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2014年中国人权事业的进展(2015白皮书) 6

2015-06-29    来源:国新办    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

五、少数民族权利
V. Rights of Ethnic Minorities

2014年,中国少数民族和民族地区各项事业不断发展,各少数民族的公民、政治权利和经济、社会、文化权利进一步得到保障。
In 2014, China’s ethnic minorities and areas inhabited by ethnic minorities made new developments in various social programs, and ethnic minorities’ civil, political, economic, cultural and social rights were further guaranteed.

少数民族参与国家事务管理的权利得到有效保障。各少数民族自治地方依法享有广泛的自治权利,包括地方立法权、依照当地民族的特点对法律和行政法规的规定作出变通的权力、使用民族语言文字的权利、人事管理权、财政管理权和自主发展文化教育权等。全国少数民族公务员总量进一步增加,少数民族公务员占全国公务员总数的比例高于少数民族人口占全国总人口的比例,并呈逐年上升的趋势。西藏自治区全区34244名四级人大代表中,藏族和其他少数民族代表31901名,占93%以上。在全国人大代表中,西藏自治区有20名代表,其中藏族和其他少数民族代表14名。在全区干部队伍中,藏族及其他少数民族占70.53%,其中县乡两级领导班子中,藏族和其他少数民族占73.03%。
The rights of ethnic minorities to participate in the administration of the state are effectively guaranteed. All ethnic autonomous areas enjoy autonomous rights in a wide range of areas in accordance with the law, including local legislative power, flexibility in the execution of relevant state laws and regulations based on the characteristics of each ethnic minority, the right to use their own spoken and written languages, power of personnel and financial management, and the right of independently developing their own culture and education. Nationwide, the number of civil servants from ethnic minorities keeps increasing. The proportion of such civil servants in the total number of civil servants is higher than the proportion of ethnic minorities in the country’s total population, and is on the rise every year. In Tibet, of the 34,244 deputies to the people’s congresses at all four levels, 31,901 persons, or 93 percent, are from the Tibetan or other minority communities. The Tibet Autonomous Region has 20 deputies to the NPC, 14 of whom are Tibetans or from other minority groups. Tibetans and other ethnic minorities account for 70.53 percent of the government officials in the Tibet Autonomous Region. Tibetans and other ethnic minorities account for 73.03 percent of the leaders at county and township levels.

