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双语:2015年后发展议程中方立场文件

2015-07-16    来源:fmprc.gov.cn    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

双语:2015年后发展议程中方立场文件
China’s Position Paper on the Post-2015 Development Agenda

一、前言
I. Preface

2000年联合国千年首脑会议通过《千年宣言》,据此制定的千年发展目标成为国际社会最全面、权威、系统的发展目标体系。15年来,全球落实千年发展目标取得积极进展,已实现或基本实现减贫、提供安全饮用水、男女平等接受初级教育、抗击疟疾、改善贫民窟居住条件等目标。同时,各国在卫生、环境等领域仍面临严峻挑战,不同地区落实千年发展目标进度不一,全球发展伙伴关系有待进一步加强。为此,各国应继续展示政治意愿,并采取切实行动,为推动全球发展作出贡献。
The United Nations will hold a Summit during its 70th General Assembly this September to review the progress of the MDGs and adopt the Post-2015 Development Agenda, which will guide international development cooperation for the next 15 years. The Chinese government attaches great importance to the Summit and hopes that the event will demonstrate the strategic vision of the leaders, the solidarity of all parties, and their commitment to address global development issues through cooperation. We look forward to practical outcomes in the following areas:

联合国将于今年9月举行发展峰会,评估千年发展目标进展,并通过2015年后发展议程,指导今后15年国际发展合作。中国政府高度重视发展峰会,希望峰会充分展示各国领导人面向未来15年的战略远见,体现各方致力于解决发展难题的团结合作,期待在以下几个方面取得积极务实成果:一是凝聚政治共识,用新型发展观指导全球发展方向,解决发展不平衡、不协调的问题,处理好经济发展、社会公平和环境保护的关系。二是推动构建全面、均衡的国际发展合作架构,完善全球发展伙伴关系,为2015年后发展议程的有效落实提供保障。三是推动南北合作,加强南南合作,为发展中国家创造更好条件,营造更好环境,实现共同发展。
The United Nations will hold a Summit during its 70th General Assembly this September to review the progress of the MDGs and adopt the Post-2015 Development Agenda, which will guide international development cooperation for the next 15 years. The Chinese government attaches great importance to the Summit and hopes that the event will demonstrate the strategic vision of the leaders, the solidarity of all parties, and their commitment to address global development issues through cooperation. We look forward to practical outcomes in the following areas:

(i) to build political consensus and adopt a new development approach to promote global development, address the problem of uneven and uncoordinated development and strike a balance between economic development, social justice and environmental protection.

(ii) to build a comprehensive and balanced framework for international development cooperation and strengthen global development partnership to ensure effective implementation of the Post-2015 Development Agenda.

(iii) to promote North-South cooperation and strengthen South-South cooperation, thus creating better conditions and environment for developing countries to achieve common development objectives.

二、总体原则
II. Guiding Principles

2015年后发展议程是对千年发展目标的继承和升级。国际社会应在总结千年发展目标经验基础上,携手制定一个公平、包容、可持续的2015年后发展议程。政府间谈判进程应遵循以下原则:
Given that the Post-2015 Development Agenda is intended to continue and build upon the successes of the MDGs, the international community should take stock of its experience during the MDGs era and work together to draw up a fair, inclusive, and sustainable set of shared development aspirations. The following principles should thus be observed during this inter-governmental process:

——聚焦核心议题。重点解决贫困、饥饿、卫生等涉及发展中国家人民基本生存的问题。在此基础上,有效因应气候变化、能源资源安全、经济增长乏力等新挑战,实现可持续发展。
– Focus on the key issues. It is essential to put emphasis on issues such as poverty, hunger and public sanitation, which are crucial to basic subsistence of people in developing countries. Effective measures should also be taken to tackle climate change, energy and resource security, weak economic growth, and other new emerging challenges that could impede sustainable development.

