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双语:民族区域自治制度在西藏的成功实践(1)

2015-09-07    来源:chinadaily    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

国务院新闻办公室6日发表了《民族区域自治制度在西藏的成功实践》白皮书。全文如下:
The Information Office of the State Council, or China's Cabinet, on Sunday issued a white paper on Successful Practice of Regional Ethnic Autonomy in Tibet. Following is the full text:

民族区域自治制度在西藏的成功实践
Successful Practice of Regional Ethnic Autonomy in Tibet

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室
The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China

2015年9月
September 2015, Beijing

目 录
Contents

前 言
Preface

一、旧西藏的黑暗与落后
I. Old Tibet: Dark and Backward

二、走上发展进步道路
II. Embarking on the Road to Development and Progress

三、符合国情的政治制度
III. The Political System Suited to China's Actual Conditions

四、保障人民当家作主
IV. The People as Masters of the Country

五、大力增进人民福祉
V. Improving People's Welfare

六、保护和弘扬优秀传统文化
VI. Protecting and Carrying Forward the Excellent Traditional Culture

七、尊重和保护宗教信仰自由
VII. Respecting and Protecting Freedom of Religious Belief

八、推进生态文明建设
VIII. Promoting Ecological Progress

结束语
Conclusion

*********************************

前言
Preface

民族区域自治,是中国特色社会主义的一项基本政治制度,是中国解决民族问题的基本政策。
Regional ethnic autonomy is a fundamental political system under socialism with Chinese characteristics - a basic policy through which to solve problems relating to ethnic minorities.

中国的民族区域自治,是指在国家的统一领导下,各少数民族聚居地方实行区域自治,设立自治机关,行使自治权。中国民族自治地方的设立是根据当地民族关系、经济发展等条件,并参酌历史情况而确定的。目前,中国的民族自治地方依据少数民族聚居区人口的多少、面积的大小分为自治区、自治州、自治县三级,行政地位分别相当于省、设区的市和县。
Regional ethnic autonomy in China means, under the unified leadership of the central government, that regional autonomy is exercised and organs of self-government are established for the exercise of the right of autonomy in areas where various ethnic minorities live in compact communities. The establishment of ethnic autonomous areas is determined by local ethnic relations, economic development and other conditions, with reference to historical background. China's ethnic autonomous areas are divided, according to the population and size of the compact communities in which ethnic minorities live, into autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures, and autonomous counties at three levels equivalent to provinces, cities divided into districts, and counties in the administrative division.

在中国,西藏是一个藏族占多数的民族聚居区,目前总人口317.55万,其中藏族占92%以上;除藏族外,西藏还有汉族、蒙古族、回族、纳西族、怒族、独龙族、门巴族、珞巴族以及僜人、夏尔巴人等40多个民族成分。根据中国宪法,国家在西藏实行民族区域自治制度,建立西藏自治区,并设有门巴、珞巴、纳西等民族乡,依法保障西藏各族人民平等参与管理国家和地方事务的政治权利。
Tibet is an ethnic region mostly inhabited by Tibetans, who account for more than 92 percent of its present 3,175,500 population, which also includes 40 other ethnic groups, including the Han, Mongolian, Hui, Naxi, Nu, Drung, Monba, Lhoba, Deng and Sherpa people. According to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China (PRC), regional ethnic autonomy has been exercised in Tibet, and Tibet Autonomous Region, under which are the Monba, Lhoba and Naxi ethnic townships, has been founded, protecting by law the political rights of various ethnic groups in Tibet to participate as equals in administering state and local affairs.