少数民族地区经济快速发展。2014年,内蒙古、广西、西藏、宁夏、新疆5个自治区和贵州、云南、青海3个少数民族人口较多的省,城镇居民人均可支配收入分别为28350元、24669元、22016元、23285元、23214元、22548元、24299元、22307元,分别比上年实际增长9.0%、8.7%、7.9%、8.4%、10.1%、9.6%、8.2%、9.6%;农村居民人均可支配收入分别为9976元、8683元、7359元、8410元、8724元、6671元、7456元、7283元,分别比上年实际增长11.0%、11.4%、12.3%、10.7%、11.2%、13.1%、10.9%、12.7%。以上8个民族省区全年实现外贸进出口总额8148亿元,比上年增长15.4%,高于全国增速13.1个百分点,其中,出口完成5526亿元,比上年增长20%,高于全国增速15个百分点;农村贫困人口比上年减少357万人,减贫率为13.9%。中央财政拨付少数民族发展资金40.59亿元,比上年增长10%。中央财政为支持边境地区发展,投入兴边富民补助资金和中央预算内投资28.8亿元,比上年增加8890万元。中央预算内投资和少数民族发展资金拨付15.3亿元扶持人口较少民族加快发展,比上年增加8710万元。大力实施少数民族特色村寨保护与发展工程,中央财政专项补助资金达到4.9亿元,较上年增长22.5%。
Ethnic-minority areas achieve fast economic growth. In 2014, the per capita disposable income of urban residents in the Inner Mongolia, Guangxi Zhuang, Tibet, Ningxia Hui and Xinjiang Uygur autonomous regions, and Guizhou, Yunnan and Qinghai provinces, which have large minority populations, reached 28,350 yuan, 24,669 yuan, 22,016 yuan, 23,285 yuan, 23,214 yuan, 22,548 yuan, 24,299 yuan and 22,307 yuan, respectively, a year-on-year increase of 9 percent, 8.7 percent, 7.9 percent, 8.4 percent, 10.1 percent, 9.6 percent, 8.2 percent and 9.6 percent, respectively; the per capita disposable income of rural residents in the same areas reached 9,976 yuan, 8,683 yuan, 7,359 yuan, 8,410 yuan, 8,724 yuan, 6,671 yuan, 7,456 yuan and 7,283 yuan, respectively, a year-on-year increase of 11 percent, 11.4 percent, 12.3 percent, 10.7 percent, 11.2 percent, 13.1 percent, 10.9 percent and 12.7 percent, respectively. In 2014, the total foreign trade value of these five autonomous regions and three provinces registered 814.8 billion yuan, growing by 15.4 percent over the previous year and 13.1 percentage points higher than the national growth rate. Exports reached 552.6 billion yuan, increasing by 20 percent over the previous year and 15 percentage points higher than the national growth rate. The rural impoverished population decreased by 3.57 million from the previous year, with a poverty reduction rate of 13.9 percent. The central government appropriated 4.059 billion yuan as special funds for the development of minority groups, a growth rate of 10 percent compared to 2013. Aiming to support the development of border areas, where large numbers of minority peoples reside, the central government provided 2.88 billion as assistance funds for revitalizing border areas and bringing prosperity to their residents and central budgetary investment, an increase of 88.9 million yuan over the previous year. The central budgetary investment and funds for the development of minority groups provided 1.53 billion yuan to support the development of minority groups with small populations, an increase of 87.1 million yuan compared with 2013. The state vigorously implemented protection and development projects for ethnic-minority villages with cultural significance, and provided 490 million yuan as specialized funds, up 22.5 percent over the previous year.