——发展模式多样化。尊重各国不同国情、发展水平和发展阶段,支持各国自主选择适合本国的发展政策、发展模式和发展道路。
– Respect diversity in development models. It is important to recognize the different national realities and the level of development among countries and support their choice of development strategies, models, and paths most suited to their respective conditions.

——“共同但有区别的责任”原则。将实现发展作为各国共同努力的目标,同时根据各国不同能力,以各自方式实现发展并参与全球发展合作。
– Adhere to the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities”. Countries need to make development their common objective, and – based on their capabilities – achieve their own development and participate in global development cooperation in their own ways.

——合作共赢。摒弃零和思维,树立利益共同体意识,以合作取代对抗,以共赢取代独占,求同存异,在共同发展中寻求各方利益的最大公约数。
– Seek win-win cooperation. It is important to abandon the zero-sum mentality, foster a sense of community of shared interests, replace confrontation and monopolization with win-win cooperation, seek a common ground while acknowledging differences, and look for the biggest common denominator in pursuit of global development.

——平等协商。本着公正、民主、透明的精神,推动各国平等参与国际发展规则制定,提升发展中国家代表性和发言权。
– Carry out consultation on an equal footing. Countries should take an equal part in international development rule-making in a just, democratic, and transparent manner, and increase the voice and representation of developing countries are increased.

三、重点领域和优先方向
III. Key Themes and Priorities

(一)消除贫困和饥饿,促进经济增长。消除贫困事关各国人民最基本的生存和发展权利,是各国尤其是发展中国家经济和社会发展的首要考量,应作为2015年后发展议程的核心目标。政府应加大减贫投入力度,加强贫困人口、弱势群体和妇女儿童的能力建设,鼓励企业、社会团体等共同参与减贫事业。政府应将促进经济增长作为优先任务,建设统一开放、竞争有序的市场体系,不断增加居民收入,提高居民生活水平。保持宏观经济政策的连续性和稳定性,加快经济结构调整,推动科技创新,培育新增长点,实现经济稳定健康发展。大力推进现代农业建设,提高粮食生产能力,保障粮食安全。科学制定城镇化发展规划,发挥城镇化对经济增长的推动作用。
(I) Eradicating poverty and hunger, and promoting economic growth. Poverty eradication is essential to people’s fundamental right to subsistence and development, and is a top priority for all countries, developing countries in particular, as they pursue economic and social development. It should therefore be viewed as a core priority of the Post-2015 Development Agenda. Toward this end, governments should scale up investment in poverty eradication, strengthen capacity building for the poor, women and children, and other vulnerable groups, while also encouraging the participation of enterprises and civil society organizations in poverty eradication. Economic growth should be emphasized as a priority task, including by putting in place open market systems featuring orderly competition, increasing people’s income, and improving their living standards. It is necessary to maintain continuity and stability of the macro-economic policies, speed up economic reform, promote scientific innovation, and foster new growth areas so as to achieve steady and sound economic development. Significant efforts should be made to advance modern agriculture, increase food production capacity, and safeguard food security. Governments should also develop well-planned urbanization strategies in a systematic manner and give play to the role of urbanization in driving economic growth.

(二)全面推进社会进步,维护公平正义。推动包容发展,坚持以人为本,消除各种形式的不平等,让发展成果更多更公平惠及全体人民。把促进就业放在经济社会发展的优先位置,建立经济发展和扩大就业的联动机制,推动实现更高质量就业。建立更加公平可持续的社会保障制度,提高弱势群体的发展能力。保障每个人受教育的权利,促进教育公平,提高教育质量,实现更高水平的普及教育。建立完善的基本医疗保障制度,促进基本医疗卫生服务的公平性和可及性,提高服务水平和效率。促进妇女全面发展,提高妇女儿童健康水平,提高人口素质,促进人口长期均衡发展。促进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,全面推进依法治国,保障人权,为发展营造良好的社会环境。
(II) Comprehensively promoting social progress, and safeguarding fairness and justice. It is important to pursue inclusive growth, always put people first, eradicate inequality in all forms, and ensure that the fruits of development are fairly shared by all. Employment should be the priority of the economic and social development agenda, while a coordinating mechanism between economic growth and job creation should be established to promote higher-quality employment. A fairer and more sustainable social security system should be put in place and efforts made to help the vulnerable groups strengthen their development capacities. It is also essential to guarantee people’s right to education, promote equality and quality of education, and realize universal education at a higher level. A sound basic health care system should be implemented to make basic medical and health services more equitable and accessible, and raise the quality and efficiency of these services. Efforts should be made to promote all-round development of women, improve the health of women and children, raise the quality of population, and promote long-term and balanced demographic growth. It is also important to modernize the national governance system and governance capacity, comprehensively promote the rule of law, protect human rights, and create a good social environment conducive to development.

