesses’ testimonies or victims’ presentations obtained through violence or threats, material or written evidence obtained by violating legal procedures, and other actions that might severely affect justice, and to which no correction or supplementation can be made or reasonable explanations given. In 2014, by refusing to adopt illegally obtained evidence, procuratorial bodies at all levels decided not to arrest 406 people and not sue 198 people. During the investigation and examination of an intentional homicide case, the People’s Procuratorate of Shunping County in Hebei Province identified multiple questionable points, resolutely refused to adopt illegally obtained evidence, decided not to arrest the suspect by the family name of Wang, and urged more investigations, with the result that the real culprit was apprehended.

司法体制改革积极推进。中央全面深化改革领导小组第三次会议审议通过《关于司法体制改革试点若干问题的框架意见》等文件,在上海、广东、吉林、湖北、海南、贵州、青海7个省市先行试点完善司法人员分类管理、完善司法责任制、健全司法人员职业保障、推动省以下地方法院检察院人财物统一管理等四项司法改革措施。根据《最高人民法院设立巡回法庭试点方案》,最高人民法院在广东省深圳市、辽宁省沈阳市分别设立第一、第二巡回法庭,审理跨行政区域重大行政和民商事案件,实现最高人民法院工作重心下移,就地解决纠纷,方便群众诉讼,确保司法公正。根据《最高人民法院关于全面深化人民法院改革的意见》,设立跨行政区划法院,在北京、上海组建跨行政区划中级法院,办理跨地区重大刑事、民事、行政案件;在北京、上海探索设立跨行政区划人民检察院,重点办理跨地区的行政诉讼监督案件、重大民商事监督案件、重大职务犯罪案件、重大环境资源保护和重大食品药品安全刑事案件,保证国家法律正确统一实施。
Judicial system reform advanced. The Third Meeting of the Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Deepening the Reform deliberated on and adopted the Framework Opinions on Several Issues Concerning Judicial System Reform and other documents. Shanghai Municipality and Guangdong, Jilin, Hubei, Hainan, Guizhou and Qinghai provinces were designated as pilot areas to implement four judicial reform measures, namely, improving the categorized management of judicial personnel, improving the judicial accountability system, improving the career security of judicial personnel, and implementing the integrated management of personnel, finance and property in the people’s courts and procuratorates below the provincial level. According to the Plan of the Supreme People’s Court on Setting up Pilot Circuit Courts, the Supreme People’s Court set up the First Circuit Court in Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, and the Second Circuit Court in Shenyang City, Liaoning Province, to hear major administrative, civil and business cases across administrative regions, shifting its work focus to lower levels and resolving disputes on the spot, thus making it more convenient for the ordinary people to file lawsuits and ensuring judicial justice. In line with the Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court on Comprehensibly Deepening the Reform of the People’s Courts, Beijing and Shanghai have set up trans-administrative regional intermediate courts to handle major criminal, civil and administrative cases; Beijing and Shanghai have been exploring ways of setting up trans-administrative regional people’s procuratorates, focusing on administrative litigation supervision cases, major civil and business supervision cases, major duty-related cases, major criminal cases concerning environmental and resource protection and food and drug safety, so as to ensure that the law is enforced correctly and consistently across the country.

行政审判制度进一步改革完善。全国人民代表大会常务委员会通过了关于修改行政诉讼法的决定,完善行政案件起诉、审理、判决、执行等制度,进一步保护公民、法人和其他组织的合法权益。扩大行政诉讼的受案范围,明确将行政机关滥用行政权力排除或者限制竞争的,违法集资、摊派费用的,没有依法支付抚恤金、最低生活保障待遇或者社会保险待遇等行政行为纳入受案范围。在立案上,实行立案登记制,起诉期限延长至六个月。2014年,各级人民法院受理一审行政诉讼案件15.1万件,审结13.1万件,同比分别上升16.3%和8.3%。山东、广东、陕西、江苏、云南、河南等省份的行政案件跨区域集中管辖试点工作扎实推进。
Administrative adjudication system reformed and improved. The Standing Committee of the NPC adopted the resolution on amending the Administrative Litigation Law, further improving the systems covering every aspect of administrative litigation, from bringing a case to court, the trial of the case, to making of the judgment and enforcement, so as to further protect the lawful rights and interests of citizens, legal persons and other organizations. China has expanded the case-filing scope for administrative litigation to include such activities as administrative bodies’ abuse of power to exclude and restrict competition, illegal raising of funds and apportioning expenses, and failing to provide subsistence allowances or social security benefits. China practices case-filing registration and has extended the time limit for prosecution to six months. In 2014, the people’s courts at all levels took up 151,000 administrative cases of first instance and concluded 131,000 of them, up 16.3 percent and 8.3 percent, respectively, over 2013. Shandong, Guangdong, Shaanxi, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Henan provinces continued the pilot work of centralized jurisdiction of trans-regional administrative cases.

知识产权司法保护更加完善。2014年,北京、上海、广州设立了知识产权法院。最高人民法院发布《知识产权法院法官选任工作指导意见(试行)》,明确了知识产权法院法官的选任原则、选任标准、选任方式等,提高知识产权审判专业化水平。2014年,各级人民检察院起诉侵犯商标权、专利权、著作权和商业秘密等犯罪9427人,同比上升7.1%。各级人民法院审结一审知识产权案件11万件,同比上升10%。
Judicial protection of intellectual property rights improved. In 2014, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou set up intellectual property courts. The Supreme People’s Court issued the Guiding Opinions on Selecting and Appointing Judges for Intellectual Property Courts (Trial), which prescribed the principles, criteria and approaches for selecting and appointing such judges, and improved the professional level of intellectual property adjudication. In 2014, the people’s procuratorates at all levels prosecuted 9,427 persons for infringement of trademarks, patents, copyrights or business secrets, up 7.1 percent over 2013. The people’s courts at all levels concluded 110,000 intellectual property cases of first instance, up 10 percent over 2013.

国家赔偿和司法救助工作进一步加强。明确国家赔偿案件适用精神损害赔偿的原则和条件,推动建立国家赔偿联动机制,有效保障赔偿请求人合法权益。2014年,各级人民法院审结国家赔偿案件2708件,决定赔偿金额1.1亿元。完善刑事被害人救助制度。为当事人减免诉讼费1.8亿元,保障生活困难的群众获得诉讼救济的权利。
State compensation and judicial assistance enhanced. China has made it clear that the principles and conditions guiding the compensation for psychological damage can be applied in state compensation cases, and is making efforts to build a joint mechanism for state compensation to safeguard the lawful rights and interests of compensation applicants. In 2014, the people’s courts at all levels concluded 2,708 state compensation cases, and decided on a compensation amount totaling 110 million yuan. China has improved the criminal victim relief system, reducing or exempting litigation fees totaling 180 million yuan, so as to protect the litigation relief rights of impoverished people.

(国新办)



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