西藏和新疆人民生活水平不断提高。2014年,西藏自治区生产总值增幅高于全国平均水平3.4个百分点。西藏自治区政府连续8年、累计投资273.57亿元的农牧民安居工程全面完成,全区46.03万户、230万农牧民住上了安全适用的房屋。农村居民、城镇居民人均居住面积分别达到33.77平方米和41.39平方米。拉萨市全面完成城市天然气供暖工程,10.52万户居民过上“暖冬”。西藏自治区已建立以拉萨为中心,遍布全区城乡的藏医、西医、中医相结合的公共医疗卫生服务体系,以免费医疗为基础的农牧区医疗制度覆盖全区农牧民。农牧民免费医疗经费补助标准2015年提高到人均380元。安排专项资金2300万元,建立了农牧民群众大病补充医疗保险。“五保集中供养、孤儿集中收养”爱心工程扎实推进,72%有意愿的五保对象实现集中供养,5900多名孤儿得到有效救助。西藏自治区人均寿命达到68岁,孕产妇死亡率和婴儿死亡率均大幅下降。新疆维吾尔自治区经济增速居全国前列,增幅高于全国平均水平2.6个百分点;公共财政预算收入1282.6亿元,比上年增长13.7%。新疆维吾尔自治区公共财政用于民生建设支出占总支出的70.3%,政府承诺的25类150项重点民生工程全部兑现。农村居民和城镇居民人均可支配收入增速连续三年居全国前列。新增就业38万人,贫困人口减少10万人。分别投入246.44亿元、262.4亿元和36.53亿元,建设安居富民工程30.78万户、保障性安居工程26.52万套、游牧民定居房3.01万套。新建农村饮水安全工程134处,解决了60万农村人口饮水安全问题。投入34.2亿元,新建、改建农村公路6087公里,改善了全疆85万农牧民出行条件。新疆维吾尔自治区新农合人均筹资水平达436.9元,人均公共卫生服务经费提高到35元。农牧区妇女“两癌”筛查、儿童先天性心脏病救治、22类54种重大疾病医疗保障工作全面推开。
Quality of life in Tibet and Xinjiang keeps improving. In 2014, the growth rate of the GDP of the Tibet Autonomous Region was 3.4 percentage points higher than the national average. The region completed its housing project for farmers and herdsmen, after eight years of incremental investment that totaled 27.357 billion yuan. The region’s 2.3 million farmers and herdsmen of 460,300 households have moved into solid and convenient houses. The per capita living space of Tibetan rural and urban residents is now 33.77 sq m and 41.39 sq m, respectively. Lhasa completed a natural gas heating project, enabling 105,200 households to enjoy “warm winters.” Now Tibet has a public medical and health service system combining Tibetan, Western and traditional Chinese medicine that covers all urban and rural areas of the autonomous region with Lhasa as the center. So free medical services are now available to all the farmers and herdsmen in Tibet. The subsidy for each farmer or herdsman for these medical services was raised to 380 yuan per person in 2015. The autonomous regional government allocated a special fund of 23 million yuan to set up a major disease supplementary health insurance for farmers and herdsmen. A project is being carried out to provide the “five guarantees” (food, clothing, medical care, housing and funeral expenses) to the needy and orphans in communal settings. Some 72 percent of residents entitled to the “five guarantees” are now supported, and more than 5,900 orphans have received assistance from the government in this manner. The average life expectancy in Tibet has increased to 68 years and the death rates of infants and women in childbirth have dropped significantly. The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region ranks among the top in economic growth in the country, with a growth rate 2.6 percentage points higher than the national average. In 2014, the public financial revenue of the Xinjiang government reached 128.26 billion yuan, an increase of 13.7 percent compared to 2013; 70.3 percent of the public financial expenditure of the autonomous region was used to improve its people’s livelihood; the government in Xinjiang had fulfilled its promise to implement 150 key livelihood projects of 25 types. Xinjiang has ranked among the top in China in the growth of per capita disposable incomes of both rural and urban residents for three consecutive years. The region’s employed population has increased by 380,000 and its poverty-stricken population has been reduced by 100,000. Sums of 24.644 billion yuan, 26.24 billion yuan and 3.653 billion yuan have been used in building comfortable housing for 307,800 families, 265,200 government-subsidized apartments, and 30,100 units of nomad-settlement housing, respectively. The region has newly developed 134 sites of safe rural drinking water, supplying 600,000 rural residents. Some 3.42 billion yuan has been allocated for the construction and reconstruction of rural highways with a total length of 6,087 km, providing better travel conditions for 850,000 farmers and herdsmen. Xinjiang has raised the per capita funding level for the new rural cooperative medical care system to 436.9 yuan, and the per capita expenditure on public health services to 35 yuan. Screening breast cancer and cervical cancer in women, treating congenital heart disease in children, and providing medical care to those who suffer from 54 kinds, or 22 categories of serious diseases in agricultural and pastoral areas are in progress as planned.

少数民族地区教育事业快速发展。国家在制定支持各项教育改革发展政策时,均给予少数民族地区倾斜支持,支持少数民族地区发展学前教育,改善义务教育阶段学校基本办学条件,加快发展职业教育。2014年,中央投资24亿元支持少数民族地区教育基础薄弱县普通高中学校建设。在高校招生计划安排上对少数民族和民族地区给予倾斜,民族地区农村学生接受优质高等教育的机会大幅提高。实施“少数民族预科班”和“少数民族高层次骨干人才计划”等特殊措施培养少数民族人才,2014年招收少数民族预科学生5.3万人,比上年增长3.31%。
Rapid development in education. When making educational reform and development policies, the state always gives special support to areas inhabited by ethnic minorities to develop preschool education, improve basic conditions of schools carrying out compulsory education and accelerate the development of vocational education. In 2014, the central government provided 2.4 billion yuan in the development of regular high schools at counties inhabited by ethnic minorities and with a weak educational basis. The state implements a preferential policy toward ethnic minorities and areas inhabited by ethnic minorities in college admissions, giving rural students from ethnic-minority areas easier access to high-quality higher education resources. The state adopts special measures of “preparatory classes for ethnic minorities” and “plan for high-caliber personnel of ethnic minorities” for personnel training of ethnic minorities. In 2014, there were 53,000 ethnic-minority students enrolled in preparatory classes, up 3.31 percent over the previous year.