自1959年实行民主改革和1965年实行民族区域自治制度以来,西藏不仅建立起全新的社会主义制度,而且实现了经济社会发展的历史性跨越。西藏成功地走上了与全国各族人民共同团结奋斗、共同平等发展、共同繁荣进步的光明大道。藏民族作为中华民族大家庭的一员,实现了平等参与管理国家事务的权利,成为管理西藏地方社会事务、主宰自己命运的主人,成为西藏社会物质财富、精神财富的创造者和享有者。
Since the democratic reform was carried out in 1959 and regional ethnic autonomy came into practice in 1965, Tibet has established the new socialist system and achieved historic leaps and bounds in its economic and social development. Tibet has taken a road that unites it with all China's ethnic groups and struggles to develop equally, achieve prosperity, and make progress with them. As part of the Chinese nation, the Tibetan people fulfill the right to participate equally in the management of state affairs; they are thus managers of local social affairs and masters of their own destiny, creating and sharing the material and spiritual wealth of Tibet.

虽然西藏自治区从成立至今只有50年,但带来了翻天覆地的巨大变化。今日的西藏,是其历史上最为辉煌的时期。
Although it has been only 50 years since the founding of Tibet Autonomous Region, great changes have taken place. Tibet is now in its golden age.

一、旧西藏的黑暗与落后
I. Old Tibet: Dark and Backward


直至20世纪50年代,西藏社会依然处于政教合一的封建农奴制统治之下。这种存在了几百年的黑暗制度,扼杀人权,摧残人性,是人类社会最为落后的制度。在这种制度下,人民既无民主权利,也无经济、社会、文化权利,各项基本人权根本得不到保障。旧西藏与现代文明的距离,十分遥远。
Even in the 1950s, Tibet was still a society ruled by feudal serfdom under theocracy. Having existed for several centuries, this wretched system stifled human rights and destroyed human qualities. It was thus the most backward mode of human society under which the people had no democratic, economic, social, or cultural rights, and their basic human rights were not protected. Old Tibet was a far cry from modern civilization.

在封建农奴制度统治之下,农奴遭受残酷的政治压迫,没有任何人身自由,丧失了基本人权。
Under feudal serfdom, serfs suffered cruel political oppression and had no personal freedom or fundamental rights.

旧西藏实行以《十六法典》《十三法典》为代表的法律,对广大农奴实行野蛮压迫。这些《法典》将人分成“三等九级”,大贵族、大活佛和高级官员被认为是天生高贵的人,处于最上等地位,而广大农奴则被划为下等人。命价也有高低不同,上等人“命价为与尸体等重的黄金”,屠夫、铁匠等下等下级的人,“命价仅值一根草绳”。不同等级的人触犯同一刑律,量刑标准和处置方法也不相同。仆人使主人受伤的,要砍掉仆人的手或脚;主人打伤仆人,则不付给任何赔偿费。农奴主和农奴在法律上的地位极其不平等,农奴主拥有对农奴和奴隶的生杀予夺权,他们用剜目、割肉、割舌、断手、剁脚、抽筋、戴铐等野蛮刑罚,来维护对农奴和奴隶的统治。
Old Tibet implemented laws, as represented by the "16-Article Code" and "13-Article Code," that oppressed serfs. These laws divided people into three classes and nine ranks, whereby nobles, Living Buddhas and senior officials were born into and thus constituted the upper class, while the broad masses of serfs constituted the lower class. Value accorded to life correspondingly differed. The value of the life of a person of the upper class was measured in gold according to his weight. The value of the lives of butchers, blacksmiths, and others of the lowest rank of the lower class was equivalent to hempen rope. When people of different classes and ranks violated the same criminal law, the criteria in old Tibet for imposing penalties and the means of punishment were quite different. The laws stipulated that the punishment for a servant who injured his master was to have his hands or feet chopped off, but a master who injured a servant was not required to pay compensation. Serf owners and serfs had overtly unequal standing according to law. Serf owners held absolute power over the lives of serfs and slaves, and ensured their rule over the latter through savage punishments, including gouging out eyes, cutting out flesh or tongues, cutting off hands or feet, pulling out tendons, and being put in manacles.

