用户名: 密码: 验证码:    注册 | 忘记密码?
首页|听力资源|每日听力|网络电台|在线词典|听力论坛|下载频道|部落家园|在线背单词|双语阅读|在线听写|普特网校
您的位置:主页 > 英语能力 > 翻译 > 笔译 > 练习材料 > 政治 >

双语:民族区域自治制度在西藏的成功实践(2)

2015-09-08    来源:chinadaily    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

双语:民族区域自治制度在西藏的成功实践(2)

二、走上发展进步道路
II. Embarking on the Road to Development and Progress


西藏走上民族区域自治道路,经历了和平解放、民主改革和自治区成立三个重要历史发展阶段。这一历史发展过程,是人民翻身解放、实现当家作主的正确选择,符合西藏各族人民的根本利益。
After three important historical stages - from its peaceful liberation and democratic reform to the establishment of the autonomous region - Tibet has taken the road of regional ethnic autonomy. This historic process was a correct choice the people made to realize liberation and be their own masters, and it was in the fundamental interest of all ethnic groups of Tibet.

——驱逐帝国主义势力,实现和平解放
-- Driving out imperialist forces, and realizing peaceful liberation


1840年鸦片战争后,帝国主义侵华日甚一日,中国逐步沦为半殖民地半封建社会。中国的西藏地区也遭到了帝国主义的侵略。1888年和1904年,面对英国的侵略,西藏军民进行了英勇的抵抗,但由于清朝政府的腐败、国力的衰落和封建农奴制度的没落,抵抗以失败告终。英国通过强迫当时的清朝政府甚至绕开清朝政府直接胁迫西藏地方政府与其签订不平等条约,在西藏攫取了严重损害中国主权的一系列特权。经济上开设商埠,强行通商,划定江孜、亚东为商埠,常驻英国商务代表,设立固定的官方机构。军事上驻扎军队,在江孜常驻一个连,在亚东常驻一个排。建立由英国人管理、经营并为掠夺服务的基础设施,包括邮电设施和驿站等,长期为英、印人员和少数西藏分裂分子提供服务。
After the Opium War of 1840, imperialist forces intensified aggression on China, gradually reducing the country to a semi-colonial, semi-feudal society. China's Tibet region also suffered imperialist aggression. In face of the British invasions of 1888 and 1904, Tibetan military and civilians put up a heroic resistance, but it failed due to the corrupt Qing government and declining national strength, and feudal serfdom. Britain coerced the Qing government, even bypassing it and directly forcing the local government of Tibet to sign unequal treaties, thus grabbing a series of privileges in Tibet that seriously damaged the sovereignty of China. Economically, it forcibly opened trading ports there, making Gyantse and Yadong two ports where permanent British trade representatives resided and official institutions were set up. Militarily, it stationed troops, one company in Gyantse and a platoon in Yadong. In addition, it built such infrastructure as posts, telecommunications, and courier stations managed and run by the British that served Britain's pillaging, and provided long-term service for British and Indian officers and a few Tibetan separatists.

摆脱帝国主义侵略,是西藏各族人民和上层爱国人士的迫切愿望。1949年10月1日新中国成立,对西藏人民产生巨大鼓舞,他们热切盼望中央人民政府早日解放西藏,驱逐帝国主义势力。十世班禅于中华人民共和国成立当日,致电毛泽东主席和朱德总司令,表示热忱拥护中央人民政府,请求人民解放军早日解放西藏。1949年12月,遭受亲英势力迫害而逃往内地的原西藏摄政热振活佛的近侍堪布益西楚臣,到青海西宁向人民解放军控诉帝国主义破坏西藏内部团结的罪行,要求迅速解放西藏。著名藏传佛教大师喜饶嘉措在西安发表谈话,谴责帝国主义策划拉萨当局进行所谓“独立”的阴谋。
It was the urgent desire of all ethnic groups in Tibet and of upper-class patriots to free Tibet from imperialist aggression. The founding of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949 was a great inspiration for the people of Tibet. They keenly expected the Central People's Government of China to liberate Tibet and drive out imperialist powers at the earliest opportunity. On October 1, 1949, the very day the People's Republic was founded, the 10th Panchen Erdeni telegraphed Chairman Mao Zedong and Commander-in-Chief Zhu De, expressing his support for the Central People's Government and urging the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) to liberate Tibet as soon as possible. In December 1949, Reting Yeshe Tsultrim, aide to the Fifth Regent Reting Rinpoche who suffered persecution from pro-British forces, arrived in Xining, Qinghai Province, to report to the PLA on imperialist attempts to destroy Tibet's internal unity, urging the PLA to liberate Tibet without delay. Sherab Gyatso, a famous master of Tibetan Buddhism, delivered a talk in Xi'an, denouncing the imperialists for hatching a plot through which Lhasa authorities would seek "independence."