少数民族地区文化不断发展。民族地区公共文化服务体系进一步完善。民族自治地方仅省、市两级就有广播电视播出机构104座,开办广播节目191套,其中民族语广播节目45套;开办电视节目215套,其中民族语电视节目42套。全国民族自治地方有各类文化机构5万多个。全国文化志愿者边疆行活动累计招募近万名文化志愿者,为边疆民族地区举办演出、讲座和展览1200多场(次),培训7000多人(次),受益群众数百万人。面向边疆民族地区实施“边疆万里数字文化长廊”、“藏羌彝文化产业走廊”建设项目,构建广覆盖、高效能的公共数字文化服务网。
Cultural services keep growing. Ethnic-minority areas have improved their cultural public service system. A total of 104 radio stations and television stations in ethnic autonomous areas at provincial and municipal levels run 191radio programs, including 45 programs broadcast in ethnic-minority languages, and 215 TV programs, including 42 programs broadcast in ethnic-minority languages. There are more than 50,000 cultural institutions of various types in ethnic autonomous areas. The “Cultural Volunteers Going to Border Areas” activity has attracted about 10,000 volunteers, giving and running more than 1,200 performances, lectures and exhibitions in border areas inhabited by ethnic minorities. Training courses have been held on 7,000 occasions, and several million people have benefited. The projects “Digital Cultural Corridor in Border Areas” and “Tibetan, Qiang & Yi Cultural Corridor” have been carried out in border areas inhabited by ethnic minorities, aiming to build a digital cultural service network with broad coverage and high effectiveness.

尊重和保障少数民族使用和发展本民族语言文字的权利。国家继续切实保障少数民族语言文字在行政司法、新闻出版、广播影视、文化教育等各领域的合法使用。中央人民广播电台和地方广播电台每天用21种少数民族语言进行播音。西藏自治区共有10种藏文杂志、22种藏文报纸,西藏人民广播电台开办有42个藏语栏目,西藏电视台藏语卫视24小时播出。全国共1.2万多所学校开展双语教学,接受双语教育的学生达400多万人,双语教师有20多万人。西藏自治区义务教育阶段实施双语教学的学生有40多万人,占在校生总数的97%。
Respecting and safeguarding the right of ethnic minorities to use and develop their own spoken and written languages. The state takes concrete measures to ensure the legitimate use of ethnic-minority languages in the administrative and judicial sectors, news and publication, radio, film and television, culture and education, and other areas. China National Radio and local radio stations broadcast in 21 ethnic-minority languages on a daily basis. There are ten Tibetan-language magazines and 22 Tibetan-language newspapers in Tibet. Tibet People’s Radio has 42 programs in Tibetan. Tibet TV Station has a Tibetan-language channel broadcasting 24 hours a day. Bilingual teaching is done in the classroom in more than 12,000 schools around the country. There are more than four million students receiving bilingual education, and over 200,000 bilingual teachers. Tibet has more than 400,000 students receiving bilingual education at the stage of compulsory education, accounting for 97 percent of the total.

