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双语:民族区域自治制度在西藏的成功实践(3)

2015-09-09    来源:chinadaily    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

双语:民族区域自治制度在西藏的成功实践(3)

三、符合国情的政治制度
III. The Political System Suited to China's Actual Conditions


在西藏实行民族区域自治制度,符合中国统一的多民族国家基本国情。
Implementing the system of regional ethnic autonomy in Tibet conforms to China's reality as a unified multiethnic country.

中国是一个统一的多民族国家,除汉族外,还有蒙古、回、藏、维吾尔、壮、朝鲜、满等55个少数民族。中华民族是一个多元一体的大家庭,各民族都对祖国的发展和中华文化的创造作出了贡献。中国各民族的起源和发展有着本土性、多元性、多样性的特点。中国各民族形成和发展的情况虽然各不相同,但总的方向是发展成为统一的多民族国家,汇聚成为统一稳固的中华民族。早在先秦时期,中国先民的“天下”观念和“大一统”理念便已形成。公元前221年,秦朝实现了中国历史上第一次大一统,在全国设郡县加以统治。汉朝(公元前206年—公元220年)及汉以后的历代中央政权发展和巩固了统一的多民族国家的格局。中国历史上虽然出现过短暂的割据局面和局部分裂,但国家统一始终是主流和方向。
China is a unified multiethnic country inhabited by 55 minority ethnic groups, including the Mongolian, Hui, Tibetan, Uygur, Zhuang, Korean, and Manchu, in addition to the Han ethnic group. The Chinese nation is a big, pluralistic and integrated family whose constituent ethnic groups have all contributed to national development and cultural innovation. The origins and development of China's ethnic groups are indigenous, pluralistic and diverse. All have formed and evolved in different ways, yet in the general trend, have developed into a unified multiethnic country and converged into the unified and stable Chinese nation. As early as the pre-Qin period, Chinese ancestors developed the concepts of "world" and "grand unification." In 221 BC, the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC) realized the first unification in history of China, and established prefectures and counties to rule the country. The central government of the Han Dynasty (206 BC- AD 220) and subsequent dynasties developed and consolidated China's unified multiethnic pattern. Despite the brief separatist regimes and regional splits that have occurred in Chinese history, unification has always been the mainstream and direction of national development.

西藏自古就是中国的一部分,藏族是中华民族命运共同体的一员。藏族和其他民族的祖先,从远古就生活在西藏高原上,并与中国内地建立了广泛的联系,为中华民族命运共同体的形成与发展作出了重要贡献。自13世纪元朝将西藏纳入中央政府行政管辖起,直至1949年中华人民共和国成立前,中国历代中央政权在将西藏纳入统一国家的前提下,还采取了“因俗而治”“因事而治”等特殊的政策,在行政建制和治理方式上,采取与全国其他地方有所差异的措施。
Ever since ancient times, Tibet has been an integral part of China, and the Tibetan ethnic group has been a communal member of the Chinese nation sharing a common destiny. The ancestors of the Tibetan and other ethnic groups who lived on the Tibetan Plateau in ancient times established extensive contacts with China's inland, and made significant contributions to the formation and development of the country. From the 13th century, when the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) included Tibet under its central administrative jurisdiction, to the time before 1949 when the People's Republic of China was founded, the central governments of all dynasties in China ruled Tibet as part of the country. On this footing, they adopted special policies for Tibet, taking into account the "special local customs and conditions," and adopted an administrative structure and governance approaches that were distinct from those in other parts of China.

元朝(1271-1368年)时期,中央设置总制院(后改为宣政院),在西藏地区设立宣慰使司都元帅府,中央直接管理西藏军政事务。元朝派军驻扎西藏,在宣慰使司下设13个万户府、千户所等机构。元朝在西藏还设立大小驿站,通往大都;派官员入藏进行三次户口清查。元世祖忽必烈任命萨迦派八思巴为帝师。后来噶举派取代萨迦派的地位,元顺帝时封其首领强曲坚赞为“大司徒”。
In the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), the central government established the Supreme Control Commission of Buddhism (later renamed the Commission for Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs), and set up in Tibet the Chief Military Command under the Pacification Commissioner's Office to directly manage the region's political and military affairs. The Yuan court stationed troops in Tibet, and set up 13 organs, including the 10,000-man Brigades and 1,000-man Battalions under the Pacification Commissioner's Office. The Yuan court set up courier stations on the road leading from Tibet to the capital city of Dadu, and sent officials to Tibet three times to conduct census. Emperor Shizu of the Yuan Dynasty, Kublai Khan, appointed Phagpa from the Sakya School of Tibetan Buddhism as Imperial Preceptor. Later, when the Kagyu School replaced the Sakya School, Emperor Shundi appointed the Kagyu leader Changchub Gyaltsen "Ta Situ."

