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2014年中国人权事业的进展(2015白皮书) 7

2015-06-30    来源:国新办    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

六、妇女、儿童和老年人权利
VI. Rights of Women, Children and Senior Citizens

2014年,中国政府进一步贯彻男女平等基本国策,落实儿童最大利益原则,加快推进社会养老服务体系建设和养老服务业发展,切实保障妇女、儿童和老年人合法权益。
In 2014, the Chinese government further implemented the basic national policy of equality between men and women, and the principle that “the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration,” and built up a system of old-age services and related businesses, so as to better protect the legitimate rights and interests of women, children and senior citizens.

妇女参与公共事务管理的权利得到依法保障。健全法律政策性别平等评估工作机制,加强对法律政策的性别平等评估。截至2014年底,已有北京、天津、山西、江苏、浙江、安徽、湖北、四川8个省市建立省级法规政策性别平等评估机制,从性别角度对法规政策的影响进行评估,避免因规定不当造成制度性的性别歧视。推动把农村妇女进村“两委”工作纳入新一轮村“两委”换届选举工作同步部署,深化妇女议事会、妇女理事会、留守妇女互助组、巾帼志愿服务等工作。全年新增留守妇女互助组3.3万多个、新增注册巾帼志愿者222万人。
Women’s right to participation in public affairs management protected in accordance with the law. The mechanism for assessing relevant laws and policies concerning gender equality was improved. By the end of 2014, Beijing and Tianjin cities, and Shanxi, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Hubei and Sichuan provinces had established their own mechanisms for assessing the effects of regulations and policies from the perspective of gender so as to avoid institutional gender discrimination caused by improper stipulations. Efforts were made to include rural women into the village branch committees of the CPC and the villagers’ committees when a new round of election of these two committees was conducted, and to improve the work of women’s deliberative councils, boards of women directors, mutual-assistance groups of women in the countryside whose husbands are seeking employment in cities, and women volunteers. In 2014, more than 33,000 such mutual-assistance groups were set up, and 2.22 million women volunteers were registered.

妇女就业得到有效促进。2014年,累计发放妇女小额担保贷款2172.75亿元,中央和地方落实财政贴息资金186.81亿元,获得贷款的妇女459万人次。开展新型职业女农民培训,提升妇女的市场竞争能力。全年扶持各级巾帼现代农业科技示范基地1.7万个,创建巾帼家政培训基地4000多个,培训巾帼家政服务员58万人次,帮助60万人次妇女在家政服务行业实现就业;实施助推女大学生就业创业行动,为227所高校50多万女大学生提供政策宣传、岗位推介等服务。
Employment of women effectively increased. In 2014, some 217.275 billion yuan of small-sum secured loans were granted to women, and 18.681 billion yuan of subsidies for interest discount were issued from central and local government budgets, benefiting 4.59 million women. Training of a new type of professional women farmers was offered to enhance their market competitiveness. Some 17,000 modern agricultural scientific and technological demonstration bases at various levels run by women received government support, more than 4,000 domestic service training bases were built for women, more than 580,000 women received training, and more than 600,000 women found jobs as domestic helpers. Efforts were made to help more than 500,000 female students in 227 colleges and universities find jobs or start businesses through publicity of employment policies and by provision of information on job vacancies.

妇女、儿童人身权利进一步得到保障。2014年,各级人民法院审结拐卖妇女儿童、性侵未成年人犯罪案件1048件,其中判处5年以上有期徒刑至死刑876人。制定《关于依法办理家庭暴力犯罪案件的意见》,依法制裁家庭暴力行为。2014年2月,最高人民法院向社会通报人民法院近年来打击家庭暴力行为的有关情况,同时公布十起涉家庭暴力典型案例,进一步统一了涉家庭暴力案件的法律适用。截至2014年底,全国已有29个省(自治区、直辖市)制定了专门的预防和制止家庭暴力的地方性法规或政策。《中华人民共和国反家庭暴力法(征求意见稿)》正式向社会公众征求意见。着力健全未成年人社会保护“监测预防、发现报告、帮扶干预”联动反应机制,积极构建覆盖城乡的未成年人社会保护网络,探索建立“以家庭监护为基础、社会监督为保障、国家监护为补充”的监护制度,推动形成“家庭、社会、政府”三位一体的未成年人社会保护工作格局。2014年12月,最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、民政部联合发布《关于依法处理监护人侵害未成年人权益行为若干问题的意见》,对依法处理监护人侵害未成年人合法权益作出明确规定,建立了监护侵害情形报告处置机制,细化了未成年人监护权转移案件审理要求,明确了民政部门、审判机关、检察机关和公安机关的职责。江苏省徐州市铜山区人民法院审结首例撤销未成年父母监护资格案件。完善未成年人案件“圆桌审判”方式,继续落实未成年人犯罪记录封存制度。

The rights of the person of women and children better protected. In 2014, the people’s courts at various levels concluded 1,048 criminal cases involving the kidnapping of women and children and sexual assault on minors, resulting in 876 criminals sentenced to five years’ imprisonment or more, with some receiving the death penalty. The Opinions on Law-based Handling of Crimes of Domestic Violence was enacted to provide legislation for the punishment of domestic violence in accordance with the law. In February, 2014, the Supreme People’s Court held a press conference focusing on domestic violence cases handled by the people’s courts in recent years, citing 10 typical cases as examples, which improved the consistent application of the laws in tackling domestic violence. By the end of 2014, a total of 29 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government had enacted local regulations and policies to prevent and deter domestic violence. The Anti-domestic Violence Law of the People’s Republic of China (Draft) was published to solicit the public’s opinions.