少数民族地区文化遗产、文物古迹得到有效保护。民族地区非物质文化遗产项目和代表性传承人保护得到进一步加强。西藏自治区有非物质文化遗产项目近800个,藏戏和《格萨尔》史诗被列入联合国教科文组织人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录。158部珍贵古籍入选国家珍贵古籍名录。2014年,布达拉宫、罗布林卡、萨迦寺三大重点文物保护维修工程收尾,这是西藏文物保护史上中央政府投资最多、工程规模最大、科技含量最高、施工工艺最为复杂的文物维修工程,累计投资3.8亿余元。“丝绸之路:长安-天山廊道的路网”项目成功申遗,其中包括新疆北庭故城等6处遗址点。
Cultural relics and historic sites effectively preserved. China has further enhanced the preservation of intangible cultural heritage projects and their representative inheritors in ethnic-minority areas. Tibet has nearly 800 intangible cultural heritage projects. Tibetan opera and the Gesar Epic have been included in UNESCO’s Masterpieces of the Intangible Heritage of Humanity, and 158 books have been put on the State List of Valuable Ancient Books. In 2014, the preservation and maintenance of the three key projects of the Potala Palace, Norbulingka and Sakya Monastery was completed, for which more than 380 million yuan was used. This is the largest project for the preservation and maintenance of cultural relics in Tibet, with the most funds from the central government, in which sci-tech means have been widely applied and the latest construction techniques have been used. “Silk Road: the Route Network of the Chang’ an-Tianshan Corridor” has been designated as a new World Heritage Site by UNESCO, including the ruins of Beiting City and other five sites in Xinjiang.

少数民族宗教信仰自由获得充分保障。西藏自治区有各类宗教活动场所1787座,住寺僧尼4.6万余人。活佛转世作为藏传佛教特有的传承方式得到国家的尊重,西藏现有活佛358名,其中40多位新转世活佛按历史定制和宗教仪轨得到认定。大力实施利寺惠僧政策,实现了在编僧尼医保、养老、低保和人身意外伤害保险全覆盖,并每年为僧尼免费进行健康体检。根据国家藏传佛教高级学衔制度,截至2014年,共有110位僧人荣获“拓然巴”高级学衔,84位僧人荣获“智然巴”中级学衔。少数民族宗教经典得到保护和传承。国家投资3500万元,历时20多年完成了《中华大藏经》(藏文)对勘本的整理和出版。中国伊斯兰教协会为信教群众编印了《塔哈维教典诠释》、《哲拉莱尼古兰经注》等阿拉伯文伊斯兰教典籍。中国伊斯兰教协会开通了维吾尔语版网站,介绍宗教文化知识,开展网络解经,满足群众的宗教需求。2014年,中国共有14466名穆斯林赴麦加朝觐。有关部门加强对朝觐团医护人员的集中培训,努力提高朝觐医疗防疫水平,保证了朝觐人员的健康和安全。
Freedom of religious belief of ethnic minorities fully guaranteed. Currently there are 1,787 venues for religious activities of various types in Tibet, with 46,000 resident monks and nuns. Living Buddha reincarnation, as a special succession system of Tibetan Buddhism, is respected by the state. There are 358 living Buddhas in Tibet, of whom over 40 incarnated living Buddhas have been confirmed through traditional religious rituals and historical conventions. Under the special care of the government, all the monks and nuns in Tibet are covered by health insurance, pension insurance, basic living allowance and personal accident insurance. Tibet provides free physical examinations to monks and nuns annually. In accordance with the senior academic titles system of Tibetan Buddhism, by the end of 2014, a total of 110 monks had received senior academic titles and 84 had received intermediate academic titles. Ethnic minorities’ religious classics have been protected and preserved. The country has provided 35 million yuan in the collating and publishing of the Chinese Tripitaka (Tibetan) over the past two decades. The Chinese Islamic Association has compiled and published Islamic scriptures in Arabic, including Sharhal-Aqeedah al-Tahawiyyah and Tafsir al-Jalalayn. The Association has also set up a website in the Uygur language, providing introduction of religious knowledge and online explanation of the scriptures to meet the religious needs of the people. In 2014, a total of 14,466 Chinese Muslims made the pilgrimage to Mecca. Relevant government departments strengthened the training of accompanying medical staff, and worked hard to improve medical care and epidemic prevention for pilgrimage groups to guarantee the pilgrims’ health and safety.

(国新办)



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