明朝(1368-1644年)时期,基本沿袭了元朝对西藏地方的管理制度。在政治上,实施多封众建,给西藏各地宗教领袖封以“法王”“灌顶国师”等名号;在经济上,发展茶马互市,促进西藏与其他地区的贸易和往来;在机构设置上,在今西藏中部和东部设立“乌斯藏行都指挥使司”“朵甘行都指挥使司”,隶属于陕西行都指挥使司,在西部设立“俄力思军民元帅府”。
The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) generally followed the Yuan administrative system for Tibet. Politically, the Ming court implemented a policy of multiple enfeoffment, conferring the titles "Prince of Dharma" and "Imperial Empowerments Master" upon religious leaders in Tibet; economically, it promoted the tea-horse trade to increase Tibet's trade and exchanges with other regions; in terms of organizational structure, it established the u-Tsang Regional Military Commission in today's central Tibet and the Do-kham Regional Military Commission in eastern Tibet, both subordinated to Shaanxi Regional Military Commission, and the Ngari Commanding Tribal Office in western Tibet.

清朝(1644-1911年)时期,由理藩院(清末改为理藩部)主管西藏事务。1653年和1713年清朝皇帝册封兴起于明末的格鲁派达赖世系和班禅世系,后来又建立金瓶掣签制度,完善了活佛转世制度。1727年,清朝中央在西藏建立驻藏大臣制度。1751年,乾隆皇帝授命七世达赖执政,建立噶厦,设噶伦四人。1793年,颁布《钦定藏内善后章程二十九条》,加强了对西藏的管理。
In the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), the Court of Tribal Affairs (later the Ministry of Tribal Affairs) took charge of Tibetan affairs. In 1653 and 1713, the Qing emperors conferred the Dalai Lamas and Panchen Erdenis of the Gelug School of Tibetan Buddhism that appeared in the late Ming Dynasty, and established the system of lot-drawing from the golden urn to confirm the reincarnated soul boy of a deceased Living Buddha. In 1727, the Qing government started to station grand ministers resident in Tibet. In 1751, Emperor Qianlong appointed the Seventh Dalai Lama to administer the local government of Tibet, established the Kashag (cabinet) composed of four Kalons (ministers). In 1793, Ordinance by the Imperial House Concerning Better Governance of Tibet (the "29 Articles") was promulgated to enhance the Qing court's administration of Tibet.

中华民国(1912—1949年)时期,中央政府继续对西藏实施主权管辖。1912年,中央政府设立蒙藏事务局,1914年改为蒙藏院,取代了清朝末年的理藩部职能,派驻藏办事长官履行驻藏大臣职权。1929年,国民政府设立蒙藏委员会,行使对西藏的行政管辖。1940年,国民政府在拉萨设立蒙藏委员会驻藏办事处。《中华民国国会组织法》规定了西藏地方民众参加选举的办法和被选举的议员直接参政的权利。十四世达赖和十世班禅的认定、坐床,均经当时的中华民国政府批准。
The central government continued to exercise sovereignty over Tibet during the Republic of China period (1912-1949). In 1912, the central government established the Bureau of Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs (renamed the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Yuan in 1914) to replace the late Qing's Ministry of Tribal Affairs, and dispatched the commissioner resident in Tibet to exercise the functions and power of the grand minister resident in Tibet. In 1929, the nationalist government established the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission to exercise administrative jurisdiction of Tibet. In 1940, the nationalist government set up the Tibet Office of the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission in Lhasa. The Organic Law of the Congress of the Republic of China stipulated the methods whereby the people of Tibet would participate in elections, and the rights of elected congressmen from Tibet to directly participate in deliberation and administration of state affairs. The identification and enthronement of both the 14th Dalai Lama and the 10th Panchen Erdeni were approved by the government of the Republic of China.