在中央政府和西藏人民的共同努力下,1951年5月23日签订了《中央人民政府和西藏地方政府关于和平解放西藏办法的协议》(简称“十七条协议”)。“十七条协议”第一条便是:“西藏人民团结起来,驱逐帝国主义侵略势力出西藏,西藏人民回到中华人民共和国祖国大家庭中来。”在“十七条协议”中,西藏地方政府也承诺,“积极协助人民解放军进入西藏,巩固国防。”5月25日中央人民政府人民革命军事委员会主席毛泽东发布进军训令,全面拉开进军西藏序幕。西藏各族人民衷心拥护、热烈欢迎人民解放军进藏,支持帮助进藏部队。
Through the efforts of the Central People's Government and of the people of Tibet, the Agreement of the Central People's Government and the Local Government of Tibet on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet (the "17-Article Agreement") was signed on May 23, 1951. The first article stipulated, "The people of Tibet should unite and drive out imperialist aggressive forces; they will return to the family of the People's Republic of China." In the agreement, the local government of Tibet promised to "actively assist the PLA in entering Tibet and consolidating national defense." On May 25, Chairman Mao Zedong of the People's Revolutionary Military Committee of the Central People's Government issued an order, so marking the PLA's entry into Tibet. All ethnic groups of Tibet expressed heartfelt support for and a warm welcome to the PLA, and helped the troops enter Tibet.

中国人民解放军进军西藏,驱逐帝国主义势力出西藏,废除帝国主义强加给西藏人民的不平等条约,是实现包括藏族人民在内的中华民族解放和独立的重大历史事件,自此彻底改变了西藏的历史命运,为实现西藏各族人民翻身当家作主提供了根本保障。
The PLA troops' entry to Tibet to drive out imperialist forces and abolish unequal treaties that imperialist forces had imposed on the people of Tibet was a major historical event signifying that the Chinese nation, including the Tibetan group, had realized liberation and independence. It utterly changed the history and destiny of Tibet, and provided its various ethnic groups with a fundamental guarantee of being liberated and becoming masters.

——废除封建农奴制,实现人民翻身作主
-- Abolishing feudal serfdom, and the people becoming masters


20世纪50年代中叶,西藏政教合一的封建农奴制度走到了尽头。1959年3月10日,西藏反动上层为永保政教合一的封建农奴制度不变,公然撕毁“十七条协议”,在拉萨地区发起全面武装叛乱。22日,中共中央发出《关于在西藏平息叛乱中实行民主改革的若干政策问题的指示(草案)》,要求在平息叛乱的战斗中,必须同时坚决地放手发动群众,实行民主改革。28日,周恩来总理发布国务院命令,决定解散西藏地方政府,由西藏自治区筹备委员会行使西藏地方政府职权,由十世班禅额尔德尼代理西藏自治区筹备委员会主任委员职务。与此同时,中央人民政府提出“边平叛边改革”的方针,领导西藏人民掀起了波澜壮阔的民主改革运动。通过民主改革,彻底摧毁了政教合一的封建农奴制度,实现了人民翻身解放,为建立民族区域自治制度,创造了重要社会历史条件。
In the mid-1950s, feudal serfdom under theocracy came to an end. To preserve serfdom, the reactionary forces from the upper class of Tibet tore up the "17-Article Agreement" and staged an all-out armed rebellion in Lhasa on March 10, 1959. On March 22, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) issued the Instructions on Several Policy Issues about Carrying out Democratic Reform in Suppressing the Rebellion in Tibet (draft), demanding that troops mobilize the people to carry out democratic reform amid the battles to suppress the rebellion. On March 28, Premier Zhou Enlai promulgated a State Council decree, dissolving the local government of Tibet and ordering that local government power be taken over by the Preparatory Committee of Tibet Autonomous Region, with the 10th Panchen Erdeni acting as its chairman. In the meantime, the Central People's Government implemented a policy of "suppressing the rebellion while conducting reform," and led the Tibetan people in a surging tide of democratic reform. The reform wrecked the feudal serfdom under theocracy, liberating the people and making them their own masters, so creating important social and historical conditions for the establishment of regional ethnic autonomy.

