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中国的军事战略(白皮书2015双语)3

2015-06-29    来源:国新办    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

四、军事力量建设发展
IV. Building and Development of China’s Armed Forces

贯彻新形势下军事战略方针,必须紧紧围绕实现中国共产党在新形势下的强军目标,以国家核心安全需求为导向,着眼建设信息化军队、打赢信息化战争,全面深化国防和军队改革,努力构建中国特色现代军事力量体系,不断提高军队应对多种安全威胁、完成多样化军事任务的能力。
In the implementation of the military strategic guideline in the new situation, China’s armed forces must closely center around the CPC’s goal of building a strong military, respond to the state’s core security needs, aim at building an informationized military and winning informationized wars, deepen the reform of national defense and the armed forces in an all-round way, build a modern system of military forces with Chinese characteristics, and constantly enhance their capabilities for addressing various security threats and accomplishing diversified military tasks.

军兵种和武警部队发展
Development of the Services and Arms of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) and the People’s Armed Police Force (PAPF)

陆军按照机动作战、立体攻防的战略要求,实现区域防卫型向全域机动型转变,加快小型化、多能化、模块化发展步伐,适应不同地区不同任务需要,组织作战力量分类建设,构建适应联合作战要求的作战力量体系,提高精确作战、立体作战、全域作战、多能作战、持续作战能力。
In line with the strategic requirement of mobile operations and multi-dimensional offense and defense, the PLA Army (PLAA) will continue to reorient from theater defense to trans-theater mobility. In the process of building small, multi-functional and modular units, the PLAA will adapt itself to tasks in different regions, develop the capacity of its combat forces for different purposes, and construct a combat force structure for joint operations. The PLAA will elevate its capabilities for precise, multi-dimensional, trans-theater, multi-functional and sustainable operations.

海军按照近海防御、远海护卫的战略要求,逐步实现近海防御型向近海防御与远海护卫型结合转变,构建合成、多能、高效的海上作战力量体系,提高战略威慑与反击、海上机动作战、海上联合作战、综合防御作战和综合保障能力。
In line with the strategic requirement of offshore waters defense and open seas protection, the PLA Navy (PLAN) will gradually shift its focus from “offshore waters defense” to the combination of “offshore waters defense” with “open seas protection,” and build a combined, multi-functional and efficient marine combat force structure. The PLAN will enhance its capabilities for strategic deterrence and counterattack, maritime maneuvers, joint operations at sea, comprehensive defense and comprehensive support.

空军按照空天一体、攻防兼备的战略要求,实现国土防空型向攻防兼备型转变,构建适应信息化作战需要的空天防御力量体系,提高战略预警、空中打击、防空反导、信息对抗、空降作战、战略投送和综合保障能力。
In line with the strategic requirement of building air-space capabilities and conducting offensive and defensive operations, the PLA Air Force (PLAAF) will endeavor to shift its focus from territorial air defense to both defense and offense, and build an air-space defense force structure that can meet the requirements of informationized operations. The PLAAF will boost its capabilities for strategic early warning, air strike, air and missile defense, information countermeasures, airborne operations, strategic projection and comprehensive support.

第二炮兵按照精干有效、核常兼备的战略要求,加快推进信息化转型,依靠科技进步推动武器装备自主创新,增强导弹武器的安全性、可靠性、有效性,完善核常兼备的力量体系,提高战略威慑与核反击和中远程精确打击能力。
In line with the strategic requirement of being lean and effective and possessing both nuclear and conventional missiles, the PLA Second Artillery Force (PLASAF) will strive to transform itself in the direction of informationization, press forward with independent innovations in weaponry and equipment by reliance on science and technology, enhance the safety, reliability and effectiveness of missile systems, and improve the force structure featuring a combination of both nuclear and conventional capabilities. The PLASAF will strengthen its capabilities for strategic deterrence and nuclear counterattack, and medium- and long-range precision strikes.

武警部队按照多能一体、有效维稳的战略要求,发展执勤安保、处突维稳、反恐突击、抢险救援、应急保障、空中支援力量,完善以执勤处突和反恐维稳为主体的力量体系,提高以信息化条件下执勤处突能力为核心的完成多样化任务能力。
In line with the strategic requirement of performing multiple functions and effectively maintaining social stability, the PAPF will continue to develop its forces for guard and security, contingency response, stability maintenance, counter-terrorism operations, emergency rescue and disaster relief, emergency support and air support, and work to improve a force structure which highlights guard duty, contingency response, counter-terrorism and stability maintenance. The PAPF will enhance its capabilities for performing diversified tasks centering on guard duty and contingency response in informationized conditions.