旧西藏的噶厦政府规定,农奴只能固定在所属领主的庄园土地上,不得擅自离开,绝对禁止逃亡。“人不无主、地不无差”,三大领主强制占有农奴人身,农奴世世代代依附领主,作为土地的附属物束缚在土地上。凡是人力和畜力能种地的,一律得种差地,并支乌拉差役。农奴一旦丧失劳动能力,就收回牲畜、农具、差地,降为奴隶。三大领主还把农奴当作私有财产随意支配,用于赌博、抵债、赠送、转让和买卖。农奴的婚姻必须取得领主的同意,不同领主的农奴婚嫁要缴纳“赎身费”。农奴生小孩要到领主那里缴纳出生税,登记入册,注定终身为奴。农奴如果被迫流落外地谋生,要向原属领主交“人役税”,持交税证明,才不至于被当作逃亡户处理。
The Kashag (cabinet) of old Tibet prescribed that all serfs must stay on the land within the manors of their owners. They were not allowed to leave without permission; fleeing the manor was forbidden. "All serfs have owners and all plots of land are assigned." Serfs were possessed by the three major estate-holders (local government officials, nobles and upper-ranking lamas in monasteries). They remained serfs from generation to generation, and confined to the land of their owners. All serfs and their livestock able to labor had to till the plots of land assigned to them and provide corvee labor. Once serfs lost their ability to labor, they were deprived of livestock, farm tools and land, and their status was degraded to that of slave. Since serfs were their private property, the three major estate-holders could use them as gambling stakes, mortgages for debt, present them as gifts, or transfer and trade them. All serfs needed permission from their owners to marry, and male and female serfs belonging to different owners had to pay "redemption fees" before such permission was granted. After marriage, serfs were also taxed on their newborn children, which were registered the moment they were born, so sealing their fate as lifelong serfs. Serfs that needed to make a living in other places were required to pay "servitudetax," and had to produce proof of having paid such tax or they would otherwise be punished as fugitives.

1940年前往主持十四世达赖喇嘛坐床的国民政府蒙藏委员会委员长吴忠信在《奉使办理藏事报告书》中,对旧西藏统治者对人民的压迫以及人民的悲惨痛苦处境有这样的描述:“西藏因地处高寒,农产稀少,人民生活本极困难,而西藏当局压迫剥削更无所不用其极,使藏民生活堕入人间地狱,其苦乃不可言。西藏当局视人民直如奴隶牛马,照例不付代价,即伙食马料亦须由人民自备,而差徭纷繁几无宁日,人民受扰之剧可以想见。政府复可一纸命令无代价的征收人民之财产,或将此种财产赏给寺庙或贵族中之有功者。总之,在西藏境内,人民已失去其生存与自由之保障,其生活之痛苦实非言语所可形容也。”
After presiding over the enthronement ceremony of the 14th Dalai Lama in 1940, Wu Zhongxin, chief of the Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs of the Kuomintang Government, described the rulers' oppression and the people's sufferings in old Tibet in his "Report on Tibetan Affairs on a Mission": "Located in frigid highlands, Tibet has rare agricultural products. The people live a hard life, whereas the Tibetan authorities do their utmost to oppress and exploit them, making the lives of the Tibetans one of hell and misery. The Tibetan authorities regard the people as slaves and beasts of burden and do not pay them as a rule; the people even have to find their own food and horse fodder; meanwhile they endure incessant, copious and complicated corvee labor and never enjoy days of peace. You can thus imagine how harassed they are. The authorities can issue an order to appropriate the people's property without compensation and bestow such property on lamaseries or meritorious nobles. In short, in Tibet, the people have lost their guarantee of survival and freedom, and their miserable life is beyond description."

在封建农奴制度统治之下,农奴没有生产资料,生存权受到严重威胁。
Ruled by feudal serfdom under theocracy, serfs had no means of production, and their right to subsistence was under threat.

旧西藏,占人口只有5%的三大领主(官家、贵族、寺庙上层僧侣)及其代理人,几乎占有全部的耕地、牧场、森林、山川、河流、河滩以及大部分牲畜,而占人口多达95%的农奴,包括“差巴”(领种份地,向农奴主支差役的人)、“堆穷”(意为冒烟的小户)、“朗生”(一无所有,世代为奴),却不掌握生产资料,遭受残酷的经济剥削。
In old Tibet, the three major estate-holders and their agents accounted for only five percent of Tibet's population, but they owned almost all of Tibet's farmland, pastures, forests, mountains, rivers, and beaches, as well as most of the livestock. About 95 percent of old Tibet's population was made up of serfs, including "tralpa" as they are known in the Tibetan language (people who tilled plots of land assigned to them and who were obligated to provide corvee labor for serf owners), "duiqoin" (small households with chimneys emitting smoke), and "nangzan" (hereditary household slaves who were deprived of any means of production and personal freedom). They had no means of production and suffered cruel economic exploitation.