废除封建农奴制度,建立起人民政权,为在西藏实行民族区域自治,提供了制度条件。到1960年底,全区成立乡级政权1009个,区级政权283个;78个县(包括县级区)和8个专区(市)也成立了人民政权。与此同时,有4400多名翻身农奴和奴隶出身的基层干部成长起来。乡级干部全是藏族,区级干部90%以上是藏族,并且有300多名藏族干部担任了县以上领导职务。
Abolishing the feudal serfdom and establishing the people's regime created institutional conditions for regional ethnic autonomy in Tibet. By the end of 1960, Tibet had established 1,009 organs of state power at the township level, 283 at the district level, 78 at the county level (including county-level districts), and eight at the prefecture (city) level. Meanwhile, more than 4,400 liberated serfs and slaves had become government officials at various levels. All township-level government officials were from the Tibetan group, 90 percent of district-level government officials were Tibetan, and more than 300 Tibetans held leading posts at or above the county level.

1961年4月,西藏各地乡一级基层普选开始,百万翻身农奴开始行使从来没有过的民主权利。1965年8月,西藏乡县选举工作完成,有1359个乡、镇进行了基层选举,有567个乡、镇召开了人民代表会议代行人民代表大会职权,西藏大约92%的地方建立了以翻身农奴和奴隶为主的乡人民政权,54个县召开了第一届人民代表会议,选出了正副县长,建立了县人民委员会,并选出了人民代表大会代表。
In April 1961, general elections at the township level were held all over Tibet. Hundreds of thousands of liberated serfs and slaves exercised the democratic rights that they had never enjoyed. In August 1965, elections at the township and county levels were completed in Tibet. Altogether 1,359 townships and towns conducted elections at the basic level, and 567 townships and towns held their people's congresses to exercise their functions and power. The people's democratic organs of state power at the township level were established in 92 percent of the Region, the majority of participants being liberated serfs and slaves. In addition, 54 counties held their first session of people's congresses to elect the county magistrates and deputy magistrates, established people's committees and elected deputies to the people's congresses.

废除农奴主的经济特权,人民成为生产资料的主人,极大地解放了生产力,保障了西藏人民的生存权利,为实行民族区域自治,奠定了物质基础。封建农奴制度不仅侵犯人权,摧残人性,而且严重阻碍社会生产力发展,人民连基本的温饱都没有保障。民主改革中,约2万朗生安了家,得到安家粮504万斤。民主改革解放和发展了西藏的社会生产力,西藏劳动人民再不受农奴主的沉重差税和高利贷剥削,劳动果实全部留归自己,生产积极性空前高涨。
Abolishing economic privileges of serf owners enabled the people to become owners of the means of production, greatly liberated the productive forces, and protected Tibetan people's right to subsistence, laying the physical foundation for the practice of regional ethnic autonomy. The feudal serfdom not only infringed upon human rights and destroyed human qualities, but also effectively put a brake on development of social productivity and left people's basic need for clothing and food unguaranteed. During the democratic reform, about 20,000 "nangzan" settled, and were allotted 2,520,000 kilograms of grain. The democratic reform liberated and developed Tibet's social productivity; as a result, the working people of Tibet were freed from heavy corvee, taxes, and usurious exploitation, and were able to keep all the fruits of their hard work. Their enthusiasm for production ran unprecedentedly high.

废除农奴主的宗教特权,打碎了精神枷锁,为实行民族区域自治,提供了思想文化条件。在“政教合一”的制度下,宗教直接掌握在农奴主手中,被异化为实施统治压迫人民的工具。三大领主为了使封建特权神圣化,从精神上奴役人民,凡是与其意志相违背的任何新思想、新文化和科技知识,都被视为异端邪说,禁锢人们的思想,阻碍教育的普及和科学文化的发展。民主改革后,西藏废除一切封建特权,实行宗教信仰自由政策,实行政教分离,宗教不得干预政治、经济、文化和社会生活,人民群众从政教合一的精神枷锁中解放出来。
Abolishing religious privileges of serf owners shattered the people's spiritual shackles, providing ideological and cultural conditions for the implementation of regional ethnic autonomy in Tibet. Under theocracy, religion was directly controlled by serf owners and used as a tool for ruling and oppressing the people. To sanctify feudal privileges and enslave the people spiritually, the three major estate-holders regarded any new idea, new culture or scientific knowledge that was contrary to their will as heresy, imprisoning people's thinking and hindering the spread of education and scientific and cultural development. Through the democratic reform, Tibet abolished all feudal privileges, implemented the policy of freedom of religious belief, and separated religion from government, so preventing religion from interfering in its politics, economy, culture and social life. The people were thus freed from the spiritual shackles of theocracy.