重大安全领域力量发展
Force Development in Critical Security Domains

海洋关系国家长治久安和可持续发展。必须突破重陆轻海的传统思维,高度重视经略海洋、维护海权。建设与国家安全和发展利益相适应的现代海上军事力量体系,维护国家主权和海洋权益,维护战略通道和海外利益安全,参与海洋国际合作,为建设海洋强国提供战略支撑。
The seas and oceans bear on the enduring peace, lasting stability and sustainable development of China. The traditional mentality that land outweighs sea must be abandoned, and great importance has to be attached to managing the seas and oceans and protecting maritime rights and interests. It is necessary for China to develop a modern maritime military force structure commensurate with its national security and development interests, safeguard its national sovereignty and maritime rights and interests, protect the security of strategic SLOCs and overseas interests, and participate in international maritime cooperation, so as to provide strategic support for building itself into a maritime power.

太空是国际战略竞争制高点。有关国家发展太空力量和手段,太空武器化初显端倪。中国一贯主张和平利用太空,反对太空武器化和太空军备竞赛,积极参与国际太空合作。密切跟踪掌握太空态势,应对太空安全威胁与挑战,保卫太空资产安全,服务国家经济建设和社会发展,维护太空安全。
Outer space has become a commanding height in international strategic competition. Countries concerned are developing their space forces and instruments, and the first signs of weaponization of outer space have appeared. China has all along advocated the peaceful use of outer space, opposed the weaponization of and arms race in outer space, and taken an active part in international space cooperation. China will keep abreast of the dynamics of outer space, deal with security threats and challenges in that domain, and secure its space assets to serve its national economic and social development, and maintain outer space security.

网络空间是经济社会发展新支柱和国家安全新领域。网络空间国际战略竞争日趋激烈,不少国家都在发展网络空间军事力量。中国是黑客攻击最大的受害国之一,网络基础设施安全面临严峻威胁,网络空间对军事安全影响逐步上升。加快网络空间力量建设,提高网络空间态势感知、网络防御、支援国家网络空间斗争和参与国际合作的能力,遏控网络空间重大危机,保障国家网络与信息安全,维护国家安全和社会稳定。
Cyberspace has become a new pillar of economic and social development, and a new domain of national security. As international strategic competition in cyberspace has been turning increasingly fiercer, quite a few countries are developing their cyber military forces. Being one of the major victims of hacker attacks, China is confronted with grave security threats to its cyber infrastructure. As cyberspace weighs more in military security, China will expedite the development of a cyber force, and enhance its capabilities of cyberspace situation awareness, cyber defense, support for the country’s endeavors in cyberspace and participation in international cyber cooperation, so as to stem major cyber crises, ensure national network and information security, and maintain national security and social stability.

核力量是维护国家主权和安全的战略基石。中国始终奉行不首先使用核武器的政策,坚持自卫防御的核战略,无条件不对无核武器国家和无核武器区使用或威胁使用核武器,不与任何国家进行核军备竞赛,核力量始终维持在维护国家安全需要的最低水平。建设完善核力量体系,提高战略预警、指挥控制、导弹突防、快速反应和生存防护能力,慑止他国对中国使用或威胁使用核武器。
The nuclear force is a strategic cornerstone for safeguarding national sovereignty and security. China has always pursued the policy of no first use of nuclear weapons and adhered to a self-defensive nuclear strategy that is defensive in nature. China will unconditionally not use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or in nuclear-weapon-free zones, and will never enter into a nuclear arms race with any other country. China has always kept its nuclear capabilities at the minimum level required for maintaining its national security. China will optimize its nuclear force structure, improve strategic early warning, command and control, missile penetration, rapid reaction, and survivability and protection, and deter other countries from using or threatening to use nuclear weapons against China.