Efforts were made to improve the joint response mechanism for protecting minors, which featured “monitoring for prevention, timely reporting of clues, and assistance and intervention,” to build a nationwide social protection network for minors, and to explore a guardian system with “family guardianship as the basis, public supervision as the guarantee, and state guardianship as the supplement,” so as to form a working structure for the protection of minors that integrates efforts of family, society and government.

In December, 2014, the Supreme People’s Court, Supreme People’s Procuratorate, Ministry of Public Security and Ministry of Civil Affairs jointly released the Opinions on Law-based Handling of the Infringement of the Rights and Interests of Minors by Their Guardians, which made explicit stipulations, created a mechanism for reporting and handling the infringement as soon as it occurs, specified the requirements for the trial of cases involving guardianship transfer, and defined the duties of civil affairs departments, courts, prosecution organs and public security organs. The Tongshan District People’s Court of Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province, concluded the first case in China that stripped the parents of their guardianship of their minor child. The practice of “round-table trial” of cases involving minor suspects was improved, and the system of sealing up criminal records of minors was followed.

困境儿童生活保障制度不断完善。民政部公布《关于规范生父母有特殊困难无力抚养的子女和社会散居孤儿收养工作的意见》、《家庭寄养管理办法》、《关于建立儿童福利领域慈善行为导向机制的意见》等规范性文件,探索建立困境儿童分类保障制度,稳步推进适度普惠型儿童福利制度先行先试工作,鼓励社会力量参与儿童福利慈善活动。孤儿基本生活保障水平不断提高。中央财政投入23亿元专项补助资金,地方普遍加大财政投入,为孤儿发放基本生活费,惠及全国55.7万名孤儿和5200名艾滋病病毒感染儿童。
Subsistence security of children living in difficult circumstances strengthened. The Ministry of Civil Affairs has issued the Opinions on Regulating the Adoption of Children with Extremely Indigent Biological Parents and of Abandoned Orphans, Measures for the Management of Families with Children Entrusted to Their Care, Opinions on Establishing a Guiding Mechanism for Charitable Deeds Concerning Children, and other regulatory documents, explored the provision of classified security for children living in difficult circumstances, pushed forward a pilot program of a moderate general preferential welfare system for children, and encouraged the public to join in philanthropic activities for children. The subsistence allowances for orphans were continuously increased. The central budget allocated 2.3 billion yuan in addition to the financial provision of local governments to cover the basic cost of living for orphans, benefiting 557,000 orphans and 5,200 HIV-affected children nationwide.

妇女儿童健康服务水平进一步提升。国家卫生和计划生育委员会将2014年确定为“妇幼健康服务年”,启动妇幼健康优质服务创建活动。继续做好农村孕产妇住院分娩补助、农村妇女“两癌”检查等项目。全年分别为1000万和120万农村妇女进行宫颈癌、乳腺癌免费检查,为10362名贫困患病妇女提供人均1万元救助。大力推进国家免费孕前优生健康检查项目,年度目标人群覆盖率达到80%以上。妇女儿童常见病、多发病得到有效防治,艾滋病母婴传播率下降至6.3%,孕产妇中重度贫血患病率、低出生体重发生率、儿童营养不良患病率等指标不断改善。中央财政继续安排21.62亿元专项补助资金,惠及全国55.2万名孤儿和5226名艾滋病病毒感染儿童。“贫困地区婴幼儿营养改善试点项目”拓展到21个省(自治区、直辖市)300个县,“消除婴幼儿贫血行动”惠及15万婴幼儿。在集中连片特殊贫困地区投入经费5亿元和1.59亿元,分别实施儿童营养改善项目和新生儿疾病筛查项目,为137万名6至24个月的婴幼儿免费提供营养包,为132.5万新生儿开展两种遗传代谢病(PKU和CH)筛查和新生儿听力筛查。西藏基本完成10000名先天性心脏病儿童免费救治。

Woman and child health care service improved. The National Health and Family Planning Commission made 2014 “Woman and Child Health Care Service Year,” kicking off a campaign to provide high-quality health care service for women and children. In-patient childbirth subsidies were granted to rural women. Rural women received free cervical cancer and breast cancer screening examinations practices that had been continued for years. In 2014, some 10 million and 1.2 million rural women, respectively, had such free examinations, and 10,362 women patients with financial difficulties each received 10,000 yuan of aid on average.