——成立自治区,走上社会主义道路
-- Establishing Tibet Autonomous Region, and taking the socialist road

实行民族区域自治制度,是西藏广大人民的共同愿望。“十七条协议”中规定:“根据中国人民政治协商会议共同纲领的民族政策,在中央人民政府统一领导之下,西藏人民有实行民族区域自治的权利。”1954年第一届全国人民代表大会闭幕后,中央政府领导人毛泽东接见十四世达赖和十世班禅,并告诉他们,“今后西藏不成立军政委员会,而直接成立西藏自治区筹备委员会,为实行民族区域自治做准备。”两人均表示同意。之后,根据宪法中关于实行民族区域自治制度的规定,中央着手西藏自治区成立事宜。1954年11月,中央提出了成立西藏自治区筹备委员会的意见。1955年3月,国务院第七次全体会议专题研究了成立西藏自治区筹备委员会和西藏建设的有关问题。此后,中央对西藏自治区筹备委员会的成立进行了具体指导。1956年4月22日,西藏自治区筹备委员会成立大会在新落成的拉萨大礼堂隆重举行,包括西藏各地区、各民族、各阶层、各教派和各群众团体在内的300多名代表参加或列席了大会,这是西藏历史上第一次有如此广泛代表性的人士欢聚一堂,民主协商、共议大事。十四世达赖为西藏自治区筹备委员会主任委员,十世班禅为西藏自治区筹备委员会第一副主任委员。西藏自治区筹备委员会是一个具有政权性质的协商办事机构,是西藏实行民族区域自治的重要步骤。西藏自治区筹备委员会的成立,使自治区成立工作得到积极推进,但1959年武装叛乱的发生,严重影响了自治区成立工作的进行。平息叛乱后,自治区成立工作得到顺利进行。
It was a common wish of the people of Tibet to exercise regional ethnic autonomy. The "17-Article Agreement" stipulated, "According to the ethnic policy in the Common Program of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), under the unified leadership of the Central People's Government, the Tibetan people shall have the right to exercise regional ethnic autonomy." In 1954, after the First National People's Congress closed, Mao Zedong, top leader of the Central People's Government, met with the 14th Dalai Lama and the 10th Panchen Erdeni. Mao told them, "Tibet will not have a military and political committee; instead, the Preparatory Committee of Tibet Autonomous Region will be established to prepare for the exercise of regional ethnic autonomy." The two agreed. Later, according to stipulations in the Constitution about the practice of regional ethnic autonomy, the central government started work on the establishment of Tibet Autonomous Region. In November 1954, the central government proposed to establish the Preparatory Committee of Tibet Autonomous Region. At its Seventh Plenary Meeting held in March 1955, the State Council specifically studied and discussed the matter and issues relating to Tibet's construction. Following the meeting, the central government gave specific instructions on the matter. On April 22, 1956, the founding conference of the Preparatory Committee of Tibet Autonomous Region was held in the newly built Great Hall of Lhasa. Over 300 delegates and non-voting delegates from all ethnic groups, social strata, religions, and social groups throughout Tibet attended the conference. This was the first time in the history of Tibet that people of broad representation gathered for democratic consultation and discussion. The 14th Dalai Lama became chairman of the Preparatory Committee, while the 10th Panchen Erdeni became first deputy chairman. The Preparatory Committee was a consultative administrative body as an organ of political power, an important stepping stone for the exercise of regional ethnic autonomy in Tibet. Its establishment pushed forward the establishment of Tibet Autonomous Region. However, the armed rebellion in 1959 seriously affected the work of its establishment. After the rebellion was quelled, the establishment was carried out smoothly.

1965年9月1日,西藏自治区第一届人民代表大会第一次会议在拉萨开幕。西藏自治区第一届人民代表大会选举产生了西藏自治区机关及其领导人,阿沛·阿旺晋美当选为自治区人民委员会主席,一大批翻身农奴担任了自治区各级政权机关的领导职务。西藏自治区的成立,标志着西藏建立了人民民主政权,开始全面实行民族区域自治制度。自此,西藏人民享有了自主管理本地区事务的权利,走上了发展进步的社会主义道路。
On September 1, 1965, the First Session of the First People's Congress of Tibet Autonomous Region was inaugurated in Lhasa, and the organs and leaders of the Region were elected, with Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme as the chairman of the People's Committee. A large number of liberated serfs held leading posts in organs of political power at different levels of the Region. The establishment of Tibet Autonomous Region signified that Tibet had set up the people's democratic government and begun to exercise thoroughgoing regional ethnic autonomy. Since then, the people of Tibet have enjoyed the right to handle local affairs themselves, and embarked on the socialist road to development and progress.



顶一下
(1)
100%
踩一下
(0)
0%
手机上普特 m.putclub.com 手机上普特
[责任编辑:Tina]
------分隔线----------------------------
发表评论 查看所有评论
请自觉遵守互联网政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
用户名: 密码: 验证码:
  • 推荐文章
  • 资料下载
  • 讲座录音
普特英语手机网站
用手机浏览器输入m.putclub.com进入普特手机网站学习
查看更多手机学习APP>>