军事力量建设举措
Military Force Building Measures

加强思想政治建设。始终把思想政治建设摆在军队各项建设首位,加强和改进新形势下军队政治工作,弘扬和践行社会主义核心价值观,持续培育当代革命军人核心价值观,弘扬光荣传统和优良作风,坚持党对军队绝对领导的一系列根本原则和制度,增强各级党组织创造力、凝聚力、战斗力,大力培养有灵魂、有本事、有血性、有品德的新一代革命军人,确保部队在任何时候任何情况下都坚决听从党中央、中央军委指挥,永葆人民军队的性质和宗旨。
Strengthening ideological and political work. China’s armed forces always treat ideological and political building as the first priority, and have endeavored to reinforce and improve their political work in the new situation. They will continue to practice and carry forward the Core Socialist Values, cultivate the Core Values of Contemporary Revolutionary Service Personnel, and carry forward their glorious traditions and fine styles. Moreover, the armed forces will uphold a series of fundamental principles for and institutions of the CPC’s absolute leadership over the military, enhance the creativity, cohesion and combat effectiveness of their CPC organizations at all levels, make great efforts to cultivate a new generation of revolutionary service personnel of noble soul, competence, courage, uprightness and virtue, and ensure that the armed forces will resolutely follow the commands of the CPC Central Committee and the CMC at all times and under all conditions, and consistently retain the nature and purpose of the people’s armed forces.

推进现代后勤建设。深化后勤政策制度和后勤保障力量改革,优化战略后勤布势,创新保障模式,发展新型保障手段,充实战备物资储备,集成建设后勤信息系统,完善法规标准体系,精心组织供应保障,建设保障打赢现代化战争的后勤、服务部队现代化建设的后勤和向信息化转型的后勤。
Pushing ahead with logistics modernization. China’s armed forces will deepen logistics reform in relevant policies, institutions and support forces, and optimize strategic logistics deployment. They will innovate the modes of support, develop new support means, augment war reserves, integrate logistics information systems, improve rules and standards, and meticulously organize supply and support, so as to build a logistics system that can provide support for fighting and winning modern wars, serve the modernization of the armed forces, and transform towards informationization.

发展先进武器装备。坚持信息主导、体系建设,坚持自主创新、持续发展,坚持统筹兼顾、突出重点,加快武器装备更新换代,构建适应信息化战争和履行使命要求的武器装备体系。
Developing advanced weaponry and equipment. Persevering in information dominance, systems building, independent innovation, sustainable development, overall planning, and emphasis on priorities, China’s armed forces will speed up to upgrade weaponry and equipment, and work to develop a weaponry and equipment system which can effectively respond to informationized warfare and help fulfill the missions and tasks.

抓好新型军事人才培养。大力实施人才战略工程,完善军事人力资源制度,深化军队院校改革,健全军队院校教育、部队训练实践、军事职业教育三位一体的新型军事人才培养体系,吸引更多优秀人才,培养和造就适应信息化战争需要的人才群体。
Cultivating new-type military personnel. China’s armed forces will continue with the strategic project for personnel training and perfect the system for military human resources. They will deepen the reform of military educational institutions and improve the triad training system for new-type military personnel - institutional education, unit training and military professional education, so as to pool more talented people and cultivate more personnel who can meet the demands of informationized warfare.

深入推进依法治军从严治军。着眼全面加强军队革命化现代化正规化建设,创新发展依法治军理论和实践,构建完善的中国特色军事法治体系,提高国防和军队建设法治化水平。
Intensifying efforts in running the armed forces with strict discipline and in accordance with the law. Aiming at strengthening the revolutionization, modernization and regularization of the armed forces in all respects, China will innovate and develop theories and practice in relation to running the armed forces in accordance with the law, establish a well-knit military law system with Chinese characteristics, so as to elevate the level of rule by law of national defense and armed forces building.

推动军事理论创新。坚持以党的创新理论为指导,加强作战问题研究,深入探索现代战争制胜机理,创新机动灵活的战略战术,发展新形势下军队建设理论,形成与打赢未来战争相适应的先进军事理论体系。
Innovating military theories. Under the guidance of the CPC’s innovative theories, China’s armed forces will intensify their studies of military operations, probe into the mechanisms of winning modern wars, innovate strategies and tactics featuring mobility and flexibility, and develop theories on military building in the new situation, so as to bring into place a system of advanced military theories commensurate with the requirement of winning future wars.