(三)加强生态文明建设,促进可持续发展。树立尊重自然、顺应自然、保护自然的生态文明理念,增强节约意识、环保意识和生态意识,形成合理消费的理念和生活方式。坚持节约资源,保护环境。坚持共同但有区别的责任原则、公平原则和各自能力原则,积极应对全球气候变化。保护生物多样性,维护全球生态安全。提高森林覆盖率,合理利用森林资源。控制空气污染,安全处置危险废物。保障城乡居民饮水安全,合理配置、高效利用水资源,推进水循环利用,加强国际减灾合作,完善防洪抗旱减灾体系建设。加强海洋环境保护,合理利用海洋资源。
(Ш) Enhancing ecological conservation and promoting sustainable development. Countries need to respect and protect nature, raise public awareness of the importance of environmental and ecological protection and resource conservation, and sustainable patterns of production. The international community should vigorously address global climate change in accordance with the principles of common but differentiated responsibilities, equity and respective capabilities. It is important to preserve biological diversity and uphold global ecological security through multi-pronged endeavors such as the expansion of forest coverage, rational harnessing of forest resources, control of air pollution, and safe disposal of hazardous waste. Efforts should be made to ensure safe drinking water for both urban and rural residents, allocate and use water resources efficiently, promote water recycling and reuse, strengthen international cooperation on disaster relief, and improve the disaster relief system to fight flood and drought. Intensified efforts should also be made to protect the marine environment and ensure rational use of marine resources.

四、全球发展伙伴关系
IV. Enhancing the global development partnership

——建立更加平等均衡的全球发展伙伴关系。充分发挥南北合作的主渠道作用,发达国家应履行官方发展援助承诺,加大对发展中国家特别是非洲和最不发达国家的支持。南南合作是南北合作的有益补充,鼓励和支持发展中国家本着互相尊重、平等互利的原则进一步加强南南合作,逐步拓宽合作领域,提高合作质量,在互利共赢的基础上实现联合自强。推动私营部门、民间社会、慈善团体等利益攸关方在国际发展合作中发挥更大作用,协同增效。
– Build a more equitable and balanced global partnership for development. North-South cooperation should continue to serve as the main channel of development financing. Developed countries must honor their Official Development Assistance (ODA) commitments, and scale up their support for developing countries, especially African nations and least developed countries. South-South cooperation is a supplement to North-South cooperation, and the international community should encourage and support the efforts of developing countries to strengthen South-South cooperation on the basis of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit, expand the areas of cooperation, improve the quality of cooperation, and seek strength through unity on the basis of mutually beneficial cooperation. The private sector, civil society organizations, philanthropic groups, and other stakeholders should be encouraged to play a bigger role in international development cooperation to increase the efficiency of development assistance.

——提升各国自身发展能力。各国政府应承担实现本国发展的首要责任,制定并完善符合本国国情的发展战略,最大限度动员国内资源,加大发展投入,创造良好的国内发展环境,提升民众福祉。
– Strengthen capacity building of all countries. Countries should take the primary responsibility for their own development, formulate development strategies that are suited to their national conditions, mobilize domestic resources to the greatest extent, increase input in development, create a sound domestic environment for development, and improve people’s wellbeing.