农奴遭受的第一重剥削是地租。在庄园里,农奴主把土地分成两部分:大部分为农奴主的自营地,一小部分是以奴役性的条件分给农奴耕种的“份地”。农奴为了领得“份地”,必须自带工具和口粮,在农奴主的自营地上无偿服劳役。这些无偿的劳动,就是缴纳给农奴主的劳役地租。而农奴在“份地”里收获的大部分粮食最终又都被领主收走了。“差巴”一年所得不过二三百斤,连糊口都不够,主要靠吃野菜和野草,再掺上一点粮食过日子。除了通过劳役缴纳沉重的地租外,农奴还必须缴纳名目繁多的税费。
The first exploitation serfs suffered was land rent. Serf owners on feudal manors divided the land into two parts: The largest part was kept as manor demesne while smaller lots were rented to serfs under stringent conditions. To use the lots, serfs had to work on the demesne with their own farm implements and provide their own food. Such unpaid labor constituted the rent they paid to serf owners. Most of the grain that serfs harvested from the lots was finally taken away by estate-holders. A "tralpa" could only keep 100-150 kilograms of grain annually, which was not enough to live on; his diet mainly consisted of wild herbs and weeds mixed with a little grain. In addition to the heavy land rent paid in the form of labor, serfs had to pay numerous taxes and fees.

农奴遭受的第二重剥削是乌拉差。乌拉差是一种包括徭役、赋税、地(畜)租在内的含义十分广泛的差税总称。旧西藏仅地方政府征收的差税就达200多种。农奴为地方政府和庄园领主所支的差,一般要占农奴户劳动量的50%以上,有的高达70%-80%。乌拉差役又有内、外差之分。内差是农奴向直接依附的领主及其代理人支的差役。外差是农奴给西藏地方政府及其下属机构支的差役。其中农奴负担最重的是运输差。西藏地广人稀,交通不便,各种物资的运输全靠人背畜驮。农奴长年累月跋山涉水为地方政府运输物资,支差之苦正如谚语所言:“靴子无底,牛背无毛。”
The second exploitation serfs suffered was corvee labor - a broad term covering not only corvee, but taxes and levies, and rents for land and livestock. The former local government of Tibet alone levied more than 200 kinds of taxes. Serfs had to contribute more than 50 percent or sometimes even 70 to 80 percent of their labor, unpaid, to the government and estate-holders. Corvee labor was divided into two kinds: one was that which serfs provided to the estate-holders they were bonded to and their agents; the other was the unpaid work serfs did for the local government of Tibet and its subordinates. The heaviest was transport corvee, because Tibet is large but sparsely populated and transport was inconvenient, necessitating the transport of all kinds of goods by humans or pack animals. Year after year, serfs were made to transport materials over mountains and rivers for the local government. This gave rise to the saying, "The boots have no soles, and the backs of the cattle are hairless."