中国共产党从1921年诞生起就主张中国各民族平等团结,积极探索实现民族平等、解决民族问题的道路。1949年中华人民共和国建立后,中国政府把坚持各民族一律平等、团结、互助、友爱和共同发展、共同繁荣作为解决民族问题、处理民族关系的基本原则。考虑中国的历史国情和近现代社会发展的实际条件,新中国在选择国家结构形式时,没有选择复合制的形式,而是选择了单一制的形式,确定在国家的统一领导下,在少数民族地区实行民族区域自治制度,保证少数民族在国家生活中享有当家作主的权利。
Since its birth in 1921, the CPC has supported ethnic equality and unity in China, vigorously exploring the path through which to achieve ethnic equality and resolve ethnic issues. Since the founding of the PRC in 1949, the Chinese government has promoted equality, unity, mutual support, fraternity, and common development and prosperity among all ethnic groups as fundamental principles under which to address ethnic issues and relations. Taking into consideration China's history and social conditions in modern times, the PRC did not choose the composite system (also known as the federal system) for its state structure, but the unitary system instead; it decided to exercise regional ethnic autonomy in areas inhabited by minority ethnic groups under unified state leadership, thus to ensure that ethnic minorities enjoy the rights of being masters of the country.

民族区域自治,是中国这样一个统一的多民族国家解决民族问题、处理民族关系的正确选择。中国的民族区域自治,是在国家统一领导下的自治,各民族自治地方都是国家不可分离的部分,各民族自治地方的自治机关都必须服从中央的领导。
Regional ethnic autonomy is the correct choice for China, a unified multiethnic country, to address ethnic issues and relations. China's regional ethnic autonomy is a form of autonomy under unified state leadership. All ethnic autonomous areas are inseparable from the country, and the organs of self-government of all ethnic autonomous areas shall be subject to the central government's leadership.

同时,中国的民族区域自治制度又是中国社会主义制度的一个重要组成部分。在社会主义制度下,一切权力属于人民,国家保障广大人民的民主权利。各自治地方在国家生活中享有经济、政治、文化、社会、生态等自治权利,在自治地方有管理本地区事务的权利,这是社会主义民主在民族地区的具体体现。
The regional ethnic autonomy system is also a significant component of China's socialist system. Under the socialist system, all power belongs to the people, and the state safeguards the democratic rights of the people. All autonomous areas exercise the power of autonomy in their economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological development, and in managing their regional affairs. This exemplifies the exercise of socialist democracy in regions inhabited by ethnic minorities.

在经历了1951年和平解放和1959年民主改革后,西藏于1965年成立自治区,正式建立起民族区域自治制度。在西藏实行民族区域自治制度,实现了统一和自治相结合、民族因素和区域因素相结合。这一制度既继承历史传统,又具有社会主义民主意义;既符合国家和西藏地方的历史传统,又符合各族人民的共同意志和根本利益。
Through the peaceful liberation in 1951 and the democratic reform in 1959, Tibet Autonomous Region was founded in 1965, so officially establishing the system of regional ethnic autonomy in Tibet. The exercise of this system in Tibet has combined unification and autonomy, taking into account both ethnic and regional factors. This system inherits historical traditions and signifies socialist democracy; it conforms to the historical traditions of Tibet and the whole country, as well as to the common will and fundamental interests of the people of all ethnic groups.

目前,西藏自治区的人民代表大会和人民政府,既是自治机关,也是国家的一级地方政权机构,根据本地方的实际贯彻执行国家的法律政策。经过几十年的探索实践,在民族区域自治道路上,西藏自治区各民族人民实现了平等、团结、互助、和谐,这一制度得到了全国各族人民的衷心拥护。
Currently, the People's Congress and the People's Government of Tibet Autonomous Region are organs of self-government as well as local organs of state power through which to implement state laws and policies based on local reality. Through several decades of exploring the path of regional ethnic autonomy, the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet Autonomous Region have achieved equality, unity, mutual support and harmony, and the system of regional ethnic autonomy has won the wholehearted support of all ethnic groups in China.



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