——充分发挥联合国的统筹协调作用。强化联合国的政策指导和统筹协调职能,推动联合国发展系统、各专门机构、基金和方案整合优势,采取步调一致措施,调动发展资源,推进国际发展合作。
– Give full play to the coordinating role of the United Nations. The functions of the United Nations in policy guidance and coordination should be strengthened to form synergy among the UN development system, specialized agencies, funds and programs, and integrated measures should be taken to mobilize development resources and advance international development cooperation.

五、执行手段
V. Means of Implementation

——加强发展筹资力度。广泛凝聚全球、区域和国家层面的政治意愿,为全面实现发展目标动员发展资源。发达国家应及时、足额提供占国民总收入0.7%的官方发展援助,同时进一步对发展中国家减免债务,开放市场。创新型筹资和公私合营模式为拓宽发展筹资渠道提供了新思路,但不能替代官方发展援助的地位和作用。
– Intensify development financing. To mobilize development resources for realization of all development goals, it is essential to pool the political will at global, regional and national levels. Developed countries should channel 0.7% of their GNI to ODA in full and on time, take further steps to cancel debts and open market for developing countries. Innovative financing and the public-private partnership model provide new dimension for mobilization of development resources, but they cannot replace the function and role of ODA.

——加强人力资源开发和机构能力建设。通过培训、经验交流、知识转让、技术援助等多种形式,加强能力建设。
– Enhance human resources development and institutional capacity building through training, experience sharing, knowledge transfer and technical assistance.

——建立健全向发展中国家转让发展技术的机制。推动并支持满足发展中国家实际需求的科技研发、传播和转让,利用科技促进发展。
– Establish and improve mechanisms for technology transfer to developing countries. It is imperative to promote and support development through research and development programs in science and technology, as well as through dissemination and transfer of technologies that meet the actual needs of developing countries.

——建立行之有效的全球发展政策协调机制。将发展更有效地纳入全球宏观政策协调范畴,推动经济、金融、贸易、投资等政策服务于发展事业。
– Establish effective global mechanism for development policy coordination. The development agenda should be incorporated into the global policy coordination system to benefit from international economic, financial, trade and investment policies.

——加强全球经济治理。维护自由、开放、非歧视的全球贸易体系,推进贸易投资自由化和便利化,消除贸易和投资壁垒,反对和抵制各种形式的保护主义。深化国际金融体系改革,落实已经达成共识的举措,增加发展中国家的代表性和发言权。完善全球投资规则,引导全球发展资本合理流动。
– Strengthen global economic governance. The international community should maintain a free, open, and non-discriminatory global trade system, advance trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, remove trade and investment barriers, and oppose and resist all forms of protectionism. Efforts should be made to accelerate the reform of the international financial system and implement agreed measures so as to increase the representation and voice of developing countries. International investment regulations should be improved to steer a reasonable flow of capital toward global development.

六、后续落实
VI. Follow-up Implementation

——加强国际层面执行手段的监督,重点审议官方发展援助、技术转让和能力建设等承诺的落实情况。发挥联合国可持续发展高级别政治论坛的统筹协调作用。
– It will be imperative to strengthen the monitoring of the means of implementation at the international level, with a focus on the ODA commitments, technology transfer, and capacity building. The organizing and coordinating role of the UN High Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development should be fully leveraged.

——各国将发展议程纳入本国发展战略规划,赋予各国一定的政策空间和灵活性,由各国根据本国国情,按照自愿原则落实并对执行情况进行评估。
– Incorporate the Post-2015 Development Agenda into each country’s national development strategy, while leaving policy space and flexibility. Countries may assess their own implementation on a voluntary basis and in light of their respective national realities.