The government went ahead with free pre-pregnancy physical examinations, which covered more than 80 percent of the targeted women in 2014. Common diseases, frequently-occurring diseases afflicting women and children were effectively prevented and cured. The mother-to-child transmission rate of AIDS dropped to 6.3 percent. The occurrence of serious anemia among pregnant or lying-in women, of low-birth-weight infants, and of malnutrition among children all declined. The central budget allocated 2.162 billion yuan of special subsidies to support 552,000 orphans and 5,226 HIV-infected children.

The “pilot program of nutrition improvement for infants in poverty-stricken areas” had spread to 300 counties in 21 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government by the end of 2014, and the “act to eliminate anemia among infants” benefited 150,000 babies. Some 500 million yuan and 159 million yuan, respectively, were spent on nutrition improvement of children and disease-screening examinations of newborns in contiguous poverty-stricken areas. Free nutrition packages were provided to 1.37 million infants aged six to 24 months, and screening for phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism and hearing loss was conducted for 1.325 million newborns. Some 10,000 children suffering congenital heart disease in Tibet Autonomous Region received free treatment.

老年人权益保障机制进一步健全。深入实施《中国老龄事业发展“十二五”规划》、《社会养老服务体系建设规划(2011-2015年)》、《国务院关于加快发展养老服务业的若干意见》和《关于进一步加强老年人优待工作的意见》,山东、河北、广东、海南、上海等省(市)完成了省级老年人权益保障、老年人优待、养老机构管理等方面的地方性法规制定工作,建立高龄津贴制度,制定经济困难老年人养老服务补贴政策。着力推动社区为老服务信息平台建设,促进居家养老服务发展。全国已有25个省(自治区、直辖市)60多个县(市、区)建起社区为老服务信息平台,2000万老年人受益。全国城乡居家和社区养老服务覆盖率分别达到70%和37%。企业退休人员基本养老金水平连续10年调整,月人均水平由2004年的647元提高到2014年的2050元。2014年7月起,城乡居民养老保险基础养老金最低标准从每人每月55元提高到70元,中央财政增加补助资金120亿元,1.43亿城乡居民领到基本养老金。中央投资25亿元,优先改善社会福利院、农村敬老院等“兜底”床位条件,重点满足困难群体的服务需求。截至2014年底,全国每千名老人拥有养老床位数达到26张。全国超过88.8%的65岁以上老年人纳入健康管理体系。中央专项彩票公益金投入10亿元,支持地方3.33万个农村幸福院项目。加强老年群众组织建设工作。截至2014年底,全国基层老年协会49万个,老年志愿者人数近2000万人。全国共建立老年人法律援助工作站2137个,老年人法律援助申请能够及时就近得到受理。各级司法行政部门全年共组织办理老年人法律援助案件11.3万件,解答老年人法律咨询34万多人次。

Rights and interests of senior citizens guaranteed. The government continued to implement the 12th Five-Year Plan for Helping Senior Citizens and 12th Five-Year Plan for the System of Old-age Services (both 2011-2015), Opinions of the State Council on Accelerating Old-age Services and Opinions on Improving Care for Senior Citizens. Shandong, Hebei, Guangdong and Hainan provinces, and Shanghai have drawn up their own regulations regarding the protection of the rights and interests of senior citizens, special care for them, and management of nursing homes. In these provinces and the city of Shanghai, allowances were provided for senior citizens over a certain age, and old-age service subsidies were issued to the elderly in financial difficulties.

Information platforms for the elderly have been set up in more than 60 counties, cities and municipal districts in 25 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government, benefiting 20 million elderly people. Home care and community services now cover 70 percent and 37 percent, respectively, of the elderly population.

The basic pension benefits for enterprise retirees have been increasing for 10 years in a row, with the per capita monthly amount being raised from 647 yuan in 2004 to 2,050 yuan in 2014. From July, 2014, the lowest monthly basic amount of the pension insurance for rural and urban non-working residents was raised from 55 yuan to 70 yuan per person, for which the central budget allocated 12 billion yuan as additional subsidies, benefiting 143 million rural and urban non-working residents.

The central budget provided 2.5 billion yuan to improve the conditions of welfare institutions and rural nursing homes to satisfy the needs of senior people in difficulties. By the end of 2014, the number of nursing home beds nationwide had reached 26 for every 1,000 senior citizens, and over 88.8 percent of the Chinese over 65 years old had been incorporated into the health management system. One billion yuan from the central special lottery public welfare fund was provided to 33,300 rural nursing homes.

Non-governmental organizations of senior citizens received support. By the end of 2014, China had 490,000 community-level associations of senior citizens and nearly 20 million senior volunteers. There were 2,137 legal assistance centers offering timely services for the elderly. In 2014, judicial and administrative agencies handled 113,000 cases of legal assistance for the elderly and provided legal consultations to more than 340,000 senior people.

(国新办)



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