农奴遭受的第三重剥削是高利贷。在旧西藏,三大领主都是大大小小的高利贷剥削者。西藏地方政府设有放债机构,放债、收息成为各级官员的行政职责。西藏很多寺庙也参与放债,高利贷盘剥的收入占三大寺总收入的25%-30%。贵族绝大多数也放高利贷,债息在其家庭收入中一般要占15%。农奴为了活命不得不频繁举债,欠债的农奴占农奴总数的90%以上。农奴所负的债务,形式上分为新债、子孙债、连保债、集体摊派债等等。其中1/3以上是子孙债,也称旧债,是祖祖辈辈欠下的。这种债由于利上加利,永远也还不完。
The third exploitation serfs suffered was usury. In old Tibet, the three major estate-holders were all exploiters of usury. The local government of Tibet had many money-lending agencies, and lending money and collecting interest were among officials' duties. Many monasteries also participated in money-lending. Revenue from usury made up 25 to 30 percent of the total revenue of the three major monasteries, namely Drepung, Sera and Ganden. Most aristocrats were also engaged in usury, the interest of which accounted for 15 percent of their family revenues. Serfs had to borrow money to survive, and more than 90 percent of serf households were in debt. Serfs were burdened with new debts, debts passed down from previous generations, debts resulting from joint liability, and debts apportioned among all the serfs. One third of these were the debts passed down from previous generations which could never be repaid, even by succeeding generations, due to the imposition of compound interest.

政教合一的封建农奴制度严重阻碍着社会进步。直到1951年和平解放前,西藏没有现代工商业,现代科技、教育、文化、卫生事业几乎是空白,没有一条现代意义上的公路,西藏与外界几乎隔绝;农业生产长期处于原始耕作状态,劳动工具原始简单,牧业基本是自然游牧方式,农牧品种单一且退化,整个生产力水平和社会发展十分低下,社会发育程度极低。
Feudal serfdom under theocracy seriously obstructed social progress in Tibet. At the time of the peaceful liberation in 1951, there was almost no trace of modern industry, commerce, science and technology, education, culture, or health care. With no roads in the modern sense, Tibet was cut off from the outside world. Primitive farming had long been used in agricultural production, and farm tools were rudimentary. Herdsmen had to travel from place to place to find pasture for their livestock. There were few strains and breeds of grains and animals, and some had even degenerated. The level of both the productive forces and social development was thus extremely low.

法国旅行家亚历山大·大卫·妮尔在《古老的西藏面对新生的中国》一书中这样描写当时人民的情形:“这些可怜的人们只能永远待在他们贫瘠的土地上。他们完全失去了一切人的自由,一年更比一年穷。”广大人民没有基本的生存权,更没有发展权。他们被剥夺了受教育的权利,不能学习民族的语言文化,到20世纪50年代时,西藏仅有2000多贵族子弟在旧式官办学校和私塾学习,青壮年文盲率高达95%。广大人民没有经济发展权,三大领主只从农奴那里榨取暴利,却不更新生产工具,农奴没日没夜地劳作,也不能创造更多的社会产品,没有社会再生产的能力。
French traveler Alexandra David-Neel described people's life in her book Le vieux Tibet Face a la Chine nouvelle (When Old Tibet Meets New China), "These poor people can only stay on their sterile land forever. They lose all human freedom, and become poorer and poorer each year." The people had no basic right to subsistence, much less to development. They were deprived of the right to education, and could not be schooled in their native language and culture. By the 1950s, the 2,000 or more studying in old-style government-run schools and old-style private schools were exclusively aristocrats; the illiteracy rate of the young and the middle-aged was 95 percent. The people had no right to economic development. The three major estate-holders squeezed profits from serfs, but did not update their tools; serfs worked day and night, but could not make more social products because they had no capability for social reproduction.

旧西藏政教合一的封建农奴制度之野蛮、残酷、落后,犹如黑暗的欧洲中世纪。1904年到过拉萨的英国随军记者埃德蒙·坎德勒在《拉萨真面目》中有这样的描述:当时的西藏“人民还停留在中世纪的年代,不仅仅是在他们的政体、宗教方面,在他们的严厉惩罚、巫术、灵童转世以及要经受烈火与沸油的折磨方面是如此,而且在他们日常生活的所有方面也都不例外”。
The feudal serfdom under theocracy in old Tibet was savage, cruel and backward, like the dark society of medieval Europe. In his book The Unveiling of Lhasa, British military journalist Edmund Candler, who visited Lhasa in 1904, recorded details of the old Tibetan society: "...at present, the people are medieval, not only in their system of government and their religion, their inquisition, their witchcraft, their incarnations, their ordeals by fire and boiling oil, but in every aspect of their daily life."



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