——加强数据统计。重点帮助发展中国家加强数据统计能力建设,提高数据的质量和及时性。联合国统计委员会可配合成员国做好技术支持工作。
– Improve data collection and statistical analysis. It is necessary to help developing countries strengthen their capacities in data and statistics and improve the quality and timeliness of information. The UN Statistical Commission may provide technical support to its members.

七、中国的实践
VII. China’s Practices

中国高度重视千年发展目标,将落实千年发展目标的努力有机融入到以全面建成小康社会为目标的国家总体发展战略,取得了显著成就。中国已完成消除贫困与饥饿、普及初等教育、促进两性平等和妇女赋权、降低儿童死亡率、改善孕产妇保健、与疾病斗争等目标,在改善棚户区居民生活、确保环境可持续性等方面取得积极进展。
China accords great importance to the MDGs and has made remarkable progress in achieving them. It has incorporated the implementation of the MDGs into its national development strategy aimed to complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects. China has met the MDGs on eradicating poverty and hunger, achieving universal primary education, promoting gender equality and women empowerment, reducing child mortality, and improving maternal health. Progress has also been made in improving the livelihoods of people in poorer areas, combatting diseases and ensuring the sustainability of the environment.

中国是第一个提前实现减贫目标的发展中国家。中国极端贫困人口减少数量占全球减贫总数的三分之二,为世界减贫事业作出了巨大贡献。中国所有省、自治区和直辖市已全面普及九年义务教育,就业稳定增长,基本实现了教育与就业中的性别平等。中国医疗卫生服务体系不断健全,儿童和孕产妇死亡率分别下降80%和73.9%,在遏制艾滋病、肺结核等传染性疾病蔓延方面取得积极进展。中国扭转了环境资源持续流失的趋势,获得安全饮水的人口增加五亿多人,保障性安居工程全面启动。
China is the first developing country to achieve the poverty eradication goal ahead of the MDGs deadline. China has contributed significantly to the global endeavor for poverty eradication, accounting for two-thirds of the world’s reduction in extreme poverty. The nine-year compulsory education is available throughout the country. Employment is increasing steadily nationwide. Gender equality has been by and large accomplished in education and employment. Medical and health care system has improved continuously, with the mortality rates of children and women dropping by 80% and 73.9%, respectively, and significant progress made in curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and other infectious diseases. China has also reversed the trend of environmental and resource degradation, ensuring the access of another 500 million people to safe drinking water. The affordable housing project has been launched across the country to provide decent residences to the public.

中国坚持以经济建设为中心,全面深化改革,协调推动经济稳定增长和结构优化,加快完善现代市场体系,催生培育经济社会发展动力,实施创新驱动发展战略,推进新型工业化、城镇化、农业现代化同步发展,优化经济发展空间格局,促进各地区协调发展、协同发展、共同发展。
China continues to take economic development as its central task and has comprehensively deepened its reform. Efforts have been made to strike a balance between steady economic growth and structural adjustment, improve the modern market system, and foster a new driving force for economic and social development. China is implementing the strategy of innovation-driven development, promoting the balanced development of new types of industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization, optimizing the overall economic structure, and boosting coordinated and common development of different regions.

中国坚持以促进社会公平正义、增进人民福祉为出发点和落脚点,推进社会事业改革创新,着力促进创业就业,加强社会保障和增加居民收入,促进教育公平发展和质量提升,加快健全基本医疗卫生制度,加快和创新社会治理,提高政府保障能力,建立健全符合中国国情、比较完善、覆盖城乡、可持续的基本公共服务体系。
China continues to take social fairness, justice, and improvement of people’s lives as the starting point and ultimate goal of its development. As such, China has made efforts to reform and innovate social programs, encourage entrepreneurship, promote employment, strengthen social security and increase people’s income. China works vigorously to provide equal access to education for all and improve education quality, upgrade the basic medical and health care system, strengthen and make innovations in social governance, enhance government’s capacity in providing social security and seek to establish a sound and sustainable basic public service system that meets China’s national conditions and covers both urban and rural areas.