强化战略管理。优化军委总部领导机关职能配置和机构设置,完善各军兵种领导管理体制,坚持需求牵引规划、规划主导资源配置。强化规划编制统筹协调,健全规划编制体系,构建规划管理工作机制。加强战略资源统筹监管,强化重大项目过程监管和风险控制。健全完善战略评估机制,建立健全评估体系和配套标准规范。
Improving strategic management. It is necessary to optimize the functions and institutions of the CMC and the general headquarters/departments, improve the leadership and management system of the services and arms, and adhere to demand-based planning and plan-based resource allocation. China’s armed forces will set up a system and a working mechanism for overall and coordinated programming and planning. They will also intensify overall supervision and management of strategic resources, strengthen the in-process supervision and risk control of major projects, improve mechanisms for strategic assessment, and set up and improve relevant assessment systems and complementary standards and codes.

军民融合深度发展
In-depth Development of Civil-Military Integration (CMI)

贯彻军民结合、寓军于民的方针,深入推进军民融合式发展,不断完善融合机制、丰富融合形式、拓展融合范围、提升融合层次,努力形成全要素、多领域、高效益的军民融合深度发展格局。
Following the guiding principle of integrating military with civilian purposes and combining military efforts with civilian support, China will forge further ahead with CMI by constantly bettering the mechanisms, diversifying the forms, expanding the scope and elevating the level of the integration, so as to endeavor to bring into place an all-element, multi-domain and cost-efficient pattern of CMI.

加快重点建设领域军民融合式发展。加大政策扶持力度,全面推进基础领域、重点技术领域和主要行业标准军民通用,探索完善依托国家教育体系培养军队人才、依托国防工业体系发展武器装备、依托社会保障体系推进后勤社会化保障的方法路子。广泛开展军民合建共用基础设施,推动军地海洋、太空、空域、测绘、导航、气象、频谱等资源合理开发和合作使用,促进军地资源互通互补互用。
Accelerating CMI in key sectors. With stronger policy support, China will work to establish uniform military and civilian standards for infrastructure, key technological areas and major industries, explore the ways and means for training military personnel in civilian educational institutions, developing weaponry and equipment by national defense industries, and outsourcing logistics support to civilian support systems. China encourages joint building and utilization of military and civilian infrastructure, joint exploration of the sea, outer space and air, and shared use of such resources as surveying and mapping, navigation, meteorology and frequency spectra. Accordingly, military and civilian resources can be more compatible, complementary and mutually accessible.

完善军地统筹建设运行模式。在国家层面建立军民融合发展的统一领导、军地协调、需求对接、资源共享机制,健全军地有关部门管理职责,完善军民通用标准体系,探索构建政府投入、税收激励、金融支持政策体系,加快推进军地统筹建设立法工作进程,逐步形成军地统筹、协调发展的整体格局。推进军事力量与各领域力量综合运用,建立完善军地联合应对重大危机和突发事件行动机制。
Building a mechanism for operating CMI. At the state level, it is necessary to establish a mechanism for CMI development, featuring unified leadership, military-civilian coordination, abutment of military and civilian needs, and resource sharing. Furthermore, it is necessary to improve the management responsibilities of relevant military and civilian institutions, improve the general standards for both the military and the civilian sectors, make studies on the establishment of a policy system in which the government makes the investment, offers tax incentives and financial support, and expedites legislation promoting military-civilian coordinated development, so as to form a pattern featuring overall military-civilian planning and coordinated development. It is also necessary to push forward with the shared utilization of military capabilities and those of other sectors, and establish a mechanism for joint civil-military response to major crises and emergencies.

健全国防动员体制机制。加强国防教育,增强全民国防观念。加强后备力量建设,优化预备役部队结构,增加军兵种预备役力量和担负支援保障任务力量的比重,创新后备力量编组运用模式。增强国防动员科技含量,搞好信息资源征用保障动员准备,强化专业保障队伍建设,建成与打赢信息化战争相适应、应急应战一体的国防动员体系。
Improving the systems and mechanisms of national defense mobilization. China will enhance education in national defense and boost the awareness of the general public in relation to national defense. It will continue to strengthen the building of the reserve force, optimize its structure, and increase its proportion in the PLAN, PLAAF and PLASAF as well as in combat support forces. The ways to organize and employ reserve forces will be more diversified. China will devote more efforts to science and technology in national defense mobilization, be more readily prepared for the requisition of information resources, and build specialized support forces. China aims to build a national defense mobilization system that can meet the requirements of winning informationized wars and responding to both emergencies and wars.

(国新办)



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