中国坚持打好节能减排和环境治理攻坚战,积极应对气候变化,深入实施大气污染防治行动计划,大力推广低碳、节能、环保技术和产品,淘汰落后的高耗能、高污染生产能力,发展循环经济,健全节能减排法律法规和标准。加强水资源保护和管理,建设节水型社会。保护和修复自然生态,加强生物多样性保护。
China has made intensified efforts to conserve energy, reduce emissions, and improve the environment. Measures have been taken to address climate change, fully implement the action plan for prevention and control of air pollution, promote low-carbon, energy-saving and environment-friendly technologies and products, phase out energy-intensive and highly polluting modes of production, and pursue a circular economy. Laws, regulations, and standards on energy-saving and emission reduction have been strengthened. China has worked to improve protection and management of water resources, and raise public awareness of water conservation. Efforts have also been made in protecting and rehabilitating the natural ecosystem, and preserving and strengthening biodiversity.

作为一个负责任的发展中国家,中国在南南合作框架下,为120 多个发展中国家实现千年发展目标提供力所能及的支持和帮助。在实现千年发展目标过程中,中国政府和人民立足国情,积极探索,勇于实践,积累了丰富的发展经验,走出了一条具有中国特色的发展道路。中国愿继续与世界各国分享经验,包容互鉴,促进共同发展。
As a responsible developing country, China has provided support within its capability to over 120 developing countries under the framework of South-South cooperation to help them meet the MDGs. In achieving the MDGs, the Chinese government and people have conducted active exploration and practice in light of China’s national circumstances, accumulated rich development experience, and found a path of development with Chinese characteristics. China will continue to share development experience with other countries, champion inclusiveness and mutual learning, and promote common development.

尽管在经济社会发展方面取得了巨大成就,中国仍是一个发展中国家。当前,中国经济进入新常态,经济下行压力加大,发展不平衡、不协调、不可持续问题依然突出,农业基础依然薄弱,资源环境约束加剧,创新能力不足,转变经济发展方式和调整经济结构任务艰巨。城乡区域发展差距和居民收入分配差距依然较大。为化解各种矛盾与风险,中国将坚持不懈依靠改革推动发展,加快转变经济发展方式,实现有质量有效益可持续的发展,确保到2020年实现全面建成小康社会目标。
Despite its remarkable achievements in economic and social development, China is still a developing country. China’s economy has entered a phase of the “new normal”, with a growing downward pressure and the trend of unbalanced, uncoordinated, and unsustainable development remaining a prominent issue. The agricultural foundation is still weak, while the constraints on resources and the environment have been intensified. The capacity for innovation is weak, and transforming the mode of economic development and readjusting economic structure remain a tough challenge. The development gap between urban and rural areas and between different regions is large, as are the income disparities among individuals. To address these difficulties and risks, China will remain committed to the strategy of spurring development through reform, accelerate the transformation of economic development mode, endeavor to achieve quality-based, effective and sustainable development, and attain the goal of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2020.

作为最大的发展中国家,中国将继续坚持和平发展合作共赢,始终不渝走和平发展道路,始终不渝奉行互利共赢的开放战略,推动建立以合作共赢为核心的新型国际关系。不仅造福中国人民,而且造福世界人民。面向未来,中国政府将坚持从本国国情出发,将落实2015年后发展议程与本国发展战略有机结合,与世界各国携手并肩,为打造人类命运共同体,实现各国人民的美好梦想而不懈努力。
As the largest developing country, China will stick to its core principles in unswervingly following the path of peaceful development, an open strategy of mutual benefit, and a new type of international relations oriented toward win-win cooperation, thereby bringing benefit to the people of China and around the globe. Going forward, the Chinese government will, based on China’s national conditions, endeavor to align its own development strategy with the Post-2015 Development Agenda, work hand in hand with other countries and make ceaseless efforts to build a community of common destiny for mankind, helping realize the dreams of people across the world.

